Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU)
Recent publications
Cereals greatly contribute to achieving a healthy and sustainable diet. This chapter covers the main aspects related to sustainable cereal production from field to table, which can involve the exploitation of underutilized grains, the use of wholegrain or wholemeal flours and the valorization of processing by-products. Barriers are associated with each of these options, and research activity has taken place to address some of these challenges. Starting from the description of the kernel organization and composition, the main processing operations applied to major cereals are described to explain by-product generation. Factors that limit the utilization of by-products are discussed and the main processing techniques to enhance their incorporation and exploit their full potential are summarized.
The city of Guwahati is one of the most rapidly growing cities in India, at the same time being the most important hub of Northeast (NE) India. According to the reported seismic activity in India, the entire Northeastern region, where Guwahati City falls into, is among the most seismically active parts of the Indian subcontinent and even of entire South Asia. The seismicity of NE India has been proven by many damaging earthquakes in the past and is also reflected by the seismic zoning map of India’s current seismic building code which classifies the entire region into Zone V, i.e. the country’s highest seismic zone. The present chapter describes the different technical aspects that were implemented for the development of an earthquake loss information system for the city of Guwahati. The development of the system has involved both extensive fieldwork and computational efforts including ground shaking modelling considering soil amplification effects, defining ground shaking scenarios for earthquakes on local active faults and significant historical earthquakes, demarcation of the Guwahati City area and its subdivision into geographical units, the definition of building typology classes and generating their vulnerability functions, collection of building inventory data and socio-economic information throughout the city and finally the computation of damage and loss scenarios. The developed earthquake loss information model for Guwahati City can be used as guidance to local authorities on future city planning and earthquake mitigation and response actions.
Background Communication is a central tool in managing the balance between outdoor recreation and environmental protection. Several studies have evaluated different communication measures in nature area case studies, but rarely are these measures compared across contexts. We systematically map the literature guided by the question, what is the evidence base of on-site communication in outdoor recreation to change human behavior towards a more sustainable direction? Taking vulnerable natural areas as our starting point, we map distribution and abundance of communication measures, study design and outcome-related themes. Methods The target population for our mapping review (hereafter review) are outdoor recreationists and nature-based tourists who visit natural or near-natural settings. We will examine the studies that have crafted written, oral and visual intervention measures to change behavior by using persuasion, education and information instead of legal restrictions or bans. Some examples of challenges addressed with communication measures are proper waste disposal, using designated trails, minimizing wear and tear at campsites, avoid disturbing wildlife, and encouraging appropriate and safe behavior. No geographic restrictions will be applied but we will focus on protected areas. We will search publication databases for peer-reviewed published articles using internet and specialist searches to identify grey literature in English. We will screen first by title, followed by abstract and finally full text. For each article selected for full-text screening, metadata will be extracted on key variables of interest. The extracted data from the coding will be used to group and compare the studies to reveal knowledge gaps and knowledge clusters. We will briefly describe findings from the included studies. The review will help identify what type of human behavior researchers have addressed with communication in nature management and conservation. In addition it will highlight which communication measures are frequently used in each behavioral context. It will identify which frameworks and communication theories have been the basis for designing intervention measures and provide support to practitioners and researchers in future framing and implementation of communication measures in natural settings.
Background Recombination is a fundamental part of mammalian meiosis that leads to the exchange of large segments of DNA between homologous chromosomes and is therefore an important driver of genetic diversity in populations. In breeding populations, understanding recombination is of particular interest because it can break up unfavourable linkage phases between alleles and produce novel combinations of alleles that could be exploited in selection. In this study, we used dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data and pedigree information to analyse individual and sex-specific variation and genetic architecture of recombination rates within and between five commercially selected pig breeds. Results In agreement with previous studies, recombination rates were higher in females than in males for all breeds and for all chromosomes, except 1 and 13, for which male rates were slightly higher. Total recombination rate differed between breeds but the pattern of recombination along the chromosomes was well conserved across breeds for the same sex. The autosomal linkage maps spanned a total length of 1731 to 1887 cM for males and of 2231 to 2515 cM for females. Estimates of heritability for individual autosomal crossover count ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 for males and from 0.08 to 0.11 for females. Fourteen genomic regions were found to be associated with individual autosomal crossover count. Of these, four were close to or within candidate genes that have previously been associated with individual recombination rates in pigs and other mammals, namely RNF212 , SYCP2 and MSH4 . Two of the identified regions included the PRDM7 and MEI1 genes, which are known to be involved in meiosis but have not been previously associated with variation in individual recombination rates. Conclusions This study shows that genetic variation in autosomal recombination rate persists in domesticated species under strong selection, with differences between closely-related breeds and marked differences between the sexes. Our findings support results from other studies, i.e., that individual crossover counts are associated with the RNF212 , SYCP2 and MSH4 genes in pig. In addition, we have found two novel candidate genes associated with the trait, namely PRDM7 and MEI1 .
