Open Universiteit Nederland
  • Heerlen, Provincie Limburg, Netherlands
Recent publications
Effective feedback is a powerful educational intervention to support learning. Hattie and Timperley have developed a feedback model in which they define three different functions and four different levels of feedback. Although the model is widely used in educational practice, there is little known about how the model is used in education nor about the optimal distribution of the different types of feedback. In the current case study, we used an explanatory sequential mixed method design to investigate how lecturers use the model and how its use can be optimized. For this, 349 feedback comments from 22 lecturers were analysed, and 5 feedback experts participated in a focus group interview. The results show that most of the feedback given by the lecturers is task-oriented feedback and that current feedback practices can be improved by focusing more on the combination of feedup, feedback, and feedforward. In addition, results indicate that the level (task, process, self-regulation, person) of the feedback is more difficult to determine before hand and should be tailored to the learning goal. The design of the assessment form plays an important role in this alignment. © 2022 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
One of the main rationales for the existence of the patent system is to encourage knowledge diffusion through the full disclosure of the technical knowledge embodied in a patented invention. Yet, economists and legal scholars cast doubts on the validity of the disclosure theory. The empirical evidence on the actual benefits of the disclosure function remains limited. The present paper aims to expand our understanding of how information spreads via patent disclosure and exploits recent improvements in machine translation (MT) to identify the effect of broader access to patented knowledge. More specifically, the paper uses a unique natural experiment. In September 2013, Google launched a major upgrade to its Google Patents service and added patent applications from the China National Intellectual Property Agency (CNIPA) to its searchable patent database. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we show that the translation of the Chinese patents into English resulted in an increase in citations received from patents filed by US inventors compared to a suitable control group comprising patents that Google translated only in 2016. Our results suggest that improved access to patented knowledge fosters knowledge diffusion.
This paper explores how cross-country differences in environmental regulatory stringency among member states of the world's largest multinational cap-and-trade system, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS), influenced the FDI location choice of listed multinationals (MNEs) regulated by the environmental policy. After controlling for other country characteristics driving FDI location choice, we find that the likelihood of EU ETS-covered MNEs locating new FDI projects in less environmentally stringent member states strongly depends on firm- and industry-specific environmental characteristics during the system's first two phases. Our results are robust to different measures of environmental stringency and provide evidence for the existence of an intra-regional pollution haven effect (PHE). This investment behavior by MNEs is, moreover, only found in the industries least compensated for the environmental costs induced by the policy. This suggests that the EU inadvertently promoted an intra-regional PHE not only by allowing cross-country variation in environmental stringency but also by overly focusing on and compensating for external carbon leakage risk. Our conclusions have major implications for countries and regions currently establishing or implementing an emissions trading system.
From 2022 onwards the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) of the Convention on Biological Diversity will guide biodiversity conservation actions worldwide, which includes mainstreaming biodiversity into a wide range of activities, sectors and policies. Biodiversity mainstreaming in development cooperation is particularly relevant given the direct dependence of many communities in the Global South on biodiversity and on the benefits it provides. We conducted a Delphi survey among development cooperation practitioners at the aid provider (donor) side, to gain insight into current and future (post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework) biodiversity mainstreaming and its monitoring. Our results demonstrate that despite efforts towards biodiversity mainstreaming and its monitoring, biodiversity mainstreaming indicators remain inconsistent and difficult to compare. The lack of biodiversity data, as well as their low accessibility and suboptimal use, and the inherent complexity of addressing biodiversity loss are considered key challenges. Respondents indicated that they strongly orient their own biodiversity mainstreaming and monitoring approaches towards international biodiversity governance dynamics. We conclude that, at least on paper, the indicator ambitions of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework are in line with the expectations and challenges of aid providers with respect to biodiversity mainstreaming. However, future effective mainstreaming of biodiversity requires indicator-based monitoring, exchange of good practices among aid partners, and a continued focus on awareness-raising regarding the linkages between biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction.
