Ohio University
  • Athens, Ohio, United States
Recent publications
Background Intravitreal injections (IVIs), a common treatment in ophthalmology, result in acute complications and urgent follow-up visits causing significant burden to both patient and physician. We evaluated the incidence of acute complications following IVIs which occurred within seven days of injection. Methods A retrospective cohort study conducted at a private retinal practice, in Cleveland, Ohio. Using the practice management software database, we examined 73,286 injections of patients with unscheduled or urgent visits within 7 days of an injection from August 1st,2018 to August 1st,2020. Data collected included: age, gender, eye, medication injected, diagnosis, reason for urgent follow-up, time between injection and urgent follow-up, and type of anesthesia administered. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.28 (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL). Results Study included 73,286 injections, with 441 injections (n = 441) resulting in urgent follow-up visits (0.60%). Mean patient age was 72.1 (± 30.4) years, with 187 male (42.4%) and 254 female (57.6%) patients. IVI medications included: aflibercept (60.3%), ranibizumab (22.4%), bevacizumab (13.4%), dexamethasone intravitreal implant (2%), triamcinolone acetonide (1.6%) brolucizumab (1.59%), fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant 0.19 mg (0.2%), and fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant 0.18 mg (0.03%) (Table 1). Medications associated with urgent visits included: aflibercept (42.9%), bevacizumab (37.4%), ranibizumab (7.9%), dexamethasone intravitreal implant (6.8%), brolucizumab (2.7%), and triamcinolone acetonide (2.3%) (Table 2). Days between injection and urgent follow-up was on average 3.96 ± 2.14 days. Urgent follow-ups included blurred vision in 164 patients (37.2% of urgent visits), flashes, floaters or posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in 55 (12.5%), pain in 42 (9.5%), 43 (9.8%) corneal abrasions, 33 (7.5%) subconjunctival hemorrhages, corneal dryness or foreign body sensation in 30 (6.6%), endophthalmitis in 20 (4.5%), 18 (4.1%)vitreous hemorrhages, iritis or uveitis in 11 (2.5%), miscellaneous complications in 9 (2.0%), 7 (1.6%) elevated intraocular pressures, choroidal neovascular membrane in 4 (0.9%), 4 (0.9%) retinal detachments or tears, and 2 (0.45%) traumatic cataracts (Table 3). Conclusion IVIs resulted in 0.60% urgent/unscheduled follow-up visits within 7 days of injection. Most common causes were blurred vision and symptoms of PVD.
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is considered the gold standard imaging modality for myocardial tissue characterization. Elevated transverse relaxation time (T2) is specific for increased myocardial water content, increased free water, and is used as an index of myocardial edema. The strengths of quantitative T2 mapping lie in the accurate characterization of myocardial edema, and the early detection of reversible myocardial disease without the use of contrast agents or ionizing radiation. Quantitative T2 mapping overcomes the limitations of T2-weighted imaging for reliable assessment of diffuse myocardial edema and can be used to diagnose, stage, and monitor myocardial injury. Strong evidence supports the clinical use of T2 mapping in acute myocardial infarction, myocarditis, heart transplant rejection, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Accumulating data support the utility of T2 mapping for the assessment of other cardiomyopathies, rheumatologic conditions with cardiac involvement, and monitoring for cancer therapy-related cardiac injury. Importantly, elevated T2 relaxation time may be the first sign of myocardial injury in many diseases and oftentimes precedes symptoms, changes in ejection fraction, and irreversible myocardial remodeling. This comprehensive review discusses the technical considerations and clinical roles of myocardial T2 mapping with an emphasis on expanding the impact of this unique, noninvasive tissue parameter.
