Observatoire de Paris
Recent publications
Plain Language Summary Mars rover Perseverance landed on 18 February 2021 on Jezero crater. It carries a weather station that has measured, among other quantities, surface atmospheric pressure. This study covers the first 460 sols or Martian days, a period that comprises a large part of the Martian year, including spring, summer and a part of autumn. Each sol, the pressure has significant changes, and those can be understood as a result of the so‐called thermal tides, oscillations of pressure with periods that are fractions of one sol. The mean value of pressure each sols changes with the season, driven by the CO2 sublimation in summer and condensation in winter at both poles. We report oscillations of the mean daily pressure with periods of a few sols, related to waves at distant parts of the planet. Within single sols, we find oscillations of night pressure with periods of tens of minutes, caused by gravity waves. Looking at shorter time intervals, we find the signature of the close passage of vortices such as dust devils, and very rapid daytime turbulent fluctuations. We finally analyze the effects on all these phenomena produced by a regional dust storm that evolved over Jezero in early January 2022.
This chapter reviews the way the six key questions about planetary systems, from their origins to the way they work and their habitability, identified in Chapter 1 (Blanc et al., 2021), can be addressed by means of solar system exploration, and how one can find partial answers to these six questions by flying to the different provinces to the solar system: terrestrial planets, giant planets, small bodies, and up to its interface with the local interstellar medium. It derives from this analysis a synthetic description of the most important space observations to be performed at the different solar system objects by future planetary exploration missions. These “observation requirements” illustrate the diversity of measurement techniques to be used as well as the diversity of destinations where these observations must be made. They constitute the base for the identification of the future planetary missions we need to fly by 2061, which are described in Chapter 4.
The structural addictive characteristics of gambling products are important targets for prevention, but can be unintuitive to laypeople. In the PictoGRRed (Pictograms for Gambling Risk Reduction) study, we aimed to develop pictograms that illustrate the main addictive characteristics of gambling products and to assess their impact on identifying the addictiveness of gambling products by laypeople. We conducted a three-step study: (1) use of a Delphi consensus method among 56 experts from 13 countries to reach a consensus on the 10 structural addictive characteristics of gambling products to be illustrated by pictograms and their associated definitions, (2) development of 10 pictograms and their definitions, and (3) study in the general population to assess the impact of exposure to the pictograms and their definitions (n = 900). French-speaking experts from the panel assessed the addictiveness of gambling products (n = 25), in which the mean of expert’s ratings was considered as the true value. Participants were randomly provided with the pictograms and their definitions, or with a standard slogan, or with neither (control group). We considered the control group as representing the baseline ability of laypeople to assess the addictiveness of gambling products. Each group and the French-speaking experts rated the addictiveness of 14 gambling products. The judgment criterion was the intraclass coefficients (ICCs) between the mean ratings of each group and the experts, reflecting the level of agreement between each group and the experts. Exposure to the pictograms and their definition doubled the ability of laypeople to assess the addictiveness of gambling products compared with that of the group that read a slogan or the control group (ICC = 0.28 vs. 0.14 (Slogan) and 0.14 (Control)). Laypeople have limited awareness of the addictive characteristics of gambling products. The pictograms developed herein represent an innovative tool for universally empowering prevention and for selective prevention.
Interstellar dust particles were discovered in situ, in the solar system, with the Ulysses mission’s dust detector in 1992. Ever since, more interstellar dust particles have been measured inside the solar system by various missions, providing insight into not only the composition of such far-away visitors, but also in their dynamics and interaction with the heliosphere. The dynamics of interstellar (and interplanetary) dust in the solar/stellar systems depend on the dust properties and also on the space environment, in particular on the heliospheric/astrospheric plasma, and the embedded time-variable magnetic fields, via Lorentz forces. Also, solar radiation pressure filters out dust particles depending on their composition. Charge exchanges between the dust and the ambient plasma occur, and pick-up ions can be created. The role of the dust for the physics of the heliosphere and astrospheres is fairly unexplored, but an important and a rapidly growing topic of investigation. This review paper gives an overview of dust processes in heliospheric and astrospheric environments, with its resulting dynamics and consequences. It discusses theoretical modeling, and reviews in situ measurements and remote sensing of dust in and near our heliosphere and astrospheres, with the latter being a newly emerging field of science. Finally, it summarizes the open questions in the field.
