This study aimed to produce lentil flour with reduced antinutritional factors, acceptable color, and improved techno-functional properties. To obtain lentil flour, red and green lentil seeds were subjected to soaking in distilled water (with/without ultrasound at 80, 100% amplitude for 2 or 4 h) and drying treatments [oven-drying (50, 100 °C) or microwave-drying (600, 900 W)]. The influence of process parameters on phytic acid content (PAC), trypsin inhibitor content (TIC), water absorption capacity (WAC), oil absorption capacity (OAC), and color of lentil flours were investigated. During soaking, the water absorption and hardness of the seeds and pH, soluble solid content, and turbidity of the soaking water varied depending on the soaking parameters and the type of lentil. Lentil flours had WAC and OAC values ranging from 108.5 to 358.9 g water/100 g and from 80.2 to 98.7 g oil/100 g, respectively. Microwave-dried lentil flours had 2.0–2.8 times higher WAC compared to oven-dried ones. Higher microwave power level and oven drying temperature provided higher WAC values. Effect of soaking treatment on color and techno-functional properties of flours varied depending on the type of lentil flour and the applied drying method. Soaking and subsequent drying of lentil seeds yielded 14.5–43.8% reduction in PAC and 58.2–80.1% reduction in TIC. Soaking followed by microwave drying at 900W may be recommended as a rapid and effective method to obtain lentil flour with good color, high WAC, reduced PAC, and TIC. Application of ultrasound during soaking for 4 h prior to drying further enhances the potential of reducing antinutritional factors.
Rhamnetin is a flavonoid which contained in especially clove, such as apple, tea, and onion plant. Rhamnetin has been used in cancer research due to its antitumor and antioxidant properties. In this study, effects of rhamnetin administration at different doses on ascites and solid tumors were investigated in Balb/C mice bearing EAT model that originating from rat breast adenocarcinoma. Experimental procedure: Overall, 92 Balb-c mice were used in this study. EAT cells (1 × 10⁶ cells) that harvested from stock animals were injected to all rats via intraperitoneal and subcutaneous route. Rhamnetin (100 µg/kg–200 µg/kg) were given intraperitoneally and subcutaneously during 10 and 15 days to the animals bearing ascites tumor and solid tumor, respectively. Throughout experiments, weight changes were recorded in all groups. The maximum weight increase was observed in the control group among all groups (ascites and solid tumor groups). In the treatment groups, the least weight increase were determined in 200-µg/kg rhamnetin applied. The lowest increase in tumor volume was observed in the group that received 200-µg/kg rhamnetin (2.84) when compared to tumor control group (3.67). Result and conclusion: We determined that the number of live and dead cells in the treatment groups administered with the mean rhamnetin dose (2.5 µg/ml) was found in the count made in the EAT cell line after the incubation periods. We observed that rhamnetin plays an important role against cancer formation. We have obtained important results in our study, but detailed studies on the relationship between rhamnetin and cancer are needed.
Introduction Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) causes excessive eye tearing or mucoid discharge. Twenty percent of one-year-olds globally have CNLDO. There are many sources that offer information to parents. This study evaluates the quality and accuracy of CNLDO-related YouTube videos. Methods The first 100 videos that appeared after typing "congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction" in the YouTube search engine were evaluated. These videos were also analyzed and scored using the DISCERN, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), and Global Quality Scoring (GQS) systems. Results Forty videos met the inclusion criteria. The mean DISCERN score was 47.3 ± 9.15, JAMA was 1.72 ± 0.87, and GQS was 3.1 ± 0.81. The duration of the videos uploaded by the non-physician group was significantly longer (p = 0.04). In addition, the JAMA score of the videos uploaded by the physician group was significantly higher than that of the other group (p = 0.03). Theoretical videos were longer than surgical videos (p = 0.02). DISCERN, JAMA, and GQS scores were statistically higher in the theoretical video group (p = 0.002, p = 0.04, and p = 0.03, respectively). Conclusion According to our research, the quality of YouTube videos about congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction is average. This information source can be improved by making videos with more detailed information about the disease and theoretical information, as well as by having health professionals look over the content that has been uploaded.
