Blood volume (BV) is an important clinical parameter and is usually reported per kg of body mass (BM). When fat mass is elevated, this underestimates BV/BM. One aim was to study if differences in BV/BM related to sex, age, and fitness would decrease if normalized to lean body mass (LBM). The analysis included 263 women and 319 men (age: 10–93 years, body mass index: 14–41 kg/m²) and 107 athletes who underwent assessment of BV and hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness. BV/BM was 25% lower (70.3 ± 11.3 and 80.3 ± 10.8 mL/kgBM) in women than men, respectively, whereas BV/LBM was 6% higher in women (110.9 ± 12.5 and 105.3 ± 11.2 mL/kgLBM). Hbmass/BM was 34% lower (8.9 ± 1.4 and 11.5 ± 11.2 g/kgBM) in women than in men, respectively, but only 6% lower (14.0 ± 1.5 and 14.9 ± 1.5 g/kgLBM)/LBM. Age did not affect BV. Athlete's BV/BM was 17.2% higher than non‐athletes, but decreased to only 2.5% when normalized to LBM. Of the variables analyzed, LBM was the strongest predictor for BV (R² = .72, p < .001) and Hbmass (R² = .81, p < .001). These data may only be valid for BV/Hbmass when assessed by CO re‐breathing. Hbmass/LBM could be considered a valuable clinical matrix in medical care aiming to normalize blood homeostasis.
Aims Echocardiographic characteristics to distinguish physiological left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy from pathology is warranted in early adolescent athletes. This study aimed to explore the phenotype, progression and potential grey zone of LV hypertrophy during adolescence in athletes and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) genotype positive patients. Methods In this longitudinal observation study, we compared 76 12-year-old athletes to 55 age- and sex-matched HCM genotype positive patients. Echocardiographic parameters were evaluated by paediatric reference values (Z-scores). HCM genotype positive patients were included if they had no or mild LV hypertrophy (maximum wall thickness <13 mm, Z-score <6 for interventricular septum diameter (IVSd) or posterior wall thickness). We collected clinical data, including cardiac events. Results Mean follow-up-time was 3.2 ± 0.8 years. At baseline, LV hypertrophy was found in 28% of athletes and 21% of HCM genotype positive patients (p = 0.42). Septum thickness was similar (ZIVSd 1.4 ± 0.9 vs 1.0 ± 1.3, p = 0.08), and increased only in HCM genotype positive patients (ZIVSd progression rate -0.17(SE0.05), p = 0.002 vs 0.30(SE0.10), p = 0.001). LV volumes were greater in athletes (ZLVEDV 1.0 ± 0.6 vs -0.1 ± 0.8, p < 0.001, ZLVEDV progression rate -0.05(SE0.04), p = 0.21 vs -0.06(SE0.04), p = 0.12). Cardiac arrest occurred in two HCM genotype positive patients (age 13 and 14), with ZIVSd 8.2-11.5. Conclusions LV hypertrophy was found in a similar proportion in early adolescence, but progressed only in HCM genotype positive patients. A potential grey zone of LV hypertrophy ranged from septum thickness Z-score 2.0-3.3. LV volumes remained larger in athletes. Evaluating progression of wall thickness and volume may help clinicians distinguish physiological LV hypertrophy from early HCM.
