This paper explores the role of school quality in immigrants’ home countries on their earnings in Germany, using native Germans as a benchmark. We propose an empirical analysis that highlights two important insights. First, there is a substantial gap in the returns to education between natives and immigrants in Germany, especially when we consider the quality of schooling in the source country where education was obtained. In particular, lower school quality reduces the endowment advantage that immigrants possess from their education. Second, quality-adjusted education helps us to better understand the potential driving force behind the native–immigrant wage gap. We show that this measure accounts for a substantial fraction of the unexplained part in the Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition. These findings emphasize the role of the school quality in explaining the imperfect transferability of human capital of immigrants in Germany.
Previous research indicates that personality is associated with interpersonal attraction. The present research aims to extend the current literature on personality and interpersonal attraction by using objective behavioral measures recorded in real social interactions. In the current study, 468 participants (Mage = 31.2, SDage = 14.0) interacted in same-sex dyads at zero acquaintance. At the end of the session, participants were asked to take a seat on a sofa. Analyses revealed that physical distance (defined for each person as how far they sat from their end of the sofa) was significantly associated with perceptions of interpersonal attraction to the interaction partner. Using Actor-Partner-Interdependence Models, we then analyzed the effects of self- and other-reported Big Five traits on physical proximity. Results showed that self-reports of agreeableness and other-judged agreeableness, extraversion, and openness were significantly associated with physical proximity. The present findings highlight the influence of personality on behavioral outcomes of interpersonal attraction.
When heterogeneous players make strategic investment decisions in multi-stage contests, they might conserve resources in a current contest to spend more in a subsequent contest, if the degree of heterogeneity in the current (subsequent) contest is sufficiently large (small). We confirm these predictions using data from German professional soccer, in which players are subject to a one-match ban if they accumulate five yellow cards. Players with four yellow cards facing the risk of being suspended for the next match are (i) less likely to be fielded when the heterogeneity in the current match increases and (ii) more likely to receive a fifth yellow card in the current match when heterogeneity in the next match increases or heterogeneity in the next match but one (when they return from their ban) decreases.
Advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) technologies are rapidly changing the competitive landscape. In the search for an appropriate strategic response, firms are currently engaging in a large variety of AI projects. However, recent studies suggest that many companies are falling short in creating tangible business value through AI. As the current scientific body of knowledge lacks empirically-grounded research studies for explaining this phenomenon, we conducted an exploratory interview study focusing on 56 applications of machine learning (ML) in 29 different companies. Through an inductive qualitative analysis, we uncover three broad types and five subtypes of ML value creation mechanisms, identify necessary but not sufficient conditions for successfully leveraging them, and observe that organizations, in their efforts to create value, dynamically shift from one ML value creation mechanism to another by reconfiguring their ML applications (i.e., the shifting practice). We synthesize these findings into a process model of ML value creation, which illustrates how organizations engage in (resource) orchestration by shifting between ML value creation mechanisms as their capabilities evolve and business conditions change. Our model provides an alternative explanation for the current high failure rate of ML projects.
The interior soundscape of a vehicle is an essential asset for experienced comfort and feedback of a car's driver, especially in the premium automotive industry. Here we offer a literature review on the perception of acoustic characteristics of electrified vehicles (EVs) and the impressions and associations they convey to the individual-the driver, the customer, the user. The reduction of the overall sound pressure level (SPL) in EVs offers the opportunity to create exceptional quiet interior soundscapes. At the same time, the reduced SPL challenges NVH (Noise, Vibration, and Harshness) engineers to reduce remaining noises that are no longer masked by operational combustion while creating vehicle-adequate acoustics with pleasingly comfort-assets and operational feedback of the current driving mode. The analyzed body of literature covers research from the 21st century (2000-2022). We aim to comprise the current state of research highlighting specific achievements already made. Furthermore, we show evident gaps that need to be filled and considered in future research.