Purpose: Third molar surgery is one of the most commonly performed operations, usually associated with high anxiety. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients' anxiety would reduce if consent was modified to match their dominant intelligence type (DIT). Methods and materials: A singlecenter, prospective randomized clinical study was conducted in the Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of Ordu University on patients admitted for lower third molar removal between October 2020 and June 2021. The participants were randomly assigned to a study group where consent was based on DIT or a control group where consent was obtained in the standard fashion. DIT was determined using the multiple intelligence test and was further categorized as visual/spatial, verbal/linguistic, and bodily/kinesthetic. The consent method was the primary and the type of DIT was the secondary predictor variable. The primary and secondary outcome variables were the salivary cortisol level and Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) scores measured before and after the consent, and after the operation. Mann-Whitney U, Friedman, Pearson correlation, and χ2tests were conducted for statistical analysis. Results: Eighty patients (55 females and 25 males; mean age 23.5 ± 6.2) were included. No significant difference was observed between the study and control groups for the change in cortisol levels and MDAS scores before-after consent (-11.15 ± 62.64; -6.84 ± 32.9) (P = .389), -0.6 ± 3.46; -0.7 ± 2.49) (P = .832) and before consent-after operation (-39.80 ± 108.2; -39.72 ± 77.04) (P = .987), (-4.31 ± 5.97; -3 ± 4.34) (P = .867). The change in MDAS scores and cortisol levels was not correlated after consent (P = .587, r = 0.62) and operation (P = .406, r = 0.94). Conclusion: Providing consent based on DIT is not statistically different than providing consent in the standard fashion. The role of consent strategy in managing anxiety and lack of correlation between salivary cortisol and MDAS requires further investigation.
Background In the study, we tried to analyze the effects of foreign players on Turkish Super League matches. For this purpose, in this long-term study, 1836 competition data played in 6 seasons between 2014 and 2020 was obtained from www.mackolik.com each year. Method Pearson's correlation coefficient applied between 18 different variables (goal, shoot, pass, cross, corner, offside, foul, yellow card, red card, accurate shot, percentage of the precise pass, rate of accurate access on opponent's field, the difference of ball possession percentage, shot difference, pass difference, big team superiority, home team superiority) and the number of foreign players (NoFP, active foreign players in 90 min.). Result In the Turkish Super League, within six seasons (2014–20), the NoFP in a match increased from 10.43 (38.06%) to 17.99 (64.26%). The increment was partially linear and statistically significant (F = 594.85) in all seasons. A positive association was found between NoFP several of passes (r = 0.219), percentage of accurate passes (r = 0.133), percentage of precise passes on the opponent's field (r = 0.139), exact pass difference between opponents (r = 0.114), and ball possession difference between opponents (r = 0.113). Fouls committed decreased with the increase of NoFP (r = -0.250). Although the win probability of the teams named The Big Three (Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray, and Beşiktaş) decreased from 67% (2014 season rate) to 50% in the last two seasons, no association was identified between the NoFP and big team superiority. Conclusions Consequently, NoFP increment may improve the game quality by increasing accurate passes and passes in the opponent's field. The number of passes and the ball possession percentage difference between opponent teams may indicate that one team has control of the game by keeping possession or the other is tactically giving possession. These findings may suggest that the game evolved into half-field, tactical, set-play, possessioning competition. Analyzing variables such as game speed, intensity, the duration of the ball in play, running distance, energy consumption, and fatigue markers may light future studies.