Household consumption drives more than 65% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, most governments plan to meet the Paris Agreement based on production-based accounting (PBA), neglecting lifecycle emissions embodied in trade and consumption, as well as socio-spatial inequalities. This is a sub-city consumption-based accounting (CBA) analysis of Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (MAG), grounded on Environmentally Extended Multi-Regional Input-Output using EXIOBASE 3.8.1, combined with Mexico's 2018 Consumer Expenditure Survey. The main objective is to explain the CO2e footprint of MAG's households, identifying emission hotspots and socio-spatial inequalities. This household CBA estimate shows MAG emitted a total of 23.35 MtCO2e during 2018, at least 26.6% higher than the local Climate Action Plan (CPA) territorial PBA estimate, and 121% higher for food. The average per capita footprint is 4.52 tCO2e, 40% higher than the average Mexican and 61% higher than the recommended level of 2.8 tCO2e/cap-yr to align with 1.5 °C pathways by 2030. However, 26% of the MAG population, mostly low-income households, is below this level. Conversely, highest incomes and per capita CO2e footprints are concentrated in Zapopan and Guadalajara, with 64% of total emissions despite hosting 55% population together. Further, income decile X reach 35% of the total emissions with 13% of the population. If left unchecked, MAG's footprints might increase with the trends of urbanization, inequality, higher consumption, and smaller households, as we find larger households associate with lower footprints. We confirm the need to complement CAP with CBA approach and increase socio-spatial resolution to unlock demand-side solutions that leverage on the interplay between urban, socioeconomic, and technical factors.
Outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) from emerging economies in the hospitality industry, the hotel sector in particular, has drastically increased in recent years. Based on Dunning's eclectic paradigm/Ownership-Location-Internalization (OLI) theory and the Investment Development Path (IDP) theory, the OFDI in the hotel sector was assessed from the home country's perspective using an inward FDI (IFDI) approach. Using China as a case study, this paper employed panel data and a negative binomial regression method to examine the impact of IFDI on hotel OFDI. The empirical findings showed that hotel-related IFDI is an important source of the ownership advantage of China's hotel OFDI. Meanwhile, China's IFDI in the hotel industry appear to exert positive and significant effects on its hotel OFDI. Furthermore, international market proximity, economic development, and tourism development were found to moderate significantly these effects. Finally, additional robustness checks showed that the results are reliable.
Water, energy, and food are all essential components of human societies. Collectively, their respective resource systems are interconnected in what is called the “nexus”. There is growing consensus that a holistic understanding of the interdependencies and trade-offs between these sectors and other related systems is critical to solving many of the global challenges they present. While nexus research has grown exponentially since 2011, there is no unified, overarching approach, and the implementation of concepts remains hampered by the lack of clear case studies. Here, we present the results of a collaborative thought exercise involving 75 scientists and summarize them into 10 key recommendations covering: the most critical nexus issues of today, emerging themes, and where future efforts should be directed. We conclude that a nexus community of practice to promote open communication among researchers, to maintain and share standardized datasets, and to develop applied case studies will facilitate transparent comparisons of models and encourage the adoption of nexus approaches in practice.
In this paper we present an extension of (bunched) separation logic, Boolean BI, with epistemic and dynamic epistemic modalities. This logic, called action model separation logic (AMSL), can be seen as a generalization of public announcement separation logic in which we replace public announcements with action models. Then we not only model public information change (public announcements) but also non-public forms of information change, such as private announcements. In this context the semantics for the connectives ∗ and -∗ from separation logic are epistemic versions of their usual semantics. This is because formulas are interpreted in states, not in resources, and agents may be uncertain between different states representing the same resource. We present the logic AMSL and its semantics, with a detailed case study that highlights its interest for modeling. We also prove the elimination of the dynamics modalities and discuss some alternative epistemic semantics for the separation connectives.
Plain English Summary This study analyzes how family firms, acting as ecosystem orchestrators, mitigate perceived relational and performance risk via the use of governance mechanisms. Using data from a Belgian family firm that initiated an ecosystem in healthcare, the study shows that in a family firm-led ecosystem, formal and informal governance mechanisms act as complements to deal with relational and performance risk. We show that to deal with relational/performance risk, different combinations of governance mechanisms should be used. When ecosystem members perceive changes over time in perceived risk, the ecosystem orchestrator should change the balance between formal/informal governance mechanisms. Our study suggests that family firm orchestrators benefit from stimulating the active participation of ecosystem members. Family firm orchestrators might want to consider changing needs of a growing ecosystem, as, in larger ecosystems, frequent communication between the orchestrator and members can be more difficult. We argue that family firm orchestrators should remain mindful of the balance between formal and informal governance mechanisms.
Students’ health profession education includes learning at the workplace through placements. For students, participating in daily work activities in interaction with supervisors, co-workers and peers is a valuable practice to learn the expertise that is needed to become a health care professional. To contribute to the understanding of HPE-students’ workplace learning, the focus of this study is to identify affordances and characterise student’s participation during placements. We applied a research design based on observations. Three student-physiotherapists and four student-nurses were shadowed during two of their placement days. A categorisation of affordances is provided, in terms of students’ participation in activities, direct interactions and indirect interactions. Students’ daily participation in placements is discussed through unique combinations and sequences of the identified affordances reflecting changing patterns over time, and differences in the degree of presence or absence of supervisors, co-workers and peers.