Future missions like Roman, HabEx, and LUVOIR will directly image exoplanets in reflected light. While current near-infrared direct imaging searches are only sensitive to young, self-luminous planets whose brightness is independent of their orbital phase, reflected light direct imaging will reveal changes in planet brightness throughout an orbit due to phase variations. One of the first objectives will be determining the planet’s orbit via astrometry, the projected position of the planet with respect to its host star in the sky plane. We show that phase variations can significantly improve the accuracy and precision of orbital retrieval with two or three direct images. This would speed up the classification of exoplanets and improve the efficiency of subsequent spectroscopic characterization. We develop a forward model to generate synthetic observations of the two-dimensional astrometry and the planet/star flux ratio. Synthetic data are fitted with Keplerian orbits and Henyey-Greenstein phase variations to retrieve orbital and phase parameters. For astrometric uncertainties of 0.01 AU in projected separation and flux ratio uncertainties of 10−12, using photometry in orbit retrieval improves the accuracy of semi-major axis by 47 per cent for two epochs and 61 per cent for three epochs if the phase curves have a known shape, but unknown amplitude. In a realistic scenario where phase curve shape and amplitude are a priori unknown, photometry improves accuracy by 16 per cent for two epochs and 50 per cent for three. In general, we find that if the planetary flux is measured to better than 10σ at multiple epochs, it usefully contributes to orbit retrieval.
In this letter, we report the near quantum-limited performance of a 230 GHz endfire superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer utilizing a Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb trilayer. An important feature of this mixer is its use of a unilateral finline for the waveguide-to-planar circuit transition, which allows for a wide radiofrequency (RF) bandwidth, a simple waveguide structure with easy alignment, and for the mixer chip to be aligned along the optical axis. Each of these factors is beneficial in the construction of large-format focal plane arrays. We tested the new finline mixer from 210 to 260 GHz in a liquid helium cryostat at ${\sim}$ 4 K. The best recorded noise temperature was approximately twice the quantum limit, which is comparable to conventional radial probe mixers. This suggests that endfire SIS mixers can be used in large format arrays, comprising 100s or even 1000s of SIS mixing elements, while retaining state-of-the-art quantum mixing performance.
We summarise the discussions at a virtual Community Workshop on Cold Atoms in Space concerning the status of cold atom technologies, the prospective scientific and societal opportunities offered by their deployment in space, and the developments needed before cold atoms could be operated in space. The cold atom technologies discussed include atomic clocks, quantum gravimeters and accelerometers, and atom interferometers. Prospective applications include metrology, geodesy and measurement of terrestrial mass change due to, e.g., climate change, and fundamental science experiments such as tests of the equivalence principle, searches for dark matter, measurements of gravitational waves and tests of quantum mechanics. We review the current status of cold atom technologies and outline the requirements for their space qualification, including the development paths and the corresponding technical milestones, and identifying possible pathfinder missions to pave the way for missions to exploit the full potential of cold atoms in space. Finally, we present a first draft of a possible road-map for achieving these goals, that we propose for discussion by the interested cold atom, Earth Observation, fundamental physics and other prospective scientific user communities, together with the European Space Agency (ESA) and national space and research funding agencies.
Direct links between carbonaceous chondrites and their parent bodies in the solar system are rare. The Winchcombe meteorite is the most accurately recorded carbonaceous chondrite fall. Its pre-atmospheric orbit and cosmic-ray exposure age confirm that it arrived on Earth shortly after ejection from a primitive asteroid. Recovered only hours after falling, the composition of the Winchcombe meteorite is largely unmodified by the terrestrial environment. It contains abundant hydrated silicates formed during fluid-rock reactions, and carbon- and nitrogen-bearing organic matter including soluble protein amino acids. The near-pristine hydrogen isotopic composition of the Winchcombe meteorite is comparable to the terrestrial hydrosphere, providing further evidence that volatile-rich carbonaceous asteroids played an important role in the origin of Earth’s water.
