Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi
Recent publications
Background Bruxism is defined as repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterized by the grinding and clenching of teeth. The prevalence of bruxism in children is extensive, and it can cause irregularities in dental arches. The study aimed to investigate the presence of any effects of bruxism on maxillary arch length and width in children using three-dimensional (3D) digital model analysis. Method This study evaluated 30 children with bruxism. For every child with bruxism, a case control without bruxism was selected and matched for gender, age, and dentition. Digital models of the patients’ maxilla were obtained with a 3D intraoral scanner, and width and length measurements between the reference points on the maxilla were obtained on the digital models. Results The mean age of the study group was 9.13 ± 1.27. Insıgnificance differences were found between females and males within and between groups in terms of maxillary width and length. Insignificant difference was found between the control and study groups when the lengths of 3R-3L, 4R-4L, 5R-5L, 6R-6L, and IP-M were compared ( p > 0.05). Conclusion Based on the study results, there were no differences in the maxillary arch length and width in patients with bruxism and patients without bruxism.
Background Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is often accompanied by anxiety. Dental anxiety is common in society and negatively affects the application of patients to the dentist. Aims We aimed to examine the presence of dental anxiety in FM patients and to compare it with the non-FM controls. The aim was also extended to examine the relationship between FM disease severity and dental anxiety. Methods Sixty-three patients diagnosed with FM and 50 age- and sex-matched non-FM controls were included. All participants were asked to answer the Modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD anxiety and HAD depression, respectively). FM patients were also asked to answer the Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ). Results There were 18 (28.57%) participants in the FM group with an MDAS score of ≥ 16 (anxiety), and 3 (6%) participants in the control group. All 10 participants with MDAS score ≥ 19 (dental phobic) were in the FM group (15.87%). There was a moderate positive correlation between FIQ score and MDAS Score. There were significant positive correlations between the MDAS Score and HAD anxiety and HAD depression scores. Conclusions The frequency of dental anxiety may be high in FM patients and disease activity may negatively affect dental anxiety. This is the first study to examine the presence of dental anxiety in fibromyalgia syndrome and its relationship with disease severity. This study draws attention to the presence of dental anxiety, which will negatively affect dental interventions and follow-ups in Fibromyalgia, which is quite common.
Background Shunt systems are used to provide cerebrospinal fluid drainage in the treatment of hydrocephalus. Recently, antibiotic-impregnated shunt systems are used to prevent colonization in the ventriculoperitoneal catheters. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most common causative microorganism of shunt infections. The aim of the study is to investigate effects of several substances on MRSA biofilms in the ventriculoperitoneal catheters. Methods The present study consists of mainly eight groups (each has two subgroups as antibiotic-impregnated and nonantibiotic-impregnated catheters). In addition, each group contains six molds using MRSA strains. In this study, daptomycin (DAPT) (2 mg/ml), vancomycin (VAN) (10 mg/ml), linezolid (LIN) (2 mg/ml), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (6 mg/ml), and various combinations of these substances were used to evaluate the treatment against MRSA using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and microbiological enumeration. Results The colony count in the antibiotic-impregnated samples significantly decreased compared to nonantibiotic-impregnated samples in the MRSA, MRSA + DAPT, and MRSA + LIN groups ( p < 0.01), respectively. Conversely, the colony count in antibiotic-impregnated samples significantly increased compared to nonantibiotic-impregnated samples in NAC + DAPT and NAC + VAN groups ( p < 0.01), respectively. Conclusions The results showed that the use of antibiotic-impregnated catheters has a significant impact on the prevention of infection whereas the combination of NAC and DAPT showed better antibiofilm and antibacterial effects than other combinations on the prevention and treatment of nonantibiotic-impregnated catheter infections.