Biocorrosion, also called microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), is a common operational threat to many industrial processes. It threatens carbon steel, stainless steel and many other metals. In the bioprocessing industry, reactor vessels in biomass processing and bioleaching are prone to MIC. MIC is caused by biofilms. The formation and morphology of biofilms can be impacted by fluid flow. Fluid velocity affects biocide distribution and MIC. Thus, assessing the efficacy of a biocide for the mitigation of MIC under flow condition is desired before a field trial. In this work, a benchtop closed flow loop bioreactor design was used to investigate the biocide mitigation of MIC of C1018 carbon steel at 25 °C for 7 days using enriched artificial seawater. An oilfield biofilm consortium was analyzed using metagenomics. The biofilm consortium was grown anaerobically in the flow loop which had a holding vessel for the culture medium and a chamber to hold C1018 carbon steel coupons. Peptide A (codename) was a chemically synthesized cyclic 14-mer (cys-ser-val-pro-tyr-asp-tyr-asn-trp-tyr-ser-asn-trp-cys) with its core 12-mer sequence originated from a biofilm dispersing protein secreted by a sea anemone which possesses a biofilm-free exterior. It was used as a biocide enhancer. The combination of 50 ppm (w/w) THPS (tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate) biocide + 100 nM (180 ppb by mass) Peptide A resulted in extra 1-log reduction in the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) sessile cell count and the acid producing bacteria (APB) sessile cell count compared to 50 ppm THPS alone treatment. Furthermore, with the enhancement of 100 nM Peptide A, extra 44% reduction in weight loss and 36% abatement in corrosion pit depth were achieved compared to 50 ppm THPS alone treatment. Graphical Abstract
Background Complex vascular malformations (VMs) are rare disorders that can cause pain, coagulopathy, disfigurement, asymmetric growth, and disability. Patients with complex VMs experience misdiagnosis, delayed diagnosis, delayed or inappropriate treatments, and worsened health. Given the potential consequences of delaying expert care, we must identify the factors that impede or facilitate this access to care. Results We performed semi-structured interviews with 24 parents (21 mothers; 3 fathers; median age = 42.5 years) of children with complex VMs and overgrowth disorders living in the US, recruited through two patient advocacy groups – CLOVES Syndrome Community, and Klippel-Trenaunay Support Group. We performed thematic analysis to assess parental perspectives on barriers and facilitators to accessing expert care. We identified 11 factors, representing 6 overarching themes, affecting families’ ability to access and maintain effective care for their child: individual characteristics (clinician behaviors and characteristics, parent behaviors and characteristics), health care system (availability of specialist multidisciplinary teams, care coordination and logistics, insurance and financial issues, treatments and services), clinical characteristics (accuracy and timing of diagnosis, features of clinical presentation), social support networks, scientific progress, and luck and privilege. Additionally, access to information about VMs and VM care was a crosscutting theme affecting each of these factors. These factors influenced both the initial access to care and the ongoing maintenance of care for children with VMs. Conclusion Parents of children with VMs report multiple factors that facilitate or impede their ability to provide their child with optimal care. These factors represent possible targets for future interventions to improve care delivery for families affected by VMs.
Clustering is a widely used data mining technique with a diverse set of applications. Since clustering is an NP-hard problem, finding high-quality solutions for large-scale clustering problems can be an arduous and computationally expensive task. Therefore, many metaheuristics are utilized to solve these problems efficiently. In this paper, a modified unconscious search (US) and its k-means hybrid for data clustering are proposed with two main modifications: (1) generating initial population by combining solutions of k-means and random solutions, (2) replacing the usual local search step of the original US by an existing Heuristic Search method. Modified US is tested on the seven following well-known benchmarks from the UCI machine learning directory: Iris, Wine, Glass, Cancer, Vowel, CMC, and Ecoli. The results are then compared against metaheuristics, such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization (PSO), black hole algorithm, hybrid of PSO k-means, and accelerated chaotic PSO. The results of experiments show that, on average, the quality of best solutions obtained by the proposed methods on all seven datasets is 0.176% better than the quality of the other six algorithms applied for experimentations.
As consumers and companies continue to invest in voice-based digital assistant technologies, a better understanding of how consumers evaluate these technologies is needed. Anecdotal evidence suggests that digital assistants often fall short of consumer expectations, with digital assistant ability playing a key role in consumers’ evaluation of these technologies. It is unclear, however, how contextual and individual factors shape digital assistant ability perceptions. To better understand consumer perceptions of digital assistant ability, we propose a novel measurement of the construct and then explore the use of digital assistants in the context of task automation versus augmentation. Across three studies and six samples, we find that (1) our new measure of digital assistant ability influences intended consumer outcomes and (2) ability assessments are dependent upon both the use context (i.e., automation versus augmentation; disclosure of automation) and individual characteristics (i.e., consumer mood state and consumer preference for human interaction). Theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.
