# Opole University

• Opole, Poland
Recent publications
Background There are several genes associated with ovarian cancer risk. Molecular changes in borderline ovarian tumor (BOT) indicate linkage of this disease to type I ovarian tumors (low-grade ovarian carcinomas). This study determined the prevalence and association of mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C , and CHEK2 with the risk of BOTs. Methods The study group consisted of 102 patients with histologically confirmed BOT and 1743 healthy controls. In addition, 167 cases with ovarian cancer G1 were analyzed. The analyses included genotyping of 21 founder and recurrent mutations localized in 5 genes ( BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and CHEK2). The risk for developing BOT and low-grade ovarian cancer, as well as the association of tested mutations with survival, was estimated. Results The CHEK2 missense mutation (c.470T>C) was associated with 2-times increased risk of BOT (OR=2.05, p =0.03), at an earlier age at diagnosis and about 10% worse rate of a 10-year survival. Mutations in BRCA1 and PALB2 were associated with a high risk of ovarian cancer G1 (OR=8.53, p =0.005 and OR=7.03, p =0.03, respectively) and were related to worse all-cause survival for BRCA1 carriers (HR=4.73, 95%CI 1.45–15.43, p =0.01). Conclusions Results suggest that CHEK2 (c.470T>C) may possibly play a role in the pathogenesis of BOT, but due to the low number of BOT patients, obtained results should be considered as preliminary. Larger more in-depth studies are required.
Ficus carica L., commonly known as the fig tree, is a plant belonging to the Moraceae family whose fruits are traditionally used for edible and therapeutic purposes. The study aimed to investigate the lyophilized aqueous extracts of two native Algerian fig varieties, azendjar (Az) and taamriouth (Ta), as a potential source of antiox-idant compounds for possible use as ingredients in pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals. The HPLC-DAD analysis revealed the presence of two phenolic acids (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid) and two flavonoids (rutin and quercetin) at levels 3.67, 4.80, 84.16, and 6.87 µg/g respectively for Az variety extract, and 6.90, traces, 7.46 and 3.37 µg/g respectively for Ta variety extract. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method at levels 951.06 ± 61.08 and 730.88 ± 45.25 GAE mg/100 g of the dry extract. In contrast, the total flavonoid content was determined using Christ-Müller's method at levels 428.34 ± 15.42 and 307.63 ± 7.94 QE mg/100 g of dry extract in the Az and Ta varieties, respectively. The total polyphenolic content of the extract may be responsible for its antioxidant action. The gathered results indicate that the extracts from the dark peel fig variety-azendjar, are characterized by a higher content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and antioxidant activity than the extract from the light peel variety-taamriouth. In conclusion, the conducted studies and in vitro assays indicate that the studied extracts are a source of natural antioxidants and can be considered functional raw materials for producing food supplements and pharmaceuticals.
“London beauty”: Life and works of the British painter Laura Alma-Tadema (1852–1909) The article is an attempt to reconstruct the biography of the British painter Laura Alma-Tadema (1852–1909) on the basis of archival materials from the British press and period memoirs. The main aim of the article is to present the life and work of Laura Alma-Tadema as an example of one of the career paths that a woman artist from a wealthy British middle-class home could have chosen in a period when women fought for equality in many areas of life, including art. The profile of the now-forgotten artist, the wife of the esteemed British painter Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836–1912) and the stepmother of Laurence Alma-Tadema (1865–1940) – a writer who was actively involved in helping Poland and Poles during the World War I. The synthesis of the gathered information constitutes the most accurate biographical sketch of Laura Alma-Tadema to date. In addition to the history of her life and the characteristics of her artistic work, the article deals with the themes of the artistic milieu of Great Britain at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the antisuffragism movement as well as the situation and social position of female artists from the perspective of an upper-middle-class woman.