Background Although bovine milk is regarded as healthy and nutritious, its high content of saturated fatty acids (FA) may be harmful to cardiovascular health. Palmitic acid (C16:0) is the predominant saturated FA in milk with adverse health effects that could be countered by substituting it with higher levels of unsaturated FA, such as oleic acid (C18:1 cis -9). In this work, we performed genome-wide association analyses for milk fatty acids predicted from FTIR spectroscopy data using 1811 Norwegian Red cattle genotyped and imputed to a high-density 777k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-array. In a follow-up analysis, we used imputed whole-genome sequence data to detect genetic variants that are involved in FTIR-predicted levels of C16:0 and C18:1 cis -9 and explore the transcript profile and protein level of candidate genes. Results Genome-wise significant associations were detected for C16:0 on Bos taurus (BTA) autosomes 11, 16 and 27, and for C18:1 cis -9 on BTA5, 13 and 19. Closer examination of a significant locus on BTA11 identified the PAEP gene, which encodes the milk protein β -lactoglobulin, as a particularly attractive positional candidate gene. At this locus, we discovered a tightly linked cluster of genetic variants in coding and regulatory sequences that have opposing effects on the levels of C16:0 and C18:1 cis -9. The favourable haplotype, linked to reduced levels of C16:0 and increased levels of C18:1 cis -9 was also associated with a marked reduction in PAEP expression and β-lactoglobulin protein levels. β-lactoglobulin is the most abundant whey protein in milk and lower levels are associated with important dairy production parameters such as improved cheese yield. Conclusions The genetic variants detected in this study may be used in breeding to produce milk with an improved FA health-profile and enhanced cheese-making properties.
Background Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease of cervids first reported in North America in the 1960s. In Europe, CWD was first diagnosed in 2016 in a wild reindeer in Norway. Detection of two more cases in the same mountain area led to the complete culling of this partially confined reindeer population of about 2400 animals. A total of 19 CWD positive animals were identified. The affected area is extensively used for the grazing of sheep during summers. There are many mineral licks intended for sheep in the area, but these have also been used by reindeer. This overlap in area use raised concerns for cross-species prion transmission between reindeer and sheep. In this study, we have used global positioning system (GPS) data from sheep and reindeer, including tracking one of the CWD positive reindeer, to investigate spatial and time-relevant overlaps between these two species. Since prions can accumulate in lymphoid follicles following oral uptake, samples of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) from 425 lambs and 78 adult sheep, which had grazed in the region during the relevant timeframe, were analyzed for the presence of prions. The recto-anal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) from all the animals were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the ileal Peyer's patch (IPP) from a subsample of 37 lambs were examined by histology and IHC, for the detection of prions. Results GPS data showed an overlap in area use between the infected reindeer herd and the sheep. In addition, the GPS positions of an infected reindeer and some of the sampled sheep showed temporospatial overlap. No prions were detected in the GALT of the investigated sheep even though the mean lymphoid follicle number in RAMALT and IPP samples were high. Conclusion The absence of prions in the GALT of sheep that have shared pasture with CWD-infected reindeer, may suggest that transmission of this novel CWD strain to sheep does not easily occur under the conditions found in these mountains. We document that the lymphoid follicle rich RAMALT could be a useful tool to screen for prions in sheep.