Given the importance of schools as socializing institutions, a key dimension of children's subjective well-being (SWB) is their perception of school-related aspects. This study complements previous literature on various determinants of children's SWB by focusing on students with special educational needs (SEN). Due to academic challenges, stigmatization, and exclusion, they are at risk of experiencing reduced SWB. With the implementation of inclusive education around the globe, students with SEN are more frequently enrolled in regular schools, and a question arises regarding how students with SEN assess their school-related SWB in inclusive settings. Drawing on longitudinal data from the National Educational Panel Study in Germany (NEPS) we systematically investigate the effect of the SEN status on various facets of school-related SWB measured in Grade 4 of primary school. Applying a propensity score matching approach, we contrast children with SEN status to children without SEN status who are comparable in a rich set of observed confounding variables. We find that at the end of primary school, students with SEN report being less satisfied with life in general, being less satisfied with school and their friends than their comparable counterpart without SEN. Moreover, they experience more tiredness and feelings of loneliness, and show lower levels of learning enjoyment and task mastering. The potential mechanisms leading to lower school-related SWB are discussed.
Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR), Mixed Reality, and Extended Reality (often – misleadingly – abbreviated as XR) are commonly used terms to describe how technologies generate or modify reality. However, academics and professionals have been inconsistent in their use of these terms. This has led to conceptual confusion and unclear demarcations. Inspired by prior research and qualitative insights from XR professionals, we discuss the meaning and definitions of various terms and organize them in our proposed framework. As a result, we conclude that (1) XR should not be used to connote extended reality, but as a more open approach where the X implies the unknown variable: xReality; (2) AR and VR have fundamental differences and thus should be treated as different experiences; (3) AR experiences can be described on a continuum ranging from assisted reality to mixed reality (based on the level of local presence); and (4), VR experiences can be conceptualized on a telepresence-continuum ranging from atomistic to holistic VR.
We develop a behavioral stock market model in which a market maker adjusts stock prices with respect to the orders of chartists, fundamentalists and sentiment traders. We analytically prove that the mere presence of sentiment traders, i.e. traders who optimistically buy stocks in rising markets and pessimistically sell stocks in falling markets, compromises the stability of stock markets. In particular, this means that instead of converging towards their fundamental value, stock prices either display endogenous oscillatory dynamics or converge towards nonfundamental fixed points – observations that challenge standard stability claims offered in the pertinent literature.
The original version of the book was inadvertently published with incorrect affiliation of Prof. Bernd Gössling. This has been corrected to University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
Soviet writers Yuli Daniel (aka Nikolay Arzhak) and Andrey Sinyavsky (aka Abram Tertz) published several satires anonymously in capitalist countries during the Cold War. In 1965 both writers were arrested in the Soviet Union and they were put on trial in February 1966. They were charged under Article 70 of the Penal Code that criminalized libel and defamation of the state and agitation with the aim of undermining or weakening the state. Sinyavsky was sentenced to seven years in a labor camp and Daniel was given five years. This trial’s controversial discussions about authorial opinions and intentions and the complex relationship between satire and social reality remain highly relevant today. This article presents seven contradictions and ambiguities inherent to satire in order to disentangle different arguments and viewpoints in their context. The reception of satirical texts is complicated by issues surrounding ethics and violence, seriousness and non-seriousness, truth and fiction, ambiguous or dubious empathy, morality, political content in non-political texts, and the use of a fictional persona. The vagueness and in-betweenness of satire can pose a challenge to environments averse to ambiguity, as was the case in this Soviet trial, but also in similar cases until today.
Objectives Previous research on stress-induced pain modulation suggests that moderate psychological stress usually leads to hyperalgesia while more severe threat results in hypoalgesia. However, existing studies often lack suitable control conditions imperative to identify mere stress effects. Similarly, research mainly focused on pure anticipation of a social threat, not taking into consideration actual experiences of social evaluation. Therefore, we set out to investigate actual social up- and downgrading combined with a standardized stress paradigm to evaluate short-term and prolonged changes in pain perception and their potential association with neuroendocrine and subjective stress parameters. Methods We allocated 177 healthy women to four experimental conditions, either the standard version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) followed by positive, negative or no performance feedback, or a well-matched but less demanding placebo version of the TSST. Stress responses were assessed with ratings, salivary alpha-amylase, and salivary cortisol. To capture putative effects of stress on pain, heat pain threshold, ratings of phasic heat pain stimuli, and conditioned pain modulation were measured. Results Despite a largely successful stress induction, results do not support a reliable influence of experimentally induced social stress–with or without subsequent performance feedback–on pain in women. Further, we found no clear association of pain modulation and changes in neuroendocrine or subjective stress responses. Conclusions Our results contrast previous studies, which repeatedly demonstrated stress-induced hypo- or hyperalgesia. This might be due to methodological reasons as former research was often characterized by high heterogeneity regarding the applied stressors, low sample sizes, and lacking or inconclusive control conditions. Thus, our results raise the question whether pain modulation in women by experimental psychosocial stress might have been overestimated in the past. Future research is necessary, which should employ parametric stress induction methods including well-matched control tasks, taking into consideration the participants’ gender/sex and the time course of the stress response relative to pain assessment. The study is registered as DRKS00026946 at ‘Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien’ (DRKS) and can be also found at the World Health Organization’s search portal.