In the last decades, past research has investigated plastic waste as a substitute for the natural sand aggregate (NSG) in concrete mixtures with a partial or complete replacement. However, the major limitation is the lack of the required quality and quantity of fine plastic waste aggregates (FPWA) in concrete mixes. In this research, experimental investigations were conducted to study the performance of the concrete mechanical properties, and reinforced concrete (RC) beam contained FPWA as a partial substitute of the NSG. Six concrete mixes were studied with different FPWA dosages, which are 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%, along with adding polyvinyl alcohol with 75% FPWA dosage. Results showed that using the FPWA in the concrete mix affects the concrete behavior by decreasing workability, flexural, shear, tensile, and compressive strengths. In order to enhance FPWA beam strength, two methods were used to strengthen the FPWA beams. The 1st method combines polyvinyl alcohol to the mix to improve the concrete performance, and the 2nd method adds FWM layers around the beam and main reinforcement bars. The addition of polyvinyl alcohol in the concrete mix with 75% FPWA substitute considerably affected the pre-cracking and post-cracking ductile areas, among other beams. Therefore, it is suggested to use polyvinyl alcohol with the 75% FPWA in the concrete mixture due to the substantial effect of polyvinyl alcohol material. Also, using polyvinyl alcohol material in the concrete mix was the best method to strengthen the FPWA beams than the FWM method in terms of efficiency and performance.
Context Osteopathic medical students receive an abundance of training in osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) during their first 2 years of medical school and less during the second 2 years. Family Medicine residency programs often include significantly more OMT training during residency, but it is less frequently applied in other residencies. Objectives This survey was designed utilizing the theory of planned behavior to see whether specific training in osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) after osteopathic medical school was an influence in changing behavior, attitudes, and knowledge around OMT in osteopathic residents. Methods A total of 188 osteopathic medicine residents were invited to complete an anonymous cross-sectional online survey. The survey asked residents about their postgraduate OMT training and their knowledge, attitudes, norms, intentions, and behavior regarding OMT. Inferential statistics were utilized to determine whether significant differences existed by specialty and by type of training. Results Sixty residents (31.9% response rate) completed the survey. This response rate is consistent with previous online survey studies, but it may indicate that residents chose not to participate due to survey fatigue or a lack of interest in OMM. Overall, residents who completed postgraduate training reported significantly stronger positive attitudes about the value of OMT in patient care ( t =3.956; p<0.001). Primary care residents talk to their patients about OMT and perform OMT more frequently than residents in surgical (p<0.01) and other subspecialties (p<0.01). Residents who completed postgraduate training (n=41) reported significantly more knowledge about the fundamental principles (p=0.04), benefits (p=0.03), and common techniques (p=0.01) of OMT, and rated their ability to perform OMT (p=0.001) higher than those who had not completed postgraduate training. Trained residents also talked to patients about OMT (p<0.001), referred patients for OMT (p=0.01), and performed OMT (p<0.001) more frequently. They also reported significantly stronger subjective norms (p=0.000; p<0.001), perceived behavioral control (p=0.02; p=0.004), positive attitudes (p=0.004; p=0.003), and intentions (p<0.001; p<0.001) regarding talking to patients and performing OMT, respectively. Residents who completed in-person training reported talking to their patients about OMT (p=0.002) and performing OMT (p=0.001) more frequently, and having more confidence in their ability to perform OMT (p=0.02). Residents who completed in-person training reported significantly stronger subjective norms (p<0.001; p<0.001), perceived behavioral control (p=0.001; p=0.002), positive attitudes (p=0.05; p=0.03), and intentions (p<0.001; p=0.001) regarding talking to patients about OMT and performing OMT, respectively. Residents who completed in-person training reported stronger subjective norms (p=0.05) related to referring patients for OMT. Conclusions Residents who complete postgraduate training perform OMT, talk to their patients about OMT, and refer patients for OMT more frequently. Residents who participate in training, particularly in-person training, have stronger subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, positive attitudes, and behavioral intentions regarding talking with patients about OMT and performing OMT. These variables are validated predictors of behavior, making them important outcomes for training to promote OMT in patient care.