In this study, the aerodynamic performance characteristics of three new EYO-Series low Reynolds number (Re) airfoils were tested at Re = 100,000 to 500,000, which are typical range of Re numbers encountered by airfoils of small wind turbine blades. The results generally demonstrated aerodynamic performance improvements of all three airfoils with increase in Re. EYO7-8 recorded the highest lift-to-drag ratio of 170 at Re = 500,000. EYO9-8 had the highest stall angle of 15° at all tested Re except at Re = 200,000. EYO9-8 again had gradual stall performances at all Re. All three airfoils also had good drag bucket performances where initial increases in lift were accompanied by either constant or reducing drag. The findings from this study showed that there are no significant variations in the lift performance for Re ≥ 300,000. The low variation in lift performance for the EYO-Series airfoils is desirable for the design of small wind turbine blades for low Re applications.
Background In utero exposure to nicotine, largely assessed by smoking, is a risk factor for impaired offspring health, while potential effects of non-combustible nicotine use such as snus (oral moist tobacco), are less well-known. Maternal serum concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) may be viewed as “placenta health markers”, known to differ by fetal sex. Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with lower levels of circulating sFlt-1, while the effect of snus on placenta-associated angiogenic factors is unknown. Our aim was to explore if snus and/or smoking exposure was associated with midpregnancy maternal levels of sFlt-1, PlGF and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio if these associations were modified by fetal sex. Methods Midpregnancy (16–22 gestational weeks) serum from 2603 Scandinavian women enrolled in the population-based multi-center PreventADALL (Preventing Atopic Dermatitis and ALLergies in children) study was analysed for sFlt-1 and PlGF concentrations by electrochemiluminescence, deriving the sFlt-1/PGF ratio. Nicotine use was assessed by electronic questionnaires at enrollment in 2278 of the women. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models on log transformed outcomes were used to assess the association between nicotine use and biomarker levels. Interaction terms were included to identify whether the associations were modified by fetal sex. Results Median sFlt-1, PlGF and sFlt-1/PlGF ratios among women with nicotine exposure information were similar to those of all included women and differed by fetal sex. Current snus use was significantly associated with reduced maternal circulating PlGF levels in adjusted analyses [ β − 0.12, (95% CI − 0.20; 0.00) compared to never use, p = 0.020]. A significant interaction between fetal sex and snus exposure was observed for PIGF ( p = 0.031). Prior or periconceptional snus use was significantly associated with PIGF in male fetus pregnancies [ β − 0.05 (95% CI − 0.09 to (− 0.02)) and β − 0.07 (95% CI − 0.12 to (− 0.02)) compared to never use, p = 0.002]. Smoking was not significantly associated with any circulating biomarkers levels. Conclusions Midpregnancy maternal angiogenic profile differed by periconceptional snus use and fetal sex. Snus exposure, perceived as “safe” by users, before or during pregnancy seems to affect midpregnancy placental health in a sex dimorphic manner.
Neonatal diarrhoea in calves is one of the major health problems in the cattle industry. Although co-infections are often associated with greater severity of disease, there is limited information on any impact on the pathogens themselves. Herein, we studied Cryptosporidium parvum and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) in human HCT-8 cells, inoculated either sequentially or simultaneously, to investigate any influence from the co-infections. Quantitative results from (RT)-qPCR showed that prior inoculation with either of the two pathogens had no influence on the other. However, the results from simultaneous co-inoculation showed that entry of viral particles was higher when C. parvum sporozoites were present, although elevated virus copy numbers were no longer evident after 24 h. The attachment of BCoV to the sporozoites was probably due to specific binding, as investigations with bovine norovirus or equine herpes virus-1 showed no attachment between sporozoites and these viruses. Flow cytometry results at 72 h post inoculation revealed that C. parvum and BCoV infected 1-11% and 10-20% of the HCT-8 cells, respectively, with only 0.04% of individual cells showing double infections. The results from confocal microscopy corroborated those results, showing an increase in foci of infection from 24-72 h post inoculation for both pathogens, but with few double infected cells.
The transition to a renewable energy system challenges power grid operation and stability. Secondary control is key in restoring the power system to its reference following a disturbance. Underestimating the necessary control capacity may require emergency measures, such that a solid understanding of its predictability and driving factors is needed. Here, we establish an explainable machine learning model for the analysis of secondary control power in Germany. Training gradient boosted trees, we obtain an accurate ex-post description of control activation. Our explainable model demonstrates the strong impact of external drivers such as forecasting errors and the generation mix, while daily patterns in the reserve activation play a minor role. Training a prototypical forecasting model, we identify forecast error estimates as crucial to improve predictability. Generally, input data and model training have to be carefully adapted to serve the different purposes of either ex-post analysis or forecasting and reserve sizing.