Stereospondyli are a clade of large aquatic temnospondyls known to have evolved a large dermal pectoral girdle. Among the Stereospondyli, metoposaurids in particular possess large interclavicles and clavicles relative to the rest of the postcranial skeleton. Because of the large size of these dermal bones, it was first proposed that they served as ballast during hydrostatic buoyancy control which assisted metoposaurids to live a bottom-dwelling mode of life. However, a large bone need not necessarily be heavy, for which determining the bone compactness becomes crucial for understanding any such adaptation in these dermal bones. Previous studies on the evolution of bone adaptations to aquatic lifestyles such as osteosclerosis, pachyostosis, osteoporotic-like pattern and pachyosteosclerosis have been observed in the long bones of secondarily aquatic amniotes. However, there are no known studies on the analysis of bone compactness in the dermal pectoral girdle of non-amniote taxa including Temnospondyli. This study looks at evidence of changes in bone mass adaptations in the dermal bones of the pectoral girdle of two stereospondyls occurring in the Late Triassic Krasiejόw locality (Southwestern Poland), namely: Metoposaurus krasie-jowensis and Cyclotosaurus intermedius. However, because of lack of research on bone compactness of temnospondyls in general, there is no existent frame of reference to infer bone mass increase (BMI) in the M. krasiejowensis samples, and thus the bone compactness results of this taxon are compared with that of the samples of C. interme-dius. Results of this study indicate that the interclavicles of M. krasiejowensis partially evolved BMI-like condition rendering these bones to be heavy enough to get selected as ballast during hydrostatic buoyancy control. Additionally, M. krasiejowensis shared its habitat with C. intermedius, however, the dermal pectoral girdle sample of the latter taxon does not display signs of BMI-like condition. Furthermore, the absence of variation in hydrostatic buoyancy control in the ontogenetic series of interclavicles of M. krasiejowensis could imply lack of ontogenetic niche shift along the water column.
Abstract Dry needling (DN) is a standard procedure for treating musculoskeletal disorders. However, there are no clear recommendations for using DN in low back pain (LBP). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the novel DN program for reducing pain intensity and improving functional efficiency in patients with chronic LBP. A group of 40 patients with chronic LBP due to the L5-S1 discopathy were eligible and randomized into experimental (n = 20) and control (n = 20) groups. The DN program was performed for the experimental group according to the Five Regulatory Systems (FRS) concept. The control group received sham therapy using placebo needles. DN sessions were performed twice a week for 4 weeks. A single needling application lasted 60 min. Both groups received standard treatment and physical exercise of LBP for 1 month. Subjective pain was measured by a visual analog scale (VAS), functional efficiency was assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the lower spine range of motion was measured with the Schober test. There were significant differences in pain reduction (VAS) in both groups (p
The study aimed to determine the degree of satisfaction with health, psychological, environmental, and social needs and to determine the effects of a nutritional intervention, physical activity, and comprehensive activity (nutritional intervention plus physical activity) on the degree of satisfaction of the needs of older people with frailty syndrome (FS). The study included 188 residents (140 women and 48 men) and was conducted using the Fried scale and Camberwell's modified brief needs assessment. In addition, data were collected on age, sex, educational level, type of the previous occupation, marital status, remaining in a relationship, co-residents, place of residence, work status, financial situation, and help with housework. Intervention groups were formed: G1-diet, G2-physical activity, G3-comprehensive therapy, and G4-control. Stage 1 (T1)-3 months after the first examination, stage 2 (T2)-after another three months, the measurements from stage 0. In all groups, the majority were women, respondents with a low or medium level of education in relationships. The degree of need satisfaction in groups G2, G3, and G4 depended on the measurement time (p = 0.019, p = 0.007, p = 0.016). The introduction of physical activity and physical activity in combination with dietary changes most effectively influenced the increase in the level of need satisfaction in elderly patients with frailty.
This article presents a comparative analysis of the perception of the cryptocurrency phenomenon based of the results of the research conducted synchronously in two countries, Poland and Russian Federation. Its aim was to capture the similarities and differences in the perception of the cryptocurrency phenomenon among representatives of both countries. The results of the research allow to conclude that among the respondents from Poland and Russia there are significant differences in terms of the subjective perception of the cryptocurrency market and the level of trust in the current financial system.