Background Reference intervals represent the expected range of physiological test results in a healthy population and are essential to support medical decision making. Particularly in the context of pediatric reference intervals, where recruitment regulations make prospective studies challenging to conduct, indirect estimation strategies are becoming increasingly important. Established indirect methods enable robust identification of the distribution of “healthy” samples from laboratory databases, which include unlabeled pathologic cases, but are currently severely limited when adjusting for essential patient characteristics such as age. Here, we propose the use of mixture density networks (MDN) to overcome this problem and model all parameters of the mixture distribution in a single step. Results Estimated reference intervals from varying settings with simulated data demonstrate the ability to accurately estimate latent distributions from unlabeled data using different implementations of MDNs. Comparing the performance with alternative estimation approaches further highlights the importance of modeling the mixture component weights as a function of the input in order to avoid biased estimates for all other parameters and the resulting reference intervals. We also provide a strategy to generate partially customized starting weights to improve proper identification of the latent components. Finally, the application on real-world hemoglobin samples provides results in line with current gold standard approaches, but also suggests further investigations with respect to adequate regularization strategies in order to prevent overfitting the data. Conclusions Mixture density networks provide a promising approach capable of extracting the distribution of healthy samples from unlabeled laboratory databases while simultaneously and explicitly estimating all parameters and component weights as non-linear functions of the covariate(s), thereby allowing the estimation of age-dependent reference intervals in a single step. Further studies on model regularization and asymmetric component distributions are warranted to consolidate our findings and expand the scope of applications.
There is consensus that child socio-emotional development is influenced by various contexts, such as the family one. Research on influencing factors on child socio-emotional skills mainly investigated the effects of home learning environment, whereas the effects of out-of-home activities were often analysed mainly in samples of adolescents. The present study aimed to shed light on effects of preschool home learning environment and out-of-home activities on two facets of socio-emotional skills at the beginning of primary school: Prosocial behaviour and peer relationships. The information on the child prosocial behaviour and peer relationships at preschool age was included with the aim to control for most of the differences across children. Using data from a large sample of children ( N = 1,818; M age = 7.08 years, SD = 0.15; 49.9% girls), results of regression analyses show significant effects of out-of-home activities on prosocial behaviour after controlling a range of child- and family-related influencing factors on prosocial behaviour as well as prosocial behaviour at preschool age. The effects of home learning environment were significant after controlling a range of child- and family-related influencing factors on both facets of socio-emotional skills but became nonsignificant after taking into account respective behaviour at preschool age. The results of the present study suggest that fostering participation in out-of-home activities might contribute to an increase of prosocial behaviour in primary school children.
In Europe, the consequences of temporary employment are at the centre of a social policy debate about whether there is a trade-off between efficiency and equity when deregulating labour markets. However, despite decades of research, there is confusion about the consequences of temporary employment on wage and career mobility. It is often stated that the consequences are ‘mixed’. We review the literature with a focus on synthesizing the evidence and analysing the theories. Our review shows that we know a lot more than is often understood about the consequences of temporary employment on wage and career mobility. We create clarity by organizing the evidence by geographic region, demographic group and reference group. While outcomes vary across these factors, there is less variation within these factors. At the same time, we know a lot less than is often understood about the mechanisms through which temporary employment affects mobility. Some common theories are not well specified in their application to temporary employment. We create new opportunities for development in the field by increasing the scope of the debate about some questions and decreasing the scope of the debate about other questions.
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