Authority claims remain rooted in the antecedent existence of a degree of indeterminacy, in particular in the international legal system, in which a lack of systematicity characterises how international actors claim and exercise authority. The indeterminacies in international law give rise to certain practices and mechanisms designed to cure such deficiencies, and in particular these practices are observed by law-applying and law-interpreting bodies, of which international courts and tribunals tend to be the exemplars. These ‘authority claims’, far from being scattered and random claims for legitimation, in fact give a peek into international law’s structure as a legal system with mechanisms of determinability, these mechanisms being designed to privilege coherence and order. The discretion revealed in the practices of interpretation is in fact the outcome of interpretative practices, not their cause. Accordingly, the sustainable existence of a legal system remains rooted in the existence, identification, and study of its law-applying officials, whose authority depends in part on their recognition by a wider professional or epistemic community of international lawyers. The social and communitarian foundations of authority, therefore, complement any claims to interpretative authority engendered by the legal system itself.
Objectives: Progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (PF-ILD) is characterised by increased pulmonary fibrosis, lung function decline, acute exacerbations, decreased quality of life and increased mortality. Nintedanib may slow down disease progression, but long-term outcomes are unknown. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of nintedanib in comparison to placebo, both on top of usual care in patients with PF-ILD. Methods: An individual PF-ILD patient simulation model was created, using data and extrapolations from the nintedanib and placebo arms of the INBUILD trial. Clinical outcomes (mortality, exacerbations, lung transplants), economic outcomes (direct and indirect costs) and the cost-effectiveness of nintedanib over a 10-year time horizon were forecasted using the Netherlands as a case example. Disease progression was driven by lung function decline, with forced vital capacity (FVC) health states ranging from < 40 to ≥ 110 FVC of % predicted. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were performed to assess the impact of parameter assumptions on the cost-effectiveness and to test model robustness. Results: Over a 10-year follow-up, nintedanib gained an average of 1.31 discounted life years and an average of 0.87 discounted quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €60,690 per QALY. Sensitivity analyses showed cost variations had a minor impact on the ICER. Results were mainly driven by mortality probabilities and disease-related utilities. Scenario analyses indicated most sensitivity to the time horizon and lung transplantation costs. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with nintedanib could result in considerable health gains for patients with PF-ILD and can be considered cost-effective under the common willingness-to-pay threshold.
This paper introduces the concepts and ideas that frame this special issue on co-evolution in governance, and their implications for policy learning and adaptation. It offers a brief overview of co-evolutionary approaches to governance and their elementary connections with systems theories, post-structuralism, institutionalism, and actor-network theory, and explores how they are connected to co-evolution in governance. Co-evolutionary approaches differ from other influential understandings of knowledge and learning in policy and governance. It furthermore presents a typology of learning in governance and systematically discusses how each type is affected by patterns of coevolution in governance.
After the worldwide interest in global sustainability and climate change challenges, an increasing concern is voiced on local quality of life and neighbourhood liveability. In recent urban studies, human well-being, satisfaction and happiness studies are gaining much popularity in a local context (the ‘microcosmic city’). The present study seeks to identify the determinants of the residents’ appreciation for their daily environment, called here ‘city love’. The latter concept captures both tangible or material aspects of city life (‘body’) and immaterial and emotional dimensions of local quality of life (‘soul’). The present paper seeks to develop and test a new quantitative ‘city love’ concept, inspired by the soul and body conceptualisation of urban attractiveness for residents and visitors – based on a novel ‘feelgood’ index (FGI) and a ‘human habitat’ index (HHI) –, with a view to map out the citizens’ contentment or appreciation (called neighbourhood love index – NLI) at a district or neighbourhood scale in the city of Rotterdam. Our study utilises data from a quantitative survey among thousands of residents located in 63 neighbourhoods in this city. In addition, the Rotterdam dataset contains not only survey data, but also register data on these neighbourhoods, e.g., real-estate values, crime statistics, and socio-demographics, while geographical information from OpenStreetMap (OSM) is added as a complement. In addition to a multivariate analysis of the rich data set, the paper employs also a quantile regression analysis extended with fixed effects. The results show that the coefficients of the feelgood index (FGI) and the human habitat index (HHI) decrease slightly as we move up the distribution of the neighbourhood love index (NLI). This means that physical and functional aspects of neighbourhoods, e.g., access to such amenities as public transportation, sport facilities, and also streets with diverse attractions or bikeable and walkable road networks, become more important for the lower end of the distribution of the neighbourhood love index (NLI). Our neighbourhood-specific analyses show that the Rotterdam districts and neighbourhoods differ substantially in many physical and social-emotional respects, which calls for place-based policies and sub-local well-being initiatives.