Ankle sprains are the most common injuries sustained in the physically active, often associated with pain and functional limitations long after initial recovery. In recent years, the impact of ankle sprains on general health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been noted in athletes, but is not well-documented in the general population. We examined differences in HRQoL and general health between individuals with ankle sprain history and healthy controls. Those with ankle sprain reported significantly higher body mass index and general body pain, and lower SF-8 physical component scores than healthy controls. Additionally, there is some indication that physical activity is lower in those with ankle sprain history. This is an important step in illustrating the adverse sequelae of ankle sprains on population health and HRQoL.
Corylopsis Seibold & Zucc. is a genus of flowering shrubs with few cultivars and little information on genome size, ploidy levels, and genetic relationships among taxa. The United States National Arboretum and collaborating gardens in North America maintain a diverse germplasm collection of Corylopsis including cultivated and wild-collected taxa. The objectives of this study were to determine genome size, ploidy, and genetic diversity in Corylopsis . Flow cytometry revealed a ploidy series of diploid, tetraploid, pentaploid, and hexaploid taxa in Corylopsis with 2C genome sizes ranging from 1.9 pg to 5.7 pg. Representative taxa were selected for root tip cytology, revealing diploid (C. platypetala Rehder & E.H. Wilson), tetraploid (C. gotoana Makino), pentaploid (unnamed hybrid selection), and hexaploid (C. willmottiae Rehder & E.H. Wilson) taxa. Seventeen genomic simple sequence repeat markers were developed and used to determine the genetic diversity of Corylopsis . These markers had an average of 7.4 alleles per locus with a range of three to 17 alleles. A dendrogram was generated by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis using the Jaccard similarity coefficient to visualize genetic relationships and ploidy series within taxa. Information gained from this study will further breeding efforts and aid management of germplasm collections of Corylopsis .
Background The expression of genes involved in basic pathways, such as folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis may be affected following prenatal androgen exposure. Besides, exposure to androgens during prenatal life plays a central role in developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in females in later life. In the present study, we aimed to examine the expression of the follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and activin receptor (actR) genes in ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) of a prenatally-androgenized rat model of PCOS in adulthood. Methods and results In the adult rat model of PCOS and their controls (n = 8 in each group), different phases of the estrous cycle were determined by vaginal smear. Total RNA was extracted from the ovarian GCs using the TRIzol protocol, a reverse transcription kit was used for complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, and the expression of FSHR and actR genes was measured by SYBR-Green Real-Time PCR. GraphPad Prism was used for statistical analysis of data, and the t-Student's test was used to compare the results between the two groups. PCOS rats had longer and irregular estrous cycles compared to controls. The expression of FSHR and actR genes were significantly decreased in the rat model of PCOS compared to control rats. In PCOS rats, genes expression ratios for FSHR and actR were 0.91 ± 0.11 times (P = 0.008) and 0.42 ± 0.13 times (P = 0.048) less than controls, respectively. Conclusion Reduced expression of the FSHR and actR genes in ovarian GCs may be one of the mechanisms mediating PCOS-related disorders, especially abnormal ovarian folliculogenesis and ovulation dysfunction, following exposure to androgens during fetal life.
High metal ion concentrations and low pH cause severely inhibit the activity of an acidophilic microbial consortium (AMC) in bioleaching. This work investigated the effects of exogenous spermine on biofilm formation and the bioleaching efficiency of LiCoO2 by AMC in 9K medium. After the addition of 1 mM spermine, the activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase increased, while the amount of H2O2, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde in AMC decreased. These results indicated that the ability of AMC biofilm to resist oxidative stress introduced by 3.5 g/L Li⁺ and 30.1 g/L Co²⁺ was improved by spermine. The activity of glutamate decarboxylase was promoted to restore the intracellular pH buffering ability of AMC. Electrochemical measurements showed that the oxidation rate of pyrite was increased by exogenous spermine. As a result, high bioleaching efficiencies of 97.1% for Li⁺ and 96.1% for Co²⁺ from a 5.0% (w v⁻¹) lithium cobalt oxide powder slurry were achieved. This work demonstrated that Tafel polarization can be used to monitor the AMC biofilm’s ability of uptaking electrons from pyrite during bioleaching. The corrosion current density increased with 1 mM spermine, indicating enhanced electron uptake by the biofilm from pyrite.