Although concerns about harm and side effects are among the most important factors determining vaccine hesitancy, research on the fear of vaccination is sparse. The purpose of this study is a validation the Fear of Coronavirus Vaccination Scale (FoCVVS), adapted from the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. A representative sample of 1723 young adults aged 20–40 from Poland, Israel, Slovenia, and Germany participated during two time-points of the third COVID-19 pandemic wave. The online survey included demographic variables and several well-being dimensions, including gender, vaccination status, fear of coronavirus (FoCV-19S), physical health (GSRH), life satisfaction (SWLS), and perceived stress (PSS-10), anxiety (GAD-7), and depression (PHQ-9). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed at T1, and confirmatory analysis (CFA) at T2. The second-order two-factor structure demonstrated the best fit and very good discriminant and convergent validation. The general factor of the FoCVVS included two subscales assessing the emotional and physiological symptoms of fear of vaccination. Unvaccinated people showed higher levels of fear of vaccination than those vaccinated. A vaccination status, fear of vaccination T1, and fear of COVID-19 T1 were significant predictors of fear of vaccination T2. Vaccination-promoting programs should be focused on decreasing fear and enhancing the beneficial effects of vaccination.
Aims To study the association of two different heart rate variability (HRV) ratios with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in young adults. Method A total of 132 participants (89 women) were included in this cross-sectional study. We assessed their HRV and computed the low frequency-to-high frequency ratio (LF/HF) and, from the Poincaré plot, the ratio of the inverse of the longitudinal (SD2) to the transversal (SD1) axes ([1000/SD2]/SD1; sympathetic: parasympathetic [S:PS] ratio). From blood samples, we determined total cholesterol, high-density (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) index. Multiple linear regression models were adjusted for age. Results Both, the LF/HF and the S:PS ratios, were positively associated with glucose metabolism markers (glucose, insulin, HOMA index), and negatively associated with HDL-C in women but not in men. Conclusion We showed that the LF/HF and the S:PS are associated similarly with CVD risk factors in young women.
MILAN LEŠČÁK (1940–2022) – wybitny słowacki etnolog i folklorysta, wykładowca na Uniwersytecie Komeńskiego w Bratysławie, założyciel Katedry Folklorystyki i Regionalistyki na Uniwersytecie Konstantyna Filozofa w Nitrze. W latach 1963-1998 pracował w Instytucie Etnologii i Społecznej Antropologii Słowackiej Akademii Nauk, a w latach 1998-2006 był kierownikiem Katedry Etnologii na Wydziale Sztuk Pięknych Uniwersytetu Komeńskiego w Bratysławie. Redaktor naczelnym czasopisma naukowego „Slovenský národopis” oraz współzałożyciel festiwalu filmowego „Ethnofilm Czadca”.
Nearly 30% of infertility cases are caused by male factor. This study aimed at checking the associations between the sialylation degree of glycoprotein clusterin (CLU) and levels of oxidative–antioxidant balance markers in infertile men. Using lectin-ELISA with biotinylated lectins specific to α2,6-linked (Sambucus nigra agglutinin, SNA) and α2,3-linked (Maackia amurensis agglutinin, MAA) sialic acid (SA), the CLU sialylation in 132 seminal plasmas (SP) and 91 blood sera (BS) were analyzed. Oxidative–antioxidant status was measured by determining Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), Sirtuin-5 (SIRT5), total antioxidant status (TAS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) levels. We indicate that multiple sperm disorders are associated with decreased expression of MAA-reactive SA in SP. Decreased SP SIRT3 concentrations may be associated with teratozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. ROC curve and cluster analysis revealed that SP relative reactivity of CLU glycans with MAA, the value of MAA/SNA ratio, and SIRT3 and SIRT5 concentrations may constitute an additional set of markers differentiating infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic patients (OAT) from normozoospermic (N), asthenoteratozoospermic (AT) and teratozoospermic (T). The multinomial logistic regression analysis confirmed the potential utility of SIRT3 determinations for differentiation between N and OAT groups as well as between N and T groups for SIRT3 and SIRT5. For BS, based on ROC curve and cluster analysis, relative reactivities of CLU glycans with SNA, MAA, SIRT3 and FRAP concentrations may be useful in the differentiation of normozoospermic patients from those with sperm disorders. The multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that the SNA relative reactivity with CLU glycans significantly differentiated the N group from AT, OAT and T groups, and FRAP concentrations significantly differed between N and AT groups, which additionally confirms the potential utility of these biomarkers in the differentiation of infertile patients with abnormal sperm parameters. The knowledge about associations between examined parameters may also influence future research aimed at seeking new male infertility therapies.