To document energy savings from retrofitting a building, a reliable baseline model is needed. The development and implementation of the baseline model is an important step in the measurement and verification (M&V) process. Usually, an energy analyst enters the stage, collects data, do the estimation and delivers the baseline model. The modeling work of the energy analyst is done on either a proprietary or open-source statistical software, often using a coding script. If stakeholders want an updated report on energy savings, the analyst must re-do the whole process, for example on a monthly basis. This workflow is based on an imperative programming paradigm. The analyst holds on to the code that performs the analysis and re-run the code when agreed upon. The consequence of this workflow is that stakeholders are dependent on the energy analyst and that updated energy savings results must be planned and scheduled. However, emerging M&V 2.0 technologies enables automation of the energy saving reports. This paper demonstrates how energy savings from retrofitting’s in the Norwegian food retail sector is continuously monitored and documented in a web application. The application is built using open-source tools where the baseline model is delivered through a reactive programming framework. As an energy savings baseline model, the Tao Vanilla benchmarking model (TVB) was set into production in the web application. The TVB is a linear regression model with well specified features, easy to interpret and has a history of excellent prediction performance. The proposed web application framework allows for a fast development cycle without any need-to-know web programming languages like HTML, CSS or JavaScript. The reactive framework delivers several advantages. First, the stakeholders will always have a current and real-time report on the savings. Second, complex methodologies are dynamically used by the end-user. Third, increased involvement by stakeholders and interaction with the analyst related to the methods used in the energy savings analysis leads to collaborative benefits such as faster disseminating of knowledge. These synergy effect leads to a better technical understanding from the end user perspective and enhanced practical understanding for the analyst. Finally, the paper presents an integrated look at the energy kWh savings versus the cost of the retrofitting’s.
A series of ¹³¹I tracer experiments have been conducted at two research stations in Norway, one coastal and one inland to study radioiodine transfer and dynamics in boreal, agricultural ecosystems. The hypothesis tested was that site specific and climatological factors, along with growth stage, would influence foliar uptake of ¹³¹I by grass and its subsequent loss. Results showed that the interception fraction varied widely, ranging from 0.007 to 0.83 over all experiments, and showing a strong positive correlation with biomass and stage of growth. The experimental results were compared to various models currently used to predict interception fractions and weathering loss. Results provided by interception models varied in the range of 0.5–2 times of the observed values. Regarding weathering loss, it was demonstrated that double exponential models provided a better fit with the experimental results than single exponential models. Normalising the data activity per unit area to remove bio-dilution effects, and assuming a constant single loss rate gave weathering half-times of 22.8 ± 38.3 and 10.2 ± 8.2 days for the inland and coastal site, respectively. Whilst stable iodine concentrations in grass and soil were significantly higher (by approximately a factor of 5 and 7 times for grass and soil respectively) at the coastal compared to the inland site, it was not possible to deconvolute the influence of this factor on the temporal behaviour of ¹³¹I. Nonetheless, stable iodine data allowed us to establish an upper bound on the soil to plant transfer of radioiodine via root uptake and to establish that the pathway was of minor importance in defining ¹³¹I activity concentrations in grass compared to direct contamination via interception. Climatological factors (precipitation, wind-speed and temperature) appeared to affect the dynamics of ¹³¹I in the system, however the decomposition of these collective influences into specific contributions from each factor remains unresolved and requires further study. The newly acquired data on the interception and weathering of radioiodine in boreal, agricultural ecosystems and the reparametrized models developed from this, substantially improve the toolbox available for Norwegian emergency preparedness in the event of a nuclear accident.