This essay introduces and frames the contributions to the special issue on learning and co-evolution in governance. It develops the argument that learning, dark learning and non-learning are necessarily entwined in governance, moreover, entwined in a pattern unique to each governance configuration and path. What can be learned collectively for the common good, what kind of knowledge and learning can be strategically used and shamelessly abused, and which forms of knowledge remain invisible, intentionally and unintentionally, emerges in a history of co-evolution of actors and institutions, power and knowledge, in governance. Learning becomes possible in a particular form of management of observation, of transparency and opacity, where contingency is precariously mastered by governance systems expected to provide certainty for communities.
Tropical small islands are particularly vulnerable to environmental impacts. In the small islands of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), multiple stressors of environmental and socio-economic change interact and intensify at reduced spatial scales. Actors and institutions need to respond to these changes through responses – reactive or proactive actions planned or implemented by individuals, groups or organisations; aimed at responding to changing contexts and scenarios, by reducing, preventing and/or reverting the risks and impacts of environmental change. Through a mixed-method systematic review of academic literature from 2010 to 2020 using the Web of Science literature database, we document the types of responses, actors involved and elements of effective responses. We analysed 329 studies focusing on nine WIO small island states and territories (SISTs) – Zanzibar, Mafia, Seychelles, Comoros, Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius, Maldives and Lakshadweep. Using quantitative content analysis, we organised information into categories ranging from institutional (economic instruments, laws, policies and community based), social (educational and informational), infrastructural (engineered and technological) and ecological restoration-based responses. The articles varied in their geographical distribution, focus and depth with regard to the responses studied. Diverse responses are documented, that often overlap across categories and may be combined and pursued simultaneously. For example, responses range from coastal protection structures, land reclamation, land elevation and artificial islands to mangrove restoration, awareness raising programs, coastal zone regulations and climate induced migration and relocation policies. Responses were predominantly institutional (85% of 329 articles, n = 281) – mainly driven by governments. The most common social responses (53%, n = 183) were linked to environmental education programs and knowledge sharing platforms. Although the responses indicated an increasing interest in ecological restoration (27%, n = 91) and community-based initiatives (36%, n = 120), they were largely underrepresented in research. Cataloguing the different responses may help incorporate the diversity into well-informed decisions, offer alternative ways of thinking and highlight specific areas and response types that should be the focus of future research and practice. The elements influencing the effectiveness of responses were identified through thematic synthesis – relevance to the local social-ecological context, resources available (time and funding), knowledge (access, diversity, integration, transfer, innovative and anticipatory), governance of responses (coordinated, transparent, adaptive, equitable, participatory and polycentric) and iterative monitoring. These elements of effectiveness tend to be synergistic and no single element is effective in isolation. When these elements are not considered, the response intervention could be maladaptive or counterproductive. Poorly designed responses result in perverse social and ecological outcomes, further increasing the exposure and vulnerability to the environmental stressors and decreasing public confidence and support. This review documents current literature, points to knowledge gaps and highlights the potential for islands to learn from each other and to further apply these lessons to non-island settings, critically considering the local context.
Objectives Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) generally assume constant drug prices throughout the model time horizon, yet it is known that prices are not constant, often with price decreases near loss of exclusivity (LOE). This study explores the impact of using dynamic drug-specific prices on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) using selected reproduced case studies. Methods Case studies were selected following explicit criteria to reflect a variety of drug characteristics. For each drug, a published CEA model was identified, replicated, and modified with dynamic real-world pricing data, to compare ICERs based on constant drug prices with estimates obtained when including drug life cycle pricing. The impact of dynamic real-world pricing—inclusive LOE—was analyzed using a single patient cohort and multiple cohorts over time. Results Fluvastatin, alendronic acid + colecalciferol combination therapy, letrozole and clopidogrel were selected as case studies. Inclusion of real-world pricing data compared with applying constant prices reduced the ICER in a single-cohort setting up to 43%. In the multicohort analyses, further reductions of the ICERs were observed of up to 113%. The ICERs were sensitive to the period of drug usage relative to the models’ time horizons, the relative proportions of drug costs in the overall treatment costs, and timing of LOE compared with the cost year of the original analysis. Conclusions Assuming dynamic drug prices may lead to more representative ICER estimates. Future CEAs for drugs could account for predicted and disaggregated life cycle price developments based on retrospective data.
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Stijn Neuteleers
  • Department of Environmental Sciences
Francis Brouns
  • Faculty of Educational Sciences
Bert Zwaneveld
  • Centre of Ruud de Moor (RdMC)
Mieneke Pouwelse
  • Department of Psychology
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