Climate change is an important driver of the spread of apiary pests and honeybee predators. These impact on one of the economically most important pollinators and thus pose serious threats to the functioning of both natural ecosystems and crops. We investigated the impact of the predicted climate change in the periods 2040-2060 and 2060-2080 on the potential distribution of the European beewolf Philanthus triangulum, a specialized honeybee predator. We modelled its potential distribution using the MaxEnt method based on contemporary occurrence data and bioclimatic variables. Our model had an overall good performance (AUC = 0.864) and the threshold of occurrence probability, assessed as the point with the highest sum of sensitivity and specificity, was at 0.533. Annual temperature range (69.5%), mean temperature in the warmest quarter (12.4%), and precipitation in the warmest quarter (7.9%) were the principal bioclimatic variables significantly affecting the potential distribution of the European beewolf. We predicted the potential distribution shifts within two scenarios (optimistic RPC4.5 and pessimistic RCP8.5) and three Global Circulation Models (HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LR, and MPI-SM-LR). Both optimistic and pessimistic scenarios showed that climate change will significantly increase the availability of European beewolf potential niches. Losses of potential niches will only affect small areas in southern Europe. Most of the anticipated changes for the period 2060-2080 will already have occurred in 2040-2060. The predicted range expansion of European beewolf suggests that occurrence and abundance of this species should be monitored.
The localized delivery of new long-lived species to Jupiter’s stratosphere by comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 in 1994 opened a window to constrain jovian chemistry and dynamics by monitoring the evolution of their vertical and horizontal distributions. ALMA observations of HCN and CO in March 2017 show that CO was meridionally uniform and restricted to pressures lower than 3±1 mbar. HCN shared a similar vertical distribution in the low-to-mid latitudes, but was surprisingly depleted at pressures higher than 0.04(-0.03; +0.07) mbar in the polar regions. We propose that heterogeneous chemistry bonds HCN on large aurora-produced aerosols at these pressures in the jovian polar regions causing the observed depletion. We also propose that a relatively small fraction of CO causes enhanced production of CO2 inside the aurora to explain the long-term decrease of the CO column density and the CO2 peak observed only at southern polar latitudes in 2000.
The galilean moon Io is known to interact electrodynamically with Jupiter's magnetic field and ionosphere via Alfvén waves [1], producing electromagnetic signatures detectable remotely such as decameter-wave radio emissions generated along the Io Flux Tube (IFT) and UV aurora at the IFT footprints prolongated by a 'tail' emission. These emissions are thought to be produced by electrons having been energized by Alfvénic acceleration [2-4]. Indirect signatures of this acceleration process are the transverse magnetic fluctuations [5-7] and the broadband electron energy spectra [6, 8] observed in situ in the IFT and more generally in Jupiter's auroral regions [9]. A more direct signature is provided by remote measurements of the discrete, fast-drifting, quasi-periodic decameter radio bursts (so-called S-bursts) identified to date only in relation with the Io-Jupiter interaction [10]. S-bursts generation by Alfvén waves has been thoroughly modelled, from electron acceleration to radio emission growth rate [2, 11]. The S-bursts discreteness and quasi-periodicity were correctly reproduced, whereas their time-frequency drift results from the adiabatic motion of accelerated electrons along the IFT. Here, we present the first detection of decameter S-bursts related to the Ganymede-Jupiter interaction and to the main Jovian aurora, revealing the ubiquitous character of Alfvénic electron acceleration in Jupiter's high-latitude regions. We estimate the Alfvén wave periods and the accelerated electrons energy in each case. Two populations of accelerated electrons are found to co-exist, with different energies (a few keV and a few hundred eV).