Background: Catatonic signs were first described by 19th- and 20th-century researchers. An important concept known as "Krankheitsreste," or the residual signs of catatonia, was described by Kraepelin in 1896. Modern researchers describe patients who demonstrate "partial response to the treatment of catatonia with residual signs." Kraepelin observed that these signs occurred between catatonic episodes as part of the natural course of illness. Modern psychiatrists see residual signs after intervention or treatment. The determination of residual signs of catatonia is necessary to evaluate the most effective treatment approach to the patient. Methods: In this case series, we describe 3 patients whose catatonia improved with treatment, but each exhibited continued residual signs of the syndrome. Appropriate consent was obtained from the patients and we identified the varying levels of catatonic signs using the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) and the KANNER scale. Results: Scores on both the BFCRS and KANNER scale decreased on followup in all 3 patients, with varying levels of success. The BFCRS score for the patient in Case 1 dropped 4 points upon follow-up, and their score on Part 2 of the KANNER scale decreased 12 points. The patient in Case 2 experienced a 5-point drop in their BFCRS score at follow-up and their score on Part 2 of the KANNER scale decreased 4 points. In Case 3, the patient's BFCRS score dropped 10 points at follow-up and their score on Part 2 of the KANNER scale decreased 20 points. Conclusions: These 3 patients demonstrate Krankheitsreste, or "partial response to the treatment of catatonia with residual signs." Each patient had a developmental disorder and 2 had autism spectrum disorder. They exhibited improved self-care and greater independence and required less restrictive living environments.
Participation in an international education experience provides an opportunity for nursing students to gain knowledge of other cultures and develop cultural competence. Using Collaborative Online International Learning/Globally Networked Learning model, students from the United States and Denmark collaborated for 3 weeks focusing on development of collaborative relationships and learning about nurses’ roles and clinical judgment in other countries. Students felt the international experience was positive, developed relationships, and increased their knowledge of the nurses’ role and use of clinical judgment in other countries. Providing an international education experience is an option for faculty regardless of institution size, location, and level of student.
Important efforts are currently under way in order to develop further the nascent field of plasmonic photocatalysis, striving for improved efficiencies and selectivities. A significant fraction of such efforts has been focused on distinguishing, understanding, and enhancing specific energy-transfer mechanisms from plasmonic nanostructures to their environment. Herein, we report a synthetic strategy that combines two of the main physical mechanisms driving plasmonic photocatalysis into an engineered system by rationally combining the photochemical features of energetic charge carriers and the electromagnetic field enhancement inherent to the plasmonic excitation. We do so by creating hybrid photocatalysts that integrate multiple plasmonic resonators in a single entity, controlling their joint contribution through spectral separation and differential surface functionalization. This strategy allows us to create complex hybrids with improved photosensitization capabilities, thanks to the synergistic combination of two photosensitization mechanisms. Our results show that the hot electron injection can be combined with an energy-transfer process mediated by the near-field interaction, leading to a significant increase in the final photocatalytic response of the material and moving the field of plasmonic photocatalysis closer to energy-efficient applications. Furthermore, our multimodal hybrids offer a test system to probe the properties of the two targeted mechanisms in energy-related applications such as the photocatalytic generation of hydrogen and open the door to wavelength-selective photocatalysis and novel tandem reactions.
Widespread generation and analysis of omics data have revolutionized molecular medicine on Earth, yet its power to yield new mechanistic insights and improve occupational health during spaceflight is still to be fully realized in humans. Nevertheless, rapid technological advancements and ever-regular spaceflight programs mean that longitudinal, standardized, and cost-effective collection of human space omics data are firmly within reach. Here, we consider the practicality and scientific return of different sampling methods and omic types in the context of human spaceflight. We also appraise ethical and legal considerations pertinent to omics data derived from European astronauts and spaceflight participants (SFPs). Ultimately, we propose that a routine omics collection program in spaceflight and analog environments presents a golden opportunity. Unlocking this bright future of artificial intelligence (AI)-driven analyses and personalized medicine approaches will require further investigation into best practices, including policy design and standardization of omics data, metadata, and sampling methods.
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7,336 members
Jundong Liu
  • Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Jim Zhu
  • School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Xiaoping Shen
  • Department of Mathematics
Brian C McCarthy
  • College of Arts and Sciences
Sarah E. Wyatt
  • Department of Environmental & Plant Biology
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