The recent technologies employed for rapid, cost-effective, and non-destructive prediction of soil particle size distribution (clay, sand, and silt) are becoming increasingly interesting among soil scientists. Our aims were to explore the effect of surface, profile wall, and surface + profile wall on prediction accuracy using individual and combined both soil spectra (Vis-NIR and pXRF) with machine learning algorithms for sand, silt, and clay. In total, 191 soil samples were collected from the soil surface (0–30 cm) and profile wall (1 m × 1 m) from cultivated fields in Eskisehir, Central Anatolia of Türkiye. The pXRF (0–45 keV) and Vis-NIR (350–2500 nm) spectroradiometers were used to obtain soil spectra from sieved soil samples. The prediction accuracy of each soil particle size was evaluated by 54 models to explore the predictive performance. The five machine learning algorithms (elastic net, lasso, random forest, ridge, and support vector machine-linear) were applied with calibration (70% soil samples) and validation (30% soil samples) data set for each soil particle size.Results showed the dominant clay mineral in the A and C horizons is chlorite. Moderate and high prediction accuracy for sand (R2 = 0.56–0.84) and clay (R2 = 0.61–0.80), whereas only moderate prediction accuracy for silt (R2 = 0.47–0.55) using both soil spectra in the surface, profile wall, and surface + profile wall. The highest prediction accuracy for each soil particle size was achieved in the soil profile wall using Vis-NIR spectra with elastic net, which outperformed other samplings such as individual pXRF, combined both soil spectra, and other machine learning algorithms. In addition, the prediction accuracy of clay was more affected by sampling strategies compared to sand and silt. We concluded that individual Vis-NIR spectroradiometer can be utilized to achieve the highest prediction accuracy for sand, silt, and clay ratio in semiarid ecosystems for soil surveys and land use studies.
A novel nitrothiophene derivative, ((Z)-N-(4-nitrophenyl)-1-(5-nitrothiophen-2-yl)ethan-1-imine, NNPEI, was synthesized by a condensation reaction and characterized by FT-IR, UV–Vis., ¹H-NMR and ¹³C-NMR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The structure was further confirmed by theoretical studies using the DFT/B3LYP method with LanL2Z basis set. The experimental results agree well with the findings of theoretical studies. The chemical reactivity and kinetic stability of molecular compounds are determined using the molecular frontier orbitals, HOMO and LUMO. Hirshfeld surface analysis was used to measure different interactions, revealing that the main contributions to the crystal packing come from the interactions O···H/H···O (42%), C···H/H···C (9.5%), H···H (8.9%), S···H/H···S (7.9%) and N···H/H···N (6.3%). Furthermore, molecular docking was used to investigate the binding interactions between MCL1 and NNPEI to choose possible conformation.
In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the opinions of psychiatrists in Turkey on whether to change the name of schizophrenia in order to reduce stigma. This cross-sectional survey was conducted with psychiatrists (resident in psychiatry, specialist, and lecturer) in Turkey. An online survey was created via the Google Forms public web address. Online questionnaires were delivered through Google Forms by emailing and messaging on WhatsApp, Telegram, Google and Yahoo groups and asking them to pass the questionnaire to other possible participants in their network. The study was performed between June 20, 2021 and July 10, 2021. 460 psychiatrists participated in the study. Forty-five-point 2 % of psychiatrists think that the name of schizophrenia should be renamed to reduce stigma. Forty-two-point 8 % of those who support the name change state that this change should be done as soon as possible. While 64.1 % of psychiatrists stated that naming the disease with another (new) name instead of schizophrenia could increase the hopes of patients and their relatives for recovery, 12.6 % stated that renaming would not cause any positive or negative changes. There is no statistical difference between psychiatrists who have a relative diagnosed with schizophrenia and psychiatrists who do not, in terms of thinking that the name of schizophrenia should be renamed to reduce stigma. In order to remove the stigma on schizophrenia, many interventions are required in social, cultural, economic and political fields. Renaming schizophrenia may be a good start for interventions.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and its receptor play a pivotal role in the regulation of immune response and possess both immune-regulatory and immune-stimulatory functions. As a cytokine of lymphoid cells, the role of IL-2 has been revealed in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance and proper hematopoiesis. Here, we investigated that small molecule Ro 26-4550 trifluoroacetate (Ro) mediated competitive inhibition of IL-2 and its receptor alpha subunit (IL-2Rα) throughout ex vivo culture. Ro treatment induced murine and human ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Ro treated HSPCs sustained self-renewal ability and low apoptotic activity. As a competitive inhibitor of IL-2/IL-2Rα interaction, Ro small molecule induced human HSPCs to entry into cell cycle. The proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and fibroblasts were also highly increased post treatment. Besides, Ro treatment enhanced IL-2Rα (CD25) expression independent of IL-2 administration in human mPB-derived HSPCs and BM-derived HSPCs. Increased IL-2Rα (CD25) expression in BM-HSPCs was associated with the increase in the CD4⁺CD25⁺ T cell population. Xenotransplantation of immunodeficient mice with ex vivo expanded human CD34⁺ cells after Ro treatment revealed an efficient multi-lineage reconstitution in the recipient. These findings shed light on the role of IL-2/IL-2Rα interaction in HSC expansion, in vivo and in vitro HSC self-renewal ability and repopulation capacity as well as a possible mean for the induction of CD25 expressing cells in hematopoietic compartments.