Background Active travel and school settings are considered ideal for promoting physical activity. However, previous research suggests limited effect of school-based interventions on overall physical activity levels among adolescents. The relationship between physical activity in different domains remains inconclusive. In this study, we examined the effects of adding two weekly hours of school-based physical activity on active travel rates. Method We analyzed data from 1370 pupils in the 9th-grade participating in the cluster RCT; the School In Motion (ScIM) project. Intervention schools (n = 19) implemented 120 min of class-scheduled physical activity and physical education, in addition to the normal 2 hours of weekly physical education in the control schools (n = 9), for 9 months. Active travel was defined as pupils who reported walking or cycling to school, while motorized travel was defined as pupils who commuted by bus or car, during the spring/summer half of the year (April–September), or autumn/winter (October–February). The participants were categorized based on their travel mode from pretest to posttest as; maintained active or motorized travel (“No change”), changing to active travel (motorized-active), or changing to motorized travel (active-motorized). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the intervention effect on travel mode. Results During the intervention period, most participants maintained their travel habits. In total, 91% of pupils maintained their travel mode to school. Only 6% of pupils switched to motorized travel and 3% switched to active travel, with small variations according to season and trip direction. The intervention did not seem to influence the likelihood of changing travel mode. The odds ratios for changing travel habits in spring/summer season were from active to motorized travel 1.19 [95%CI: 0.53–2.15] and changing from motorized to active travel 1.18 [0.30–2.62], compared to the “No change” group. These findings were consistent to and from school, and for the autumn/winter season. Conclusion The extra school-based physical activity does not seem to affect rates of active travel among adolescents in the ScIM project. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov ID nr: NCT03817047. Registered 01/25/2019′ retrospectively registered’.
Purpose: In order to better understand the imaging of severe trauma in sport, this study describes the imaging modalities utilized to image athletes who experienced severe traumatic injuries at the Beijing Winter Olympic Games 2022, the distribution of these modalities in relation to the sporting facilities, and the types of injuries imaged in each sport. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis with descriptive tables and figures, performed on a single population (athletes of the Beijing Winter Olympic Games 2022). Results: Of the 2871 athletes in the Beijing Winter Olympic Games, there were 40 athletes with severe injuries who underwent medical imaging. MRI was used more often than Radiography or CT. Athletes at venues without MRI on site had to be transferred to adjacent hospitals for care. Alpine and Freestyle skiing athletes experienced the majority of severe traumatic injuries at this Olympic Games, and the majority of injuries were to the lower limb. Conclusions: Access to medical imaging for severely injured athletes is a critical consideration in the organization of any sporting event. MRI in particular is highly utilized in this population.
Background Low bone mineral density (BMD) increases the risk of bone stress injuries (BSI) and is one of several clinical concerns in Para athlete sports medicine. However, whether bone microarchitecture is altered in Para athletes is not known. Objective We aimed to investigate BMD, bone microarchitecture and incidence of bone stress injuries in Norwegian elite Para athletes. Design In this cross-sectional study in Para athletes, Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (iDXA, Lunar, GE Health Care) derived areal BMD, trabecular bone score (TBS), a surrogate marker for bone microarchitecture, and body composition (body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), fat percentage) were investigated and compared between ambulant and non-ambulant athletes. Also, the association between BMD, TBS and body composition variables was investigated. Incidence of BSI was assessed with a questionnaire and confirmed by a sports physician in a clinical interview. BMD Z-score <−1 was defined as low and ≤−2 as osteoporotic. TBS ≥ 1.31 was normal, 1.23–1.31 intermediate and <1.23 low. Results Among 38 athletes (26 ± 6 yrs, 14 females), BMD Z-score was low in 19 athletes, and osteoporotic in 11 athletes' lumbar spine (LS) or femoral neck (FN). BMD was lower in non-ambulant vs. ambulant athletes both in LS (1.13 ± 0.19 vs. 1.25 ± 0.14 g/cm², p = 0.030) and FN (0.90 ± 0.15 vs. 1.07 ± 0.16 g/cm², p = 0.003). TBS was normal for all athletes. BMD Z-score in LS was positively associated with TBS (r = 0.408, p = 0.013), body weight (r = 0.326, p = 0.046) and lean body mass (r = 0.414, p = 0.010), but not with fat mass or fat percentage. None of the athletes reported any BSI. Conclusions Half of the Norwegian elite Para athletes had low BMD, and 29% had BMD Z-score <−2 suggesting osteoporosis. Non-ambulant athletes were more prone to low BMD than ambulant athletes. However, despite high prevalence of low BMD, TBS was normal in all athletes, and BSI was absent in this young population.