Otoliths are calcareous anatomical structures in the inner ear of fishes, and they can be used in the discrimination of fish species and stocks due to their species-specific shape. Sagittal otoliths in the Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis and Lepidorhombus boscii, two flatfish species of the same genus distributed in the Aegean Sea, were compared using morphology, morphometry and contour shape analyses. Blind and eyed side otoliths of Lepidorhombus species were evaluated separately due to their morphological features and statistical differences in morphometric measurements (p < 0.05). Four analysis groups were formed: blind side otolith of L. whiffiagonis, eyed side otolith of L. whiffiagonis, blind side otolith of L. boscii and eyed side otolith of L. boscii. Morphometric differences in otolith shape were performed by canonical discriminant analysis, and the first discriminant axis explained 97.4% (Wilks λ = 0.270) of the variance between the groups, and the second axis explained 2.3% (Wilks λ = 0.620). Classification success between Lepidorhombus species based on CDA is 100%, and the overall CDA classification score between groups is 76.5%. The wavelet functions obtained in the contour analysis showed high variability in the anterior, posterior-dorsal, antero-dorsal and ventral regions of the otoliths among these four analysis groups. Consequently, it is thought that this study will contribute to the taxonomic classification of fish with the morphological and morphometric differences in the blind and eyed side otoliths and the analyses made with the high discrimination success obtained in Lepidorhombus species.
The florescence characteristics and the toxicities of carbon nanodots (CDs) are directly related to their elemental compositions. Fluorescent and non-toxic agent for imaging of biological systems was aimed. Sulfur and nitrogen co-doped CDs (S/N-CDs) was hydrothermally produced in an average size of 8 nm. S/N-CDs showed blue fluorescence under UV-light with an excitation wavelength of 365 nm. After 24 h, S/N-CDs was non-cytotoxic in HUVEC and L929 cells. S/N-CDs have a great potential to act as an alternative material for commercial fluorescent materials with its 85.5% of quantum yield. S/N-CDs was approved in vitro as an imaging agent for an ocular fundus angiography of rats.
Although many efforts have been made to characterize the functional properties of hazelnut constituents (mainly its oil, protein, and phenolics), those of its dietary fiber (DF) have not been elucidated yet. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact of DF of natural and roasted hazelnuts, and hazelnut skin on the colonic microbiota in vivo (C57BL/6J mouse models) by determining their composition through 16S rRNA sequencing and microbial short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Our results revealed that hazelnut DF generally showed an acetogenic effect in male mice, whereas the same trend was not observed in the female counterparts. The 16S rRNA sequencing results showed that hazelnut DF, especially that of natural hazelnuts, increased the relative abundances of Lactobacillus-related OTUs that have probiotic potential. LEfSe analysis indicated that, for female mice, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotella, Ruminococcaceae, and Lactobacillus were found to be discriminators for DF of natural hazelnuts, roasted hazelnuts, hazelnut skin, and control, respectively, whereas Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Prevotella, and Lactococcus were the discriminators for the male counterparts, respectively. This study clearly indicates that, although the roasting process slightly alters the functionalities, hazelnut DF favors beneficial microbes and stimulates beneficial microbial metabolites in the colon in a sex-dependent way, which could be a contributing factor to the health-promoting effects of hazelnuts. Furthermore, hazelnut skin, a byproduct of the hazelnut industry, was found to have potential to be utilized to produce functional DF targeting colonic health.
Here, we reported the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Urtica dioica (nettle) leaf extract as green reducing and capping agents and investigate their anticancer and antibacterial, activity. The Nettle-mediated biosynthesized AgNPs was characterized by UV-Vis a spectrophotometer. Their size, shape and elemental analysis were determined with the using of SEM and TEM. The crystal structure was determined by XRD and the biomolecules responsible for the reduction of Ag+ were determined using FTIR analysis. Nettle-mediated biosynthesis AgNPs indicated strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic microorganisms. Again, the antioxidant activity of AgNPs is quite high when compared to ascorbic acid. Anticancer effect of AgNPs, IC50 dose was determined by XTT analysis using MCF-7 cell line and the IC50 value was found to be 0.243 ± 0.014 μg/mL (% w/v).