Obesity and infertility are health problems that are increasing in frequency. In this study, sexual dysfunction in obese infertile women was investigated. A total of 450 women who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study; 150 women who had obesity without infertility, 150 women who had obesity with infertility and 150 women with normal weight but without infertility, which was the control group. The mean age of the groups were 31.3 ± 3.9, 31.2 ± 3.8 and 31.1 ± 4.5, respectively. The participants were administered a sociodemographic data form, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Beck Depression Inventory following the measurement of body mass index (BMI). FSFI score below 26.55 was defined as sexual dysfunction. Our data were analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) 21.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). FSFI scores were observed to be statistically significantly lower in the group of obese women with infertility than in the other two groups. In our study, sexual dysfunction was found to be statistically significantly higher in obese women with infertility compared to the control group. Therefore, healthcare professionals should evaluate infertility in obese women in terms of sexual dysfunction as well as infertility treatment.Impact StatementWhat is already known on this subject? Psychological problems such as depression and anxiety, changes in sex hormones, and adipokines were reported to have negative impacts on sexual functions (Plaisance et al. 2009; Kendler et al. 2010; Yaylali et al. 2010). There are also various reports stating that female infertility has negative effects on sexual satisfaction and that fertility anxiety may affect sexual functions as an independent factor (Pakpour et al. 2012; Kaya et al. 2021). Even so there is a limited amount of information concerning the effects of obesity and infertility on female sexual function.What do the results of this study add? It has been found in our study that sexual dysfunction is higher in women with obesity and infertility and that this dysfunction is correlated with BMI.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? It is therefore important that healthcare professionals adopt a holistic approach that incorporates sexual health consultancy to improve the treatment and quality of life of women with obesity and infertility.
In this study, it was aimed to reveal the effect of temperature and humidity values provided by the semi-open and closed barns in the winter season on milk yield and components and the somatic cell count (SCC) level in milk in Anatolian buffaloes, and for this purpose, to compare both barn types and to reveal their suitability for buffalo breeding. In the study, temperature and humidity values were determined between December 2020 and March 2021 in two types of barns with similar feeding conditions in Bafra district, Samsun, and milk samples taken from buffaloes raised in these barns were analyzed. Temperature Humidity Index (THI) values were determined as 61,09±0,211 and 51.08±0.173 for the closed and semi-open barn type, respectively. In the study, in which the type of barn and therefore the temperature and humidity values provided in the barn environment did not affect the amount of milk yield, the milk fat ratio was determined as 8.89±0.227% and 8.16±0.176% for closed and semi-open barns, respectively. While other milk components were not affected by the barn conditions, the logSCC of milk was lower (4.54±0.071) in the closed barns when compared to the semi-open barns (4.73±0.044). Although no statistical difference was determined in the other milk parameters discussed, it was noted that there is an increasing tendency in the closed barns. It was observed that the changes in temperature and humidity values in both barn environments during the period caused nonlinear changes in milk composition. While indoor conditions were more effective on solids-non-fat (SNF), protein and lactose in the closed barn, the highest effect was on the fat ratio and logSCC in the semi-open barns. As a result, it can be said that both types of barns can be used in buffalo breeding since there is no significant difference in milk yield and other components, although there is a slight difference in milk fat ratio and logSCC level in closed and semi-open barns of Anatolian buffaloes in the climatic conditions of the region where the study was conducted.