Purpose To investigate the effects of a demanding military field exercise on physical performance, body composition and muscle cellular outcomes in men and women. Methods Ten men (20.5 ± 0.5 years) and 8 women (21.4 ± 1.4 years) completed a 10-day field exercise consisting of extensive physical activity with food and sleep restriction. Acquisition of body composition, physical performance, blood and muscle biopsies samples were done before and 1,7 and 14 days after the exercise. Results There were no sex differences in the response to the exercise. Body mass was decreased with 5.6 ± 1.8% and fat mass with 31 ± 11% during the exercise. Both were still reduced after 14 days (2.5 ± 2.3%, p ˂0.001 and 12.5 ± 7.7%, p ˂0.001 respectively). Isometric leg strength did not change. Peak leg extension torque at 240 °·s ⁻¹ and counter movement jump height were reduced with 4.6 ± 4.8% ( p = 0.012) and 6.7 ± 6.2% ( p ˂0.001) respectively and was still reduced after 14 days (4.3 ± 4.2%, p = 0.002, and 4.1 ± 4.7%, p = 0.030). No changes occurred in fiber CSA, fiber types, proteins involved in calcium handling or HSP70. During the exercise, αB-crystallin levels decreased by 14 ± 19% ( p = 0.024) in the cytosolic fraction and staining intensity on muscle sections tended to increase (17 ± 25%, p = 0.076). MuRF1 levels in the cytosolic fraction tended to decrease (19 ± 35%) and increased with 85 ± 105% ( p = 0.003) in the cytoskeletal fraction 1 week after the exercise. Conclusions The field exercise resulted in reduced body mass and physical performance in both sexes. The ability to produce force at high contraction velocities and explosive strength was more affected than isometric strength, but this was not related to any changes in fiber type composition, fiber area, Ca ²⁺ handling or fiber type specific muscle damage.
(1) Background: Recent studies claim that weight-neutral approaches emphasizing physical activity might be as effective as weight-loss-centered approaches for improving pain and physical function in patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis. The objectives were to identify distinctive groups of individuals with similar BMI, quality of life and activity limitation trajectories over two years, to compare the overall differences between BMI trajectory groups for baseline variables and to explore the probabilities of the quality of life and activity limitation trajectory groups conditional on the BMI group. (2) Methods: Baseline data for age, gender, BMI, quality of life, activity limitations, pain, general health, knee or hip osteoarthritis and follow-up data on BMI, quality of life and activity limitations at 3, 12 and 24 months were retrieved from the “Active with osteoarthritis” (AktivA) electronic quality register. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify distinct trajectories for BMI, quality of life and activity limitations. (3) Results: 4265 patients were included in the study. Four distinct BMI trajectories were identified, normal weight (31%), slightly overweight (43%), overweight (20%) and obese (6%). At baseline, there were highly significant differences between all BMI groups, pain increased and age and general health decreased with higher BMI. Irrespective of weight category, minimal changes in BMI were found over the two-year follow-up period. Over 80% of the participants showed moderate-to-considerable improvements both in quality of life and activity limitations. (4) Conclusions: Almost 70% of the participants belonged to the overweight trajectories. Despite no significant weight reduction over the two years, eight in every 10 participants improved their quality of life and reduced their activity limitations after participating in the AktivA program.
Background and Aims Physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour (SB), and inadequate sleep are key behavioural risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases. Each behaviour is mainly considered in isolation, despite clear behavioural and biological interdependencies. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of five-part movement compositions with adiposity and cardiometabolic biomarkers. Methods Cross-sectional data from six studies (n = 15 253 participants; five countries) from the Prospective Physical Activity, Sitting and Sleep consortium were analysed. Device-measured time spent in sleep, SB, standing, light-intensity physical activity (LIPA), and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) made up the composition. Outcomes included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, total:HDL cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Compositional linear regression examined associations between compositions and outcomes, including modelling time reallocation between behaviours. Results The average daily composition of the sample (age: 53.7 ± 9.7 years; 54.7% female) was 7.7 h sleeping, 10.4 h sedentary, 3.1 h standing, 1.5 h LIPA, and 1.3 h MVPA. A greater MVPA proportion and smaller SB proportion were associated with better outcomes. Reallocating time from SB, standing, LIPA, or sleep into MVPA resulted in better scores across all outcomes. For example, replacing 30 min of SB, sleep, standing, or LIPA with MVPA was associated with −0.63 (95% confidence interval −0.48, −0.79), −0.43 (−0.25, −0.59), −0.40 (−0.25, −0.56), and −0.15 (0.05, −0.34) kg/m2 lower BMI, respectively. Greater relative standing time was beneficial, whereas sleep had a detrimental association when replacing LIPA/MVPA and positive association when replacing SB. The minimal displacement of any behaviour into MVPA for improved cardiometabolic health ranged from 3.8 (HbA1c) to 12.7 (triglycerides) min/day. Conclusions Compositional data analyses revealed a distinct hierarchy of behaviours. Moderate-vigorous physical activity demonstrated the strongest, most time-efficient protective associations with cardiometabolic outcomes. Theoretical benefits from reallocating SB into sleep, standing, or LIPA required substantial changes in daily activity.