Neoplasms are common across the animal kingdom and seem to be a feature plesiomorphic for metazoans, related with an increase in somatic complexity. The fossil record of cancer complements our knowledge of the origin of neoplasms and vulnerability of various vertebrate taxa. Here, we document the first undoubted record of primary malignant bone tumour in a Mesozoic non-amniote. The diagnosed osteosarcoma developed in the vertebral intercentrum of a temnospondyl amphibian, Metoposaurus krasiejowensis from the Krasiejów locality, southern Poland. A wide array of data collected from gross anatomy and microstructure of the affected intercentrum reveals the tumour growth dynamics and pathophysiological aspects of the neoplasm formation on the histological level. The neoplastic bone mimics on the structural level the fast growing fibrolamellar bone, but on the histological level develops through a novel ossification type. The physiological process of bone remodelling inside the endochondral domain continued uninterrupted across the pathology of the periosteal part. Based on the results, we discuss our case study’s consistence with the Tissue Organization Field Theory of tumorigenesis, which locates the causes of neoplastic transformations in disorders of tissue architecture.
The use of fossil fuels (methane, oil, etc.) is undergoing an unprecedented crisis now. There is the urgent need to search for alternative energy sources. A wide range of degraded organic materials can be effectively used to provide energy together with environmental protection. Soapstock is a hazardous waste containing a high concentration of toxic organic compounds of man-made origin (fatty acids, surfactants, dyes, etc.). To prevent environmental contamination such substances require an effective treatment approach. The goal of the study was to isolate the adapted-to-fatty-acids methanogenic microbiome and investigate the patterns of sodium acetate and soapstock degradation with simultaneous biomethane synthesis. The effectiveness of the degradation of sodium acetate and soapstock by non-adapted and adapted microbiomes was evaluated by decreasing the concentration of dissolved organic compounds. The effectiveness of the fermentation process was determined by the biogas (mixture of CH4 and CO2) yield. The most effective degradation occurred in the variant with sodium acetate and adapted methanogens and amounted to 77.9%. In other variants, the patterns and the efficiency of purification were similar ranging from 60.6 to 68.0%. The biomethane was mostly synthesized by adapted methanogens on the soapstock and sodium acetate as substrates. Thus, the CH4 yield was 368.4 L/kg of dissolved organic compounds or 127.5 L/kg of soapstock. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of methanogenic microorganisms in the biodegradation of soapstock with simultaneous biogas synthesis. The results can serve as a basis to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels by generating biomethane via the fermentation of toxic organics.
Siderophores are unique ferric ion chelators produced and secreted by some organisms like bacteria, fungi and plants under iron deficiency conditions. These molecules possess immense affinity and specificity for Fe3+ and other metal ions, which attracts great interest due to the numerous possibilities of application, including antibiotics delivery to resistant bacteria strains. Total synthesis of siderophores is a must since the compounds are present in natural sources at extremely small concentrations. These molecules are extremely diverse in terms of molecular structure and physical and chemical properties. This review is focused on achievements and developments in the total synthesis strategies of naturally occurring siderophores bearing arylthiazoline and aryloxazoline units.