Buildings worldwide consume about 40% of all produced energy and are major contributors to GHG emissions. Hence, to reach the 2030 European energy efficiency target it is vital to reduce the energy consumption in buildings. An important barrier that hinders renovation projects is uncertainty regarding the expected savings. The main objective of this paper is to present two different statistical methods to estimate energy savings. The two methods are easy to implement for practitioners within the energy retrofitting industry, and at the same time has acceptable precision and reliability. The two methods are applied at 5 different food retail stores that undertook renovation in 2019. The models are trained on data from 2018 (one whole year before any of the retrofitting's took place) and are further applied to estimate the energy savings in 2021. The first method is the Tao Vanilla benchmarking method (TVB). The TVB model predict energy consumption in buildings on an hourly level. The model has received a lot of attention within the load forecasting literature and has previously proved its performance in machine learning competitions. The TVB has a straightforward specification, and the model parameters are easily understood. This is the first study that apply the TVB to estimate energy savings in a large retrofitting project within the energy and building sector. The second method relies on a more common industrial approach, which is to use weekly data and energy temperature curves to document energy savings. In addition, we demonstrate a novel approach of using broken line (BL) models to estimate energy savings. The suggested BL approach can simultaneously estimate all the model parameters and yield a full covariance matrix within a standard linear regression framework. The results from the retrofitting projects demonstrates considerable energy savings between 25% and 55%. Furthermore, both the TVB and the BL models deliver reliable precision. The estimated energy savings from both models are coinciding. This indicates that they could jointly be used to gain insight that may lead to more informed decisions for energy saving projects. The TVB model proves to be a proficient benchmarking model that can give detailed hourly information about the savings. The BL model is used to gain intrinsic details about the buildings varying cooling and heating needs depending on the outside temperature during the year.
The objective of this study was to explore the effects of (1) the presence/absence of snow and snow depth, (2) solar noise, i.e., day/night and sun angle observations, and (3) strong/weak beam differences on ICESat-2 data in the context of data utility for forest AGB estimation. The framework of the study is multiphase modeling, where AGB field data and wall-to-wall airborne laser scanning (ALS) and Sentinel-2 data are used to produce proxy ALS plots on ICESat-2 track positions. Models between the predicted proxy AGB and the ICESat-2 photon data are then formulated and evaluated by subsets, such as only strong beam data captured in snowy conditions. Our results indicate that, if possible, strong beam night data from snowless conditions should be used in AGB estimation, because our models showed clearly smallest RMSE (26.9%) for this data subset. If more data are needed, we recommend using only strong beam data and constructing separate models for the different data subsets. In the order of increasing RMSE%, the next best options were snow/night/strong (30.4%), snow/day/strong (33.5%), and snowless/day/strong (34.1%). Weak beam data from snowy night conditions could also be used if necessary (31.0%).
Except for sleep, humans spend more of their lifetimes on work than on any other activity. Many people take for granted the centrality of work in society, conceiving the prevailing 40 h workweeks in high-income countries as a ‘natural’ configuration of time. However, work and working time have been fiercely contested phenomena and have taken many different forms throughout history as they were reshaped by technological development, social struggle, and changing cultural values. Drawing on insight from history, anthropological research, and time use studies, this paper attempts to broaden the frames harnessing current debates about the future of work. First, we examine evolving conceptions of work in different cultures. Second, we review patterns of working time throughout history, contrasting some widely held assumptions against the background of the long durée. Finally, we present ideas and principles to rethink dominant conceptions about the meaning, purpose, volume, content, distribution, and remuneration of work along ecological economic principles of sustainability and justice.
To explore the microbial nitrogen metabolism of a two-stage anoxic/oxic (A/O)-moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), biofilms of the system’s chambers were analyzed using metagenomic sequencing. Significant differences in microbial populations were found among the pre-anoxic, oxic and post-anoxic MBBRs (P < 0.01). Nitrospira and Nitrosomonas had positive correlations with ammonia nitrogen (NH4⁺-N) removal, and were also predominant in oxic MBBRs. These organisms were the hosts of functional genes for nitrification. The denitrifying genera were predominant in anoxic MBBRs, including Thiobacillus and Sulfurisoma in pre-anoxic MBBRs and Dechloromonas and Thauera in post-anoxic MBBRs. The four genera had positive correlations with total nitrate and nitrite nitrogen (NOX⁻-N) removal and were the hosts of functional genes for denitrification. Specific functional biofilms with different microbial nitrogen metabolisms were formed in each chamber of this system. This work provides a microbial theoretical support for the two-stage A/O-MBBR system.
