The degradation of titin could make the myofibrillar fragmentation to improve meat tenderization during postmortem. This study aimed to investigate effect of phosphorylation on titin degradation. Protein kinase A (PKA) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were added to crude titin extracted from ovine longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles. Phosphorylated/dephosphorylated titin were incubated with μ-calpain at 4 °C for 2 days. Results showed titin in AP group started degradation earlier than that in PKA and control groups. There were 20, 16 and 12 phosphorylated sites identified by iTRAQ in the PKA, control and AP group, respectively. 3D structure of dephosphorylated titin fragment was simulated and its molecular dynamics trajectory analysis was performed using Discovery StudioTM. The dihedral angle in AP group was less and the dephosphorylated fragment had a higher kinetic energy and total energy. We suggested that changes caused by AP treatment might make titin unstable, which easily degraded by μ-calpain.
Jujube contains abundant cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the ultrasonic-assisted pectinase extraction (UAPE) conditions for obtaining the maximum cAMP yield from jujube were optimized. Orthogonal array design was applied to evaluate the effects of 4 variables by UAPE on cAMP yield. The results showed that the optimal cAMP yield (783.0 μg/g) was derived at ratio of liquid to solid 5 mL/g, ratio of pectinase to raw material 1.5 %, time 60 min and temperature 40 °C. Moreover, the effect of cAMP on the anti-allergic function of action induced by immunoglobulin E (IgE) and its meschanism was investigated through establishing the sensitized cell model in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells using dinitrophenylated (DNP)-bovine serum albumin (BSA)-IgE. The results showed that cAMP interfered with sensitized cells, effectively inhibited the occurrence of basophil degranulation in dose dependence, and significantly reduced the activity of β-hexosamindase (β-hex), at the optimal concentration of 50 μg/mL. The level of anti-inflammatory factor interleukin-10 (IL-10) was promoted and the content of pro-inflammatory factor tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was suppressed by cAMP. In addition, influx of intracellular Ca²⁺ was repressed effectively. Our results demonstrate that jujube cAMP regulated the cytokine balance in the allergy pathway through blocking the influx of extracellular Ca²⁺, with the prevention of allergy symptoms.
Tropomyosin (TM) in shrimp is one of the predominant causes of food allergy around the world. In the present study, the effect of seabuckthorn juice against TM -induced shrimp allergy was investigated in BALB/c mice. Allergic symptoms, spleen index, intestinal section and diarrhea were measured in shrimp allergy mice. As the results, seabuckthorn juice suppressed the lesions in jejunum tissue, diarrhea and allergic symptoms in shrimp allergy mice. Seabuckthorn juice also reduced serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as well as immunoglobulin E (IgE) and stimulated the secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in mice with shrimp allergy. Taken together, our findings suggest that increased IL-10 by seabuckthorn juice inhibits Th2 cytokine production to suppress shrimp allergic symptoms. Furthermore, seabuckthorn juice also regulates shrimp allergy by reducing jejunum lesions, inhibiting levels of TNF-α and IgE.
This paper is devoted to V-shaped calcium concentration waves of the buffered bistable system in R2. We prove that multiple immobile buffers (where all buffers do not diffuse) do not affect the global asymptotic stability and uniqueness of V-shaped calcium concentration waves. The existence of such curved fronts has been proved in our previous work (Jia et al., 2022). However, the study of its stability is difficult since the buffers do not diffuse. We first apply the sliding method to construct a crucial sub-solution. Then, based on the super- and sub-solution method, and comparison principle, we achieve the global asymptotic stability of the V-shaped fronts.
Lycium barbarum seed oil contains a variety of unsaturated fatty acids and other active substances, which is very beneficial to people's health. However, the application of Lycium barbarum seed oil is limited because it is insoluble in water and needs to be stored away from light. To solve these problems, Pickering emulsions were prepared by combining bacterial cellulose nanofibers and edible gelatin to stabilize Lycium barbarum seed oil. The average particle size, microstructure and rheology of the emulsion were characterized, and it was found that the droplets of the emulsion were smooth and distributed to the nanometer level, and the lowest concentration of bacterial cellulose nanofibers which could stabilize the emulsion was 0.3% (w/v). Surprisingly, by comparing the scavenging abilities of the Lycium barbarum seed oil and the emulsion on same free radicals, we observed that the antioxidant capacity of the emulsion increased significantly.
Unsupervised feature selection (UFS), which selects the most important feature subset and eliminates the unnecessary information for the upcoming data analysis, is a significant problem in machine learning and has been explored for years. Most UFS methods map features into a pseudo label space by multiplying a projection matrix constrained with sparsity to learn the mapping from the features to the labels. However, the mapping relationship is usually not linear, and linear regression may result in a suboptimal selection. To address this issue, we propose a novel UFS method, called neural networks embedded self-expression (NNSE). NNSE