The trees (e.g., fruit or decorative) growing on the homestead plots of private households provide opportunities for sustainable biomass obtained from pruned branches every year. Profitable production of fuel material requires high-performance equipment and methods by which wood chips can be produced at low cost. The practice of chopping tree branches shows that not all chopping machines are suitable for use on homestead plots. This research gives the five-year test results of a developed and patented tree branch chopping machine under special operating conditions. The machine was tested under the conditions of the homestead plot of a private household in the Poltava region, and the engineering parameters to set up the chopper were determined. It is recommended to set a 0.3404 radian (19 degrees 50 min) angle on the chopper to cut tree branches as well as to set the size of the cutting knives’ protrusion above the disc plane within 0.0120 m. As a result of the correct settings, the power consumption of the chopper motor will be W = 1.3549 kW, which is an optimal value for the studied chopper. The research results made it possible to provide instructions for the tree branch chopper’s operation and to adapt it to the conditions of homestead plots.
The conflict between work and family demands increased during the COVID-19 pandemic due to changes in lifestyle related to the lockdown. This study examines the associations between work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC) with work-specific, family-specific, and well-being-related variables during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results may be used in practice to improve the well-being of employees by adjusting home-based work and family areas of life to dynamic changes during the pandemic. The sample of 736 adults from Poland (53.26%) and Ukraine (46.74%), aged between 19 and 72 (M = 39.40; SD = 10.80), participated in the study. The cross-sectional study was performed using an online survey, including sociodemographic variables, measures of WFC, time pressure, remote work assessment (RWAS), physical health (GSRH), life satisfaction (SWLS), perceived stress (PSS-10), anxiety (GAD-7), and depression (PHQ-9). This study showed numerous inter-group differences in all variables across the country, gender, relationship status, parenthood, caring for children under 12, and remote working status. A high WFC is more likely among Polish workers (than Ukrainian workers), people with a low level of self-perceived time pressure, and high symptoms of stress. Caring for children under 12, low self-perceived time pressure, and high stress can predict FWC. Various paths lead from perceived stress via WFC and FWC, physical health, anxiety, and depression to life satisfaction, as suggested by the structural equation modeling analysis. Parents of children under 12 and women are the most vulnerable groups for increased WFC, FWC, and worse mental health and well-being. Prevention programs should focus on reducing stress, anxiety, and work demands in these adult populations. A unique contribution to the existing knowledge revealed patterns of associations between WFC and FWC in relation to well-being dimensions in a cross-cultural context during the pandemic.
We examine the properties of a soliton solution of the fractional Schrö dinger equation with cubic-quintic nonlinearity. Using analytical (variational) and numerical arguments, we have shown that the substitution of the ordinary Laplacian in the Schrödinger equation by its fractional counterpart with Lévy index $$\alpha$$ α permits to stabilize the soliton texture in the wide range of its parameters (nonlinearity coefficients and $$\alpha$$ α ) values. Our studies of $$\omega (N)$$ ω ( N ) dependence ( $$\omega$$ ω is soliton frequency and N its norm) permit to acquire the regions of existence and stability of the fractional soliton solution. For that we use famous Vakhitov-Kolokolov (VK) criterion. The variational results are confirmed by numerical solution of a one-dimensional cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Direct numerical simulations of the linear stability problem of soliton texture gives the same soliton stability boundary as within variational method. Thus we confirm that simple variational approach combined with VK criterion gives reliable information about soliton structure and stability in our model. Our results may be relevant to both optical solitons and Bose-Einstein condensates in cold atomic gases.