Given the right climatic and environmental conditions, a range of microorganisms can deteriorate wood. Decay by basidiomycete fungi accounts for significant volumes of wood in service that need to be replaced. In this study, a short-wave infrared hyperspectral camera was used to explore the possibilities of using spectral imaging technology for the fast and non-destructive detection of fungal decay. The study encompassed different degradation stages of Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens inoculated with monocultures of either a brown rot fungus (Rhodonia placenta Fr.) or a white rot fungus (Trametes versicolor L.). The research questions were if the hyperspectral camera can profile fungal wood decay and whether it also can differentiate between decay mechanisms of brown rot and white rot decay. The data analysis employed Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression with the mass loss percentage as the response variable. For all models, the mass loss could be predicted from the wavelength range 1460–1600 nm, confirming the reduction in cellulose. A single PLS component could describe the mass loss to a high degree (90%). The distinction between decay by brown or white rot fungi was made based on spectral peaks around 1680 and 2240 nm, related to lignin.
Global investments in offshore wind energy are expected to escalate over the coming decades, fueled by improvements in technology, declining costs, and increasing political support. The complexity, scale, and location of these developments make international ownership and export of electricity more feasible. We examine how the general public's acceptance of wind energy will be affected by a political shift in focus from onshore to nearshore or offshore locations, from local or national dominance of ownership to international dominance, and from meeting local or national needs to meeting international ones. We use a nationwide choice experiment with 1612 individuals in Norway to reveal the preferences for these attributes and apply a mixed logit regression model to estimate the willingness to pay to avoid certain outcomes. We show that, although respondents prefer offshore and nearshore locations to onshore ones, they are even more concerned with maintaining local or national control both through ownership and intended use of the added electricity. Although the preferences for national ownership are strong for both nearshore and offshore alternatives, the preference for meeting national needs becomes less important when wind energy developments are located farther off the coast. Three wind energy scenarios are used to further investigate these preferences: 1) international consortium for offshore wind energy, 2) national alliances for nearshore wind energy, and 3) local energy communities for onshore wind energy. We also discuss how a shift to nearshore and offshore wind energy can be enabled by paying greater attention to people's concerns over national control of wind energy resources.
Birding is a growing nature-based tourism activity, and a better understanding of birder preferences could support tourism development and species conservation. Using a hybrid choice modeling approach, we analyzed birding destination preferences and how they vary by recreation specialization. This approach allows a continuum of specialization rather than allocating birders into discrete segments. A sample of 205 birders recruited in the 2017 summer season in Varanger, Norway, completed an online choice experiment with scenarios that included five systematically-varied destination attributes: Birding quality, bird diversity, landscape scenic quality, facilitation (e.g., trails and specialized guides), and a visitor fee. The hybrid choice (HC) model explained preference heterogeneity better than the attributes only multinomial logit (MNL) or random parameters logit (RPL) models. Birding quality, landscape scenery, and a medium level of facilitation were significant predictors in all models, while high bird diversity was significant only in the RPL and HC models. Interaction terms in the HC model indicated that birding quality, bird diversity, and the highest level of facilitation (specialized guides and birding hides) were more important for “more specialized” birders than for “less specialized” birders. Findings allow destinations to target birder segments more deliberately, while also assisting in planning and management decisions. Management implications Main drivers of birder destination choice are innate in the natural landscapes and ecosystems; exceptional birding quality and spectacular scenery were the strongest determinants of birding destination choice in our study. More specialized birders place higher priority on bird diversity, and birding facilitation. Less specialized birders might need a larger variety of facilitation and non-birding offers. Our results also indicate that those visiting spectacular but vulnerable nature destinations are willing to pay moderate fees for conservation and management. Fee revenue can fund site hardening facilities and services, allowing for more visitors without increasing pressure on the wildlife.
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3,907 members
Oliver Tomic
  • Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology (IMT)
Margareth Øverland
  • Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences (IHA)
Rimstad Espen
  • School of Veterinary Science
Ida Beitnes Johansen
  • department of food safety and infection biology
Siv Skeie
  • Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science (IKBM)
Ullevalsveien 72, 0454, Ås, Norway