Background Diabetes education in Turkey is provided by diabetes nurse educators in almost all healthcare organizations. However, the education is not standardized in terms of learning content, duration, and methods. This multi-center study was performed to assess the self-care behaviors and glycemic control following education provided to the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by diabetes nurse educators. Methods This was a descriptive and cross-sectional study and included 1535 patients admitted to 28 public hospitals for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The education was assessed by using a Patient Identification Form and Self-care Scale. Results The proportion of individuals who received diabetes education within the last year was 78.5%, with 46.7% of them having received it once. Of the patients, 84.8% reported that they received diabetes education individually. It was found that the proportion of individuals who received education about oral antidiabetics (78.5%) and glucose testing at home (78.5%) was higher than the proportion of individuals who received education about exercise (58.8%) and foot care (61.6%). The status of diabetes education, education intervals, and the correlation of the education method with self-care and glycemic control was evaluated. Self-care and glycemic control levels were better among the patients who received diabetes education thrice or more and in patients who received education both individually and in a group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Approximately three-quarters of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus received education by diabetes nurse educators in Turkey. Diabetes education is positively correlated with self-care and glycemic control levels among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Efforts for generalization and standardized education for all diabetes patients are necessary.
Enzymes of the archaea living in extreme environments are resistant to the challenging conditions. Lipase is among the important enzymes used in the industry and agriculture. In this study, the extracellular lipase from extremely halophilic archaeon Halolamina sp. was characterized for the first time. Optimum temperature for the enzyme activity was determined as 70oC, optimum pH was 7.0, and the optimum salt concentration was 3.6 M. Additionally, more than 70% of the enzyme activity was remained between pH 3.0-10.0 for 48 h as well as incubation of the enzyme at 70oC for 30 min increased its activity for 44%, and no activity loss was observed after incubation at 80oC. Also, presence of the metals increased the enzyme activity up to 88%. The enzyme was highly resistant to the organic solvents acetone, methanol, and DMSO while strong inhibition was caused by n-butanol. Among the detergents, the enzyme kept its activity substantially in the presence of SDS; however, other detergents caused inhibition of the enzyme activity. This characterization study showed that the lipase from the haloarchaeon Halolamina sp. is highly stable at the wide ranges of temperature and pH values as well as in the presence of diverse inhibitors. This enzyme is promising to be used in biotechnological applications.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disorder characterized by degenerative articular cartilage in which inflammatory mechanisms play a major role in the pathogenesis. Interleukin-6 (IL6), a multifunctional cytokine, can trigger osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the association of IL-6 -174 G/C (rs1800795) and -572 G/C (rs1800796) variants with the susceptibility to OA. One hundred fifty OA patients and 150 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for genotyping the IL-6 gene variants. The results of analyses were evaluated for statistical significance. The pain intensity was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). There was a statistically significant difference in the genotype and allele frequencies of the IL-6 -174 G/C variant between patients with OA and control groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively). IL-6 -174 G/C GG genotype and G allele were more prevalent in patients with OA. We found that the IL-6 -572 G/C variant was not different between patients and controls in either genotype distribution and allele frequency. IL-6 174 G/C and -572 G/C loci GG-GG combined genotype was significantly higher in OA patients (p = 0.00). Our study suggests that there was a strong association between the IL-6 -174 G/C variant and OA in the Turkish population. Further studies on populations of different ethnic background are necessary to prove the association of IL-6 variants with OA.