The integration of physical movements, such as gestures, into learning holds potential for enhancing foreign language (L2) education. Uncovering whether actively performing gestures during L2 learning is more, or equally, effective compared to simply observing such movements is central to deepening our understanding of the efficacy of movement-based learning strategies. Here, we present a meta-analysis of seven studies containing 309 participants that compares the effects of gesture self-enactment and observation on L2 vocabulary learning. The results showed that gesture observation was just as effective for L2 learning as gesture enactment, based on free recall, cued L2 recognition, and cued native language recognition performance, with a large dispersion of true effect across studies. Gesture observation may be sufficient for inducing embodied L2 learning benefits, in support of theories positing shared mechanisms underlying enactment and observation. Future studies should examine the effects of gesture-based learning over longer time periods with larger sample sizes and more diverse word classes.
Purpose : To investigate performance-determining variables of an on-snow sprint cross-country skiing competition and the evolvement in their relationship with performance as the competition progresses from the individual time trial (TT) to the final. Methods : Sixteen national-level male junior skiers (mean [SD] age, 18.6 [0.8] y; peak oxygen uptake [VO 2 peak], 67.6 [5.5] mL·min ⁻¹ ·kg ⁻¹ ) performed a simulated sprint competition (1.3 km) in the skating style, comprising a TT followed by 3 finals (quarterfinals, semifinals, and final) completed by all skiers. In addition, submaximal and incremental roller-ski treadmill tests, on-snow maximal speed tests, and strength/power tests were performed. Results : VO 2 peak and peak treadmill speed during incremental testing and relative heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, blood lactate concentrations, and gross efficiency during submaximal testing were all significantly correlated with performance in the TT and subsequent finals (mean [range] r values: .67 [.53–.86], all P < .05). Relative VO 2 peak and submaximal relative heart rate and blood lactate concentration were more strongly correlated with performance in the semifinals and final compared with the TT ( r values: .74 [.60–.83] vs 0.55 [.51–.60], all P < .05). Maximal speed in uphill and flat terrain was significantly correlated with performance in the TT and subsequent finals ( r values: .63 [.38–.70], all P < .05), while strength/power tests did not correlate significantly with sprint performance. Conclusions : VO 2 peak and high-speed abilities were the most important determinants of sprint cross-country skiing performance, with an increased importance of VO 2 peak as the competition format progressed toward the final.
Objective: B-mode ultrasound can be used to image musculoskeletal tissues, but one major bottleneck is analyses of muscle architectural parameters (i.e., muscle thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length), which are most often performed manually. Methods: In this study we trained two different neural networks (classic U-Net and U-Net with VGG16 pre-trained encoder) to detect muscle fascicles and aponeuroses using a set of labeled musculoskeletal ultrasound images. We determined the best-performing model based on intersection over union and loss metrics. We then compared neural network predictions on an unseen test set with those obtained via manual analysis and two existing semi/automated analysis approaches (simple muscle architecture analysis [SMA] and UltraTrack). DL_Track_US detects the locations of the superficial and deep aponeuroses, as well as multiple fascicle fragments per image. Results: For single images, DL_Track_US yielded results similar to those produced by a non-trainable automated method (SMA; mean difference in fascicle length: 5.1 mm) and human manual analysis (mean difference: –2.4 mm). Between-method differences in pennation angle were within 1.5°, and mean differences in muscle thickness were less than 1 mm. Similarly, for videos, there was overlap between the results produced with UltraTrack and DL_Track_US, with intraclass correlations ranging between 0.19 and 0.88. Conclusion: DL_Track_US is fully automated and open source and can estimate fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness from single images or videos, as well as from multiple superficial muscles. We also provide a user interface and all necessary code and training data for custom model development.