Today's problems, such as pollution and scarcity of resources, require the awareness of internal customers and corporate sensitivity to environmental issues before external customers. Therefore, the study examines the relationship between internal green marketing and employees' green motivation, attitude, and behaviour. The methodological basis includes the concept of social learning theory stating that behavioural patterns are adopted with the use of role models. The research methods are quantitative and sociometric analysis. The research data were obtained by survey method to 282 participants randomly selected among the ship employees of a maritime company in Turkey. Reliability and validity analysis were applied to the variables. The relationships between the variables were tested with the structural equation model. As a result, it was determined that internal green marketing significantly positively affected the employees' motivation. It was concluded that motivation has a significant positive impact on attitude, and it has a positive effect on behaviour. In addition, it was found that motivation and attitude have a full mediating effect in this relationship.
Background: Different vertical dentofacial skeletal patterns may affect bone density of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and various mandibular structures. This study aimed to examine changes in mandibular trabecular structure in vertical dentofacial patterns using fractal analysis. Methods: Dental-skeletal Class I patients randomly selected from the university orthodontic clinic were allocated into 3 groups (low angle, normal angle and high angle) according to the SN-GoMe angle. Bone density of mandibular structures (corpus, angulus and condyle) were measured bilaterally on panoramic radiographs of the patients using fractal analysis. Results: Left condylar fractal dimension (FD) measurements differed significantly among the groups (p=.041). Compared to other groups, left condylar FD values were lower in the high angle group. Right and left mandibular angulus FD values were lower in the low angle group but the difference was non-significant (p>.05). Within-group comparisons showed a significant difference in FD values between right and left corpus in the low angle subjects (p=.047). Conclusion: Lower mandibular condylar FD values observed in high angle subjects may herald possible joint disorders. Low angle subjects exhibit lower FD values in the mandibular angulus. This may be related to degenerative changes in that region characterized by reduced bone density which results from increased muscle activity.
The fish's inner ear consists of three interconnected semicircular canals and otolith organs located in these canals, which are responsible for balance and hearing. Abnormalities in these organs can affect the vital activities of the fish. The main purpose of this study was to determine the morphological and morphometric characteristics of abnormal and normal sagittal otoliths in the four flatfish species (Lepidorhombus boscii, Platichthys flesus, Solea solea, and Pegusa lascaris sampled from three seas (Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, and Black Sea). Abnormalities in otoliths are investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The otolith morphometric measurements and morphology are recorded for abnormal and normal otoliths for each species. It was determined that the four flatfish species examined in the present study showed differences in the morphological features of normal and abnormal otoliths in the blind and eyed sides. In addition, statistical differences were observed when the weight, length, width, perimeter, and area values of normal and abnormal otoliths of all species were compared (P<0.05). The four types of saccular otoliths were defined, one normal (Type 0) and three abnormal (Type 1, Type 2, and Type 4) for four flatfish species. The current study presents for the first-time abnormal otolith morphology information on blind and eyed side sagittal otoliths in these flatfish species. Abnormalities in the anatomical structures of bony parts such as otoliths in fish may be caused by pollution, nutritional problems, stress, and environmental factors as well as a combination of these. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The almond moth, Cadra cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a recognized cosmopolitan pest of stored food products throughout its worldwide distribution. To enable effective control of this pest, a thorough understanding of the effect of temperature on their population growth is required. In this study, we investigated the population growth rate of group-reared C. cautella fed on brown rice at five different temperatures (15–35 °C) using the age-stage, two-sex life table program. At 15 °C, the majority of larvae failed to reach the 2nd instar. At 35 °C, only 5 out of 150 individuals survived to the adult stage. There was no significant difference in fecundity between the three temperature groups (20, 25 and 30 °C), while a dramatic decline occurred at 35 °C (0.5 eggs/female). The intrinsic rates of increase of C. cautella were 0.0566, 0.1149, 0.1429, and −0.0901 d⁻¹ at 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C, respectively, with significant difference between all values. Approximately 16.0% of late instar almond moth larvae showed signs of diapause induction at 20 °C, i.e., wandering behavior and delayed pupation. The developmental times of larvae (74.44 d) and pupae (17.13 d) were significantly longer in the diapausing cohort than in the non-diapausing cohort (54.89 and 15.47 d). At 20 °C, the offspring of the diapausing individuals were still able to contribute 12.98% to the net reproduction rate of the entire cohort – an amount substantial enough to require attention when planning pest management programs. In conclusion, we suggest that 15 °C can effectively limit the damage caused by C. cautella population due to their inability to develop into later instars at this temperature.