Objective: Previous studies have revealed a relationship between the driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) and/or driving under the influence drugs (DUID) and the increased risk of death and injury in traffic accidents. The aim of this study was to investigate of blood alcohol concentration of drivers after involved in a traffic accident or for suspected for drunkenness in the roadside traffic control in the Turkey’s four major cities. Material and Methods: In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the laboratory registrations in university hospitals in four big cities of Turkey (Van, Manisa, Diyarbakir and Samsun) for BAC for five years (from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2019) of the drivers. Results: In 342 cases (7.1%), BACs were above the cut-off value (0.01 g/100ml). Of the cases sent for alcohol determination, 11.3% were women and 88.7% were men, and their mean age was 35.3 ± 13.1. In 342 alcohol positive cases, BACs were above 0.101% in 58.8% of cases. BAC positivity of the cases was 9.4% in Manisa, 6.3% in Van, 5.3% in Samsun, and 5% in Diyarbakır. BAC was found to be positive in 4.4% (n=24) of females and 7.4% (n=318) of males (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study is one of the limited number of multicentre studies in this field; It was concluded in the study that zero tolerance should be for drunk driving in traffic, the deterrence of fines should be increased, and roadside screening tests should be used more widely.
We evaluated the demographic features, etiologic risk factors, treatment strategies, and outcome of the infants and children with urolithiasis (UL). A retrospective multicenter study was conducted including 23 Pediatric Nephrology centers in Turkey. The medical records of 2513 children with UL were reviewed. One thousand, three hundred and four boys and 1209 girls (1.1:1) were reported. The mean age at diagnosis was 39.5 ± 35 months (0.4–231 months), and 1262 patients (50.2%) were in the first year of life (infants). Most of the cases with infantile UL were diagnosed incidentally. Microlithiasis (< 3 mm) was found in 794 patients (31.6%), and 64.5% of the patients with microlithiasis were infants. Stones were located in the pelvis-calyces in 63.2% (n: 1530) of the cases. The most common stone type was calcium oxalate (64.6%). Hypocitraturia was the most common metabolic risk factor (MRF) in children older than 12 months, but in infancy, hypercalciuria was more common. Fifty-five percent of the patients had received at least one medical treatment, mostly potassium citrate. At the end of a year’s follow-up, most of the patients with microlithiasis (85%) showed spontaneous remission. The rate of spontaneous stone resolution in infants was higher than in children. Spontaneous remission rate was higher in cases with MRF ( − ) stones than in MRF ( +) stones. However, remission rate with medical treatment was higher in cases with MRF ( +) stones. This study represents the results of a large series of infants and children with UL and showed that there are several differences such as underlying metabolic and anatomic abnormalities, clinical course, and stone remission rates between infants and children with urinary stone disease.
Carbapenems are the most effective agents for treating clinical P. aeruginosa (PsA) infections. During an infection, a quorum-sensing (QS) system and its regulating virulence genes have a great role. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of a las and rhl QS system and related virulence genes, biofilm formation and a class 1 (Cls1) integron. A total of 52 carbapenem-resistant PsA (CRPsA) isolates obtained from Kastamonu, Turkey was analyzed. For the isolation and identification of CRPsA isolates, a conventional culture method, an automated VITEK-2 compact system, and oprL gene-based molecular technique were applied. The two QS system genes were detected in 51 (98.1%), and co-existed of four two QS system genes (lasI/R and rhIl/R genes) were determined in 41 (78.8%) of the isolates. algD, lasB, toxA and aprA genes were detected in between 46.1 and 88.5%, and co-existence of four two QS system genes with four virulence genes were detected in 40.4% of the isolates. Biofilm formation using microtiter plate assay and slime production using Congo Red Agar and Cls1 integron were determined in 84.6%, 67.3% and 51.9% of the isolates, respectively. According to statistical analyses results, there was a significant positive correlation (p < .10) between the las and the rhl systems and a strongly and positive correlation (p < .01 or p < .05) between the rhl system—three virulence genes and slime production—and among some virulence genes. In conclusion, the CRPsA isolates tested in the study are highly virulent and QS systems have a significant role in pathogenesis.