OBJECTIVE Laminoplasty is a common treatment for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). However, approximately 21% of patients undergoing laminoplasty develop cervical kyphotic deformity (KD). Because of the high prevalence rate of KD, several studies have sought to identify predictors for this complication, but the findings remain highly inconsistent. Therefore, the authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish reliable preoperative predictors of KD. METHODS PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were used to systematically extract potential references. The first phase of screening required the studies to be written in the English language, involve patients treated for CSM and/or OPLL via laminoplasty, and report postoperative cervical KD. The second phase required the studies to provide more than 10 patients and include a control group. The mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR) were calculated for continuous and dichotomous parameters. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. CSM and OPLL patients were further assessed by performing subgroup analyses. RESULTS Thirteen studies comprising patients who developed cervical KD (n = 296) and no KD (n = 1254) after receiving cervical laminoplasty for CSM or OPLL were included in the meta-analysis. All studies were retrospective cohorts and were rated as high quality. In the combined univariate analysis of CSM and OPLL patients undergoing laminoplasty, statistically significant predictors for postoperative KD included age (MD 2.22, 95% CI 0.16–4.27, p = 0.03), preoperative BMI (MD 0.85, 95% CI 0.06–1.63, p = 0.04), preoperative C2–7 range of flexion (MD 10.42, 95% Cl 4.24–16.59, p = 0.0009), preoperative C2–7 range of extension (MD −4.59, 95% CI −6.34 to −2.83, p < 0.00001), and preoperative center of gravity of the head to the C7 sagittal vertical axis (MD 26.83, 95% CI 9.13–44.52, p = 0.003). Additionally, among CSM patients, males were identified as having a greater risk for postoperative KD (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.02–2.93, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS The findings from this study currently provide the largest and most reliable review on preoperative predictors for cervical KD after laminoplasty. Given that several of the included studies identified optimal cutoff points for the variables that are significantly associated with KD, further investigation into the development of a preoperative risk scoring system that can accurately predict KD in the clinical setting is encouraged. PROSPERO registration no.: CRD42022299795 ( https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ ).
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) has been used as a model to mimic nocturnal apnea, which is associated with hypertension. One of the mechanisms for hypertension in patients with nocturnal apnea is an enhancement of the plasma membrane response to acute hypoxia in carotid body glomus cells. Hypoxia is known to induce depolarization via inhibiting TWIK-related acid-sensitive K⁺ (TASK) channels, one type of leak K⁺ channels, in glomus cells. The present experiment was undertaken to immunocytochemically investigate the effects of CIH on the expression and intracellular localization of TASK1 channels and p11 that critically affect the trafficking of TASK1 to the cell surface. The expression levels of TASK1 proteins and p11 and their intracellular localization in rat carotid body glomus cells were not noticeably affected by CIH, suggesting that the enhanced membrane response to acute hypoxia is not due to an increase in surface TASK channels.
Background: A large percentage of dancers suffer an injury to their musculoskeletal system at least once in their careers, as well as from pain caused by overloading or overtraining this system. A high frequency of injuries has been observed in hip-hop dancers. Before each workout, there should be a solid warm-up and stretching period. The lack of these two important elements increases the risk of injury. Aim of the study: This study aimed to examine the effects of dynamic stretching warm-ups on fundamental movement patterns in female hip-hop dancers. Material and methods: This study included 14 hip-hop female dancers, aged 15–17. Dancers participated in 6 weeks of dynamic stretching warm-ups. Anthropometric and demographic variables were measured. The effectiveness of dynamic stretching warm-ups in improving fundamental movement patterns was assessed using the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) test including qualitative assessments using Deep Squat (DS) Hurdle Step (HS), In-Line Lunge (ILL), Shoulder Mobility (SM), Active Straight-Leg Raise (ASLR), Trunk Stability Push-Ups (TSPU) and Rotational Stability (RS). Results: Before the intervention, the mean composite FMS™ score was 15.00 ± 1.84 points and after the intervention was 16.64 ± 1.39 (p < 0.05). There were also statistically significant differences before and after the intervention in the DS (1.86 ± 0.53 vs. 2.36 ± 0.49, p < 0.05) and ASLR (2.21 ± 0.69 vs. 2.57 ± 0.65, p < 0.05). The number of dancers who scored 14 points or less on the FMS test before and after dynamic stretching warm-ups decreased from 50% to 0%. HS (r = 0.63, p = 0.01) and TPSU (r = 0.79, p = 0.01) were positively correlated with composite FMS scores before the intervention. After the intervention, positive correlations were observed between ASLR and composite FMS scores (r = 0.68; p = 0.01). Conclusions: Dynamic stretching warm-ups significantly improve functional movement patterns, including DS, ASLR, and composite FMS scores. It is important to use movement competency screenings in injury prevention programs.
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• Institute of Biology
• Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Opole
• Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology
• Faculty of Chemistry
• Faculty of Chemistry
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