Salinity and drought stresses limit agricultural productivity of many crops including forage pea which is an important forage legume. Due to increasing importance of legumes in forage production, there is a clear need to investigate the underlying affects of salinity and drought stresses on forage pea. This study was designed to understand how single or combined salinity and drought stresses impact on physio-biochemical and molecular status of morphologically and genetically diverse forage pea genotypes. Firstly, yield-related parameters were determined under three-year field experiment. The results revealed that the agro-morphological features of the genotypes are significantly different. Afterwards, the sensitivities of the 48 forage pea genotypes were determined against single and combined salinity and drought stresses by performing growth parameters, biochemical status, antioxidative enzymes, and endogenous hormones. Also, the salt and drought-related gene expressions were evaluated under normal and stressed conditions. The results collectively showed that the genotypes of O14, and T8 were more tolerant against combined stress compared to others, via activating antioxidative enzymes (CAT, GR, and SOD), endogenous hormones (IAA, ABA, and JA), stress-related genes (DREB3, DREB5, bZIP11, bZIP37, MYB48, ERD, RD22) and leaf senescence genes (SAG102, SAG102). These genotypes could be used to develop pea plants that tolerate salinity or drought stress conditions. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first detailed study in pea against combined salt and drought stresses.
This study aims to examine premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in university students and their coping behaviors. 452 female students were included in this descriptive and correlational study. The data were collected using a descriptive informa- tion form, the Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS), and the Premenstrual Change Coping Inventory (PMS-Cope). PMS symptoms were found in 80.5% of students. Seeking positive affect-inducing activities to cope with PMS was found to be a significant predictor of reducing the severity of PMS (β =-0.265, p<.001). In coping with PMS, it is necessary to consider the perceptions of taking medication, seeking social support, or seeking positive affect-inducing activities as a coping method to determine the social and cultural beliefs of university students and control PMS. PMS is a significant health problem and raising awareness of the issue alone may not be enough. It should also be noted that the severity of PMS can vary markedly between ethnic groups, and women’s strategies for coping with symptoms and their effective- ness may differ between cultures. It is pivotal to develop strategies for university students to cope with PMS and provide personalized care.
Background: Erianin is an active dibenzyl compound isolated from Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium chrysotoxum and there are very few studies on molecular mechanisms and drug targets of erianin. In addition, there is no study investigating the anti-cancer effect of erianin on neuroblastoma cells. Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate the anticancer effect of erianin and the underlying mechanism of this effect on SH-SY5Y cells. Methods: The effects of erianin on cell viability, invasion and migration were determined by XTT, matrigel chamber and wound healing evaluation, respectively. Expression changes of miRNAs (microRNA) and apoptosis-related genes were evaluated by RT-PCR, and the apoptosis rate was supported by Annexin V evaluation. Results: Erianin significantly decreased cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Erianin administration caused apoptosis by significantly increasing caspase-7, FADD (Fas-associated protein with death domain), BID (BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist) and DR5 (Death receptor 5) gene expressions. While the rate of total apoptotic cells was 45.35±6.80% in SH-SY5Y cells treated with erianin, it was 0.133±0.05% in the control group (P=0.000). In addition, erianin administration significantly decreased the expressions of hsa-miR-155-5p (P=0.014) and hsa-miR-223-3p (P=0.004). Also, our study demonstrated for the first time the relationship between erianin and mi-RNAs in a cancer cell. Conclusion: Our study suggests that erianin may be a natural, safe and easily accessible drug candidate that can be used in the treatment of neuroblastoma.