Long‐term satellite land surface temperature (LST) data are desirable to augment 2m air temperatures (T2m) measured in situ and as an independent measure of surface temperature change. However, previous studies show variable agreement between LST and T2m time series. The objective of this study is to assess the stability and trends in six new LST data sets from the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative for LST (LST_cci). LST anomalies are compared with homogenized station T2m anomalies over Europe, which verifies all six data sets are well coupled (LST vs T2m anomaly correlations and slopes: 0.6–0.9). The temporal stability of the LST_cci data is assessed through a comparison with the T2m anomaly time series. Only the LST_cci data sets for the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua and the Advanced Along‐Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) appear stable; the MODIS/Terra, ATSR‐2, and multisensor InfraRed and MicroWave data sets show non‐climatic discontinuities associated with changes in sensor and/or drift over time. For MODIS/Aqua (2002–2018), significant trends in LST of 0.64–0.66 K/decade compare well with the equivalent T2m trends of 0.52–0.59 K/decade. The LST and T2m trends for AATSR (2002–2012) are found to be statistically insignificant, likely due to the comparatively short study period and specific years available for analysis. No evidence is found to suggest that trends calculated using cloud‐free InfraRed observations are affected by clear‐sky bias. This study suggests that satellite LST data can be used to assess warming trends over land and for other climate applications if the required homogeneity is assured.
We compute the radiative ro-vibrational emission spectrum of H2 involving quasi-bound states via a simple numerical method of resolution of the Schrödinger equation by introducing a modified effective molecular potential. The comparison of the eigenvalues obtained with our approximation and other theoretical methods based on scattering resonance properties is excellent. Electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole contributions are calculated and we confirm the previous computations of Forrey of the electric quadrupole transition Einstein coefficients. The astrophysical relevance of such quasi-bound levels is emphasized.
Plain Language Summary Mars commonly has local and regional dust storms, some of which grow into global dust storms. Until now, no lander or rover on Mars has observed the meteorology and processes within an active lifting storm center. The Perseverance rover experienced a large regional storm in Jezero crater over six sols (Martian days) in January 2022. It documented active dust lifting and winds reshaping the Martian sediment. Winds increased as the storm approached but were only directly monitored until the afternoon of the first sol, when the wind sensor failed during high winds. Winds, even after the loss of the wind sensor, were powerful enough to blow sand and lift dust around the rover. Rover imaging showed 21 dust devils and other dust lifting events near noon of the first sol. Images of the rover and terrain showed that there were several incidents of sediment mobilization immediately around the rover. Rover tracks were erased or heavily modified, cuttings from a recent drilling were removed, and sediment was deposited across the rover's deck. The changes wrought by the storm were concentrated on areas where the rover had previously modified the terrain, except for sand motion including the migration of small sand ripples.
We present data recently obtained with NOEMA/PolyFiX on the MS-type Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star RS Cnc, allowing to characterize in detail the structure of its wind. These results became possible by the recent advances of the NOEMA observatory, which combine large spectral bandwidth with high sensitivity together with still increasing spatial resolution.
With this contribution we show the readout electronics for kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) that we are developing based on commercial IQ transceivers from National Instruments and using a Virtex 5 class FPGA. It will be the readout electronics of the COSmic Monopole Observer (COSMO) experiment, a ground based cryogenic Martin–Puplett Interferometer searching for the cosmic microwave background spectral distortions. The readout electronics require a sampling rate in the range of tens of kHz, which is both due to a fast rotating mirror modulating the signal and the time constant of the COSMO KIDs. In this contribution we show the capabilities of our readout electronics using Niobium KIDs developed by Paris Observatory for our 5 K cryogenic system. In particular, we demonstrate the capability to detect 23 resonators from frequency sweeps and to readout the state of each resonator with a sampling rate of about 8 kHz. The readout is based on a finite-state machine where the first two states look for the resonances and generate the comb of tones, while the third one performs the acquisition of phase and amplitude of each detector in free running. Our electronics are based on commercial modules, which brings two key advantages: they can be acquired easily and it is relative simple to write and modify the firmware within the LabView environment in order to meet the needs of the experiment.
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350 members
Pier Stefano Corasaniti
  • Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTH)
N. Vilmer
  • Laboratory for Space Studies and Instrumentation in Astrophysics
B. Schmieder
  • Laboratory for Space Studies and Instrumentation in Astrophysics
Baptiste Cecconi
  • Laboratory for Space Studies and Instrumentation in Astrophysics
Mathieu Servillat
  • Laboratory of the Universe and its Theories
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