The article commences with a fundamental objective: to comprehend movement skills in sports in a manner that can bridge the dualist gap between experiential qualities observed in practice and theoretical and mechanistic explanations. Drawing inspiration from Kuhn's concept of scientific paradigms, practical examples from skiing research, and innovative insights into the integration of phenomenology and mechanistic explanation in cognitive science, we have outlined a three-step integrative approach. The first step entails the development of phenomenological descriptions of the primary experiential qualities inherent in the execution of the skills being investigated. In the second step, phenomenological descriptions play a pivotal role by setting constraints and delineating a space for the elaboration of multilevel mechanistic analyses. These analyses draw upon insights from various fields, encompassing biomechanics, motor control approaches, expertise studies, and cognitive science. The third step involves the systematization of findings and the formulation of sport-specific movement skills theories. We contend that such theories hold substantial significance as they serve as valuable supplements to skill studies conducted within rigid, nomological frameworks. Sport-specific theories include descriptions of first-person experiential qualities and can contribute to bridging the theory-practice gap effectively. KEYWORDS movement skills, mechanistic explanations, phenomenology, integrative approach, sports
Playing when injured is a risky yet common business among ice hockey players. Conceptualized within the framework of the theory of planned behaviour, the current cross-sectional study aimed to test a multiple-mediator model linking players' perceived social pressure to their intention to play when injured. We tested whether social pressure is directly and indirectly (via attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control avoidance, and situational temptation) related to intention to play when injured. We recruited 186 junior players aged 16-20 years (mean age = 17.85; standard deviation = 1.35) from two Norwegian ice hockey leagues (under 18 and under 20 years of age). The data were analysed using a linear regression procedure and a bias-corrected bootstrapping technique to measure indirect effects. The results revealed a positive direct and indirect (via attitudes, subjective norms, and situational temptation) relationship between players' perceived social pressure and their intention to play when injured. In conclusion, players that perceived pressure to play despite being injured, who perceived positive consequences of doing so, who believed that people close or important to them approved of them doing so, and who perceived game-specific temptations, were more likely to report a stronger intent to play the game when injured.
Objectives To examine whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) modifies the association between sedentary time and mortality and vice versa, and estimate the joint associations of MVPA and sedentary time on mortality risk. Methods This study involved individual participant data analysis of four prospective cohort studies (Norway, Sweden, USA, baseline: 2003–2016, 11 989 participants ≥50 years, 50.5% women) with hip-accelerometry-measured physical activity and sedentary time. Associations were examined using restricted cubic splines and fractional polynomials in Cox regressions adjusted for sex, education, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, study cohort, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and/or diabetes, accelerometry wear time and age. Results 6.7% (n=805) died during follow-up (median 5.2 years, IQR 4.2 years). More than 12 daily sedentary hours (reference 8 hours) was associated with mortality risk only among those accumulating <22 min of MVPA per day (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.74). Higher MVPA levels were associated with lower mortality risk irrespective of sedentary time, for example, HR for 10 versus 0 daily min of MVPA was 0.85 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.96) in those accumulating <10.5 daily sedentary hours and 0.65 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.79) in those accumulating ≥10.5 daily sedentary hours. Joint association analyses confirmed that higher MVPA was superior to lower sedentary time in lowering mortality risk, for example, 10 versus 0 daily min of MVPA was associated with 28–55% lower mortality risk across the sedentary time spectrum (lowest risk, 10 daily sedentary hours: HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.65). Conclusions Sedentary time was associated with higher mortality risk but only in individuals accumulating less than 22 min of MVPA per day. Higher MVPA levels were associated with lower mortality risk irrespective of the amount of sedentary time.