In this study, Mg0.75Zn0.25CrxFe2−xO4 (x = 0.4, 0.5) (MZC) nanoferrites were prepared by chemical co-precipitation. The crystal properties, surface morphology and magnetic properties of the MZC nanoferrites were investigated by XRD, FT-IR, SEM and VSM. The dielectric, impedance, and conductivity properties of MZC nanoferrites were studied between room temperature and 710 K and in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 10 MHz. The complex impedance behavior of the samples is determined using Nyquist plots. The AC conductivity mechanism is explained by the quantum mechanical tunneling (QMT) model, while the DC conductivity mechanism is expressed by the Verwey De Bour mechanism. According to the modulus results, the relaxation process in the high frequency region is a non-Debye relaxation. In addition, the humidity sensing properties and the influence of relative humidity (% RH) on the impedance of the samples in the range of 20–90 RH % at room temperature were investigated.
Real-time displacement monitoring of earth crust and engineering structures with the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is highly important for detecting and preventing the damage and possible loss of life during natural phenomena. Nowadays, the Real-Time Kinematic Precise Point Positioning (RT-PPP) method using a stand-alone GNSS receiver can provide fast and accurate dynamic displacement. Trimble Real-Time Extended (RTX) technology enables real-time precise positioning with cm-level accuracy in a short convergence time. The present study investigates, for the first time, the dynamic displacement detection performance of RT-PPP based on CenterPoint RTX correction service for early warning systems and rapid risk assessment. To evaluate the performance of Trimble RTX technology, a series of shake table experiments were conducted and harmonic oscillations with different frequencies and amplitudes were generated. Trimble RTX solutions were obtained at 20 Hz sampling rate and compared with Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) data, considered as reference, in both frequency and time domains. Results show that Trimble RTX technology can accurately detect the frequency of harmonic motions, whose amplitudes are slightly different from LVDT values because of GNSS inherent noise. The average of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values obtained from the differences between LVDT and filtered RTX-derived time series for all events is 3.6 mm. These results indicated that the CenterPoint RTX technology could be employed for real-time and near-real-time applications to monitor structural and earthquake-induced motions accurately.
Despite their predominance worldwide, few studies have been conducted to look at the impact of sheep production systems relying on transhumance practices in arid and continental conditions, on farm-level greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Using Turkey as an example, this paper examines on farm-level GHG emissions calculated for two contrasting sheep production systems under arid and continental climate conditions. Production and management data were obtained through face-to-face interviews carried out on 10 transhumance and 15 semi-intensive meat sheep farms in Turkey. A total of seven GHG emission estimates were then calculated for each farm with the Agricultural Resource Efficiency Calculator (AgRECalc©) tool; i) total Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from energy use (kg CO2e), ii) total Carbon Dioxide equivalent (CO2e) from methane (kg CO2e), iii) total CO2e from nitrous oxide (kg CO2e), iv) whole farm and enterprise CO2e emissions (kg CO2e), v) net emission from land use (kg CO2e), vi) whole farm CO2e emissions per kg of farm output (kg CO2e/kg output), vii) product CO2e emissions (meat): kg CO2e / kg live weight, and viii) farm output (kg of sheep). Multivariate analyses (using R software) were carried out to compare both farm types and their respective carbon emissions. The total farm output per ewe was lower in the transhumance farms (7.4 kg/ewe) than in the semi-intensive farms (7.7 kg/ewe). The kg CO2e per kg of output was also lower for the transhumance farms (46.2 kg CO2e) than for the semi-intensive ones (56.5 kg CO2e). This trend was similar for the amount of CO2e per kg of live weight produced (20.8 kg and 25.4 kg for the transhumance and the semi-intensive farms, respectively). Despite overall net emissions from land use being greater on average for the transhumance farms, once measured per hectare, they were found to be lower than those for the semi-intensive farms. This study provides a reference point for different sheep production systems’ GHG emission impact in continental rangelands in Turkey.
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3,987 members
Tolga Guvenc
  • Department of Veterinary Pathology
Timur Gulhan
  • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Mesut Cevik
  • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Reproduction and Artificial Insemination
Yildiray Topcu
  • Department of Chemical Engineering
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Samsun, Turkey
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Prof.Dr. Sait BİLGİÇ
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www.omu.edu.tr
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