Bay laurel leaves, also known as bay leaves, are an important herb in many cuisines around the world. In addition to their use in cooking, bay leaves have also been used for their medicinal properties and are thought to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) device was used to determine the secondary metabolites in the essential oil of bay laurel leaves samples kept at different temperatures (−22, −20, −18, 2, 4, 6, and 22°C) and storage times (1, 2, and 3 months). In this research, temperature (°C) and storage time (month) were used as input parameters in the neural network. On the other hand, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, sabinene, 1.8-cineole, gamma-terpinene, cymenol, linalool, borneol, 4-terpineol, caryophyllene, sabinene, alpha-terpineol, germacrene-D, alpha-selinene, methyl eugenol, caryophyllene oxide, spathulenol, eugenol, and beta-selinenol were used as an output parameter. Considering the R² values obtained from the artificial neural network analysis, R² values of 0.97156 for the test, 0.98978 for the training, 0.98998 for the validation value, and 0.98831 for all values were obtained.
The study aimed to develop a clinical diagnosis system to identify patients in the GD risk group and reduce unnecessary oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) applications for pregnant women who are not in the GD risk group using deep learning algorithms. With this aim, a prospective study was designed and the data was taken from 489 patients between the years 2019 and 2021, and informed consent was obtained. The clinical decision support system for the diagnosis of GD was developed using the generated dataset with deep learning algorithms and Bayesian optimization. As a result, a novel successful decision support model was developed using RNN-LSTM with Bayesian optimization that gave 95% sensitivity and 99% specificity on the dataset for the diagnosis of patients in the GD risk group by obtaining 98% AUC (95% CI (0.95–1.00) and p < 0.001). Thus, with the clinical diagnosis system developed to assist physicians, it is planned to save both cost and time, and reduce possible adverse effects by preventing unnecessary OGTT for patients who are not in the GD risk group. Graphical Abstract
This work aimed to determine the effect of freeze-dried pomegranate water extract (FDPWE) on the quality and technological properties of cemen paste and pastırma. Firstly, FDPWE was produced and its antioxidant, physical and physicochemical properties were determined. Secondly, cemen paste was produced with different levels of FDPWE (Control, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0%, and 5.0%) and its quality characteristics were determined. Afterwards, pastırma production was carried out with cemen paste produced by adding FDPWE (Control, 3.0%, 4.0% and 5.0%) and its effects on quality properties and storage stability (at 4 °C for 150 days) of pastırma were investigated. FDPWE had high total anthocyanin content and a* values. The use of FDPWE in cemen paste production caused a decrease in pH value, thereby increasing the effectiveness of anthocyanins. It also caused an increase in a* value (P < 0.01), FRAP-reducing activity, metal chelating activity, color and overall acceptability of cemen. Increasing FDPWE content in cemen paste reduced salt, pH and lipid oxidation (P < 0.01) of pastırma, while both external and internal surface a* color (P < 0.01) and sensory scores (P < 0.01) increased according to the control sample. In addition, the storage stability of the pastırma with FDPWE was maintained better than control samples. The results indicated the potential of FDPWE, as a new clean label additive, containing natural functional components to enhance the quality and stability of pastırma.
Due to its high antioxidant capacity, hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) skin oil has recently gained great attention. However, its thermal and oxidative characteristics have not been elucidated yet. Here, we determined the thermal and oxidative properties, antioxidant activity, and fatty acid composition of hazelnut skin oil (HSO) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), spectrophotometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively, and compared those with the oils from natural and roasted hazelnuts. HSO was found to have significantly higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acid, compared to oils from natural and roasted hazelnut. HSO had the lowest melting point. Moreover, HSO revealed higher oxidative stability, which can be attributed to its greater antioxidant capacity. These findings indicate that hazelnut skin, a byproduct of hazelnut industry, has potential to be utilized in hazelnut oil industry to produce oil possessing high oxidative and thermal stability.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.
Head of institution
Prof.Dr. Ali AKDOĞAN