Objective The objective of this study is to describe the incidence of injuries and illnesses sustained during the Beijing Winter Olympic Games from 4 February 2022 to 20 February 2022. Methods We recorded the daily number of athlete injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the Beijing 2022 medical staff. Results In total, 2848 athletes (1276 women, 45%; 1572 men, 55%) from 91 NOCs were followed prospectively for the occurrence of injury and illness. NOC and Beijing 2022 medical staff reported 289 injuries and 109 illnesses, equalling 10.1 injuries and 3.8 illnesses per 100 athletes over the 17-day period. The injury incidence was highest in ski halfpipe (30%), ski big air (28%), snowboard slopestyle (23%) and ski slopestyle (22%), and lowest (1%–2%) in curling, alpine mixed team parallel slalom, Nordic combined and alpine super-G. The illness incidence was highest in ski aerials (10%), skeleton (8%), cross-country skiing (8%) and Nordic combined (7%). In the study period, COVID-19 affected 32 athletes, accounting for 29% of all illnesses affecting 1.1% of all athletes. Conclusion Overall, 10% of the athletes incurred an injury and 4% an illness during the Beijing Winter Olympic Games. The incidence of illnesses overall, which was the lowest yet recorded in the Winter Olympic Games, and COVID-19 was mitigated through comprehensive countermeasures.
This study aims to determine test-retest reliability of phase-specific information during initial acceleration, deceleration, and re-acceleration phases of different change-of-direction (CoD) tests using a motorized resistance device (MRD). A total of 21 participants (16 males and five females, with mean age of 22.3 ± 3.9 years, body mass of 75.2 ± 6.9 kg, height of 177.9 ± 6.8 cm) completed the modified 505 (m505), 10-0-5, and 15-0-5 CoD tests on four different test sessions while exposed to an external load (3 kg) provided by the MRD. Outcome variables included overall and phase-specific kinetic (force, power, and impulse) and kinematic (time, distance, velocity, and acceleration/deceleration) data during the initial acceleration, deceleration, and re-acceleration phases. The deceleration and re-acceleration phases were further divided into two subphases, namely, early and late subphases, using 50% of maximum velocity. Reliability was assessed using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), typical error (TE), and minimal detectable change (MDC). Good to excellent ICC values (>0.75) and acceptable (<10%) to good (<5%) CV values were observed for most outcome measurements. Specifically, 80.1% (822 out of 1,026) of all variables showed good or better relative reliability (i.e., ICC ≥ 0.75), while 97.0% (995 out of 1,026) of all variables showed acceptable or better absolute reliability (i.e., CV < 10%). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the MRD can obtain reliable phase-specific outcome measurements across different CoD tests, providing coaches and researchers with new opportunities to advance our understanding of CoD ability and inform more advanced CoD training prescriptions.
Purpose: The present study aimed to establish differences in load-velocity profiling, active drag (AD), and drag coefficient (Cd) between 3 age groups of female swimmers. Methods: Thirty-three swimmers (11, 13, or 16 y old) were recruited. The individual load-velocity profile was determined for the 4 competitive swimming strokes. The maximal velocity (V0), maximal load (L0), L0 normalized to the body mass, AD, and Cd were compared between the groups. A 2-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis were conducted. Results: Compared with their younger counterparts, 16-year-old swimmers generally had larger V0, L0, and AD, which was particularly evident when comparing them with 11-year-old swimmers (P ≤ .052). The exception was breaststroke, where no differences were observed in L0 and AD and Cd was smaller in the 16-year-old group than the 11-year-old group (P = .03). There was a negative correlation between Cd and V0 for all groups in backstroke (P ≤ .038) and for the 11-year-old group and 13-year-old group in breaststroke (P ≤ .022) and front crawl (P ≤ .010). For the 16-year-old group, large correlations with V0 were observed for L0, L0 normalized to the body mass, and AD (P ≤ .010) in breaststroke and for L0 and AD with V0 in front crawl (P ≤ .042). In butterfly, large negative correlations with V0 were observed in the 13-year-old group for all parameters (P ≤ .027). Conclusions: Greater propulsive force is likely the factor that differentiates the oldest age group from the younger groups, except for breaststroke, where a lower Cd (implying a better technique) is evident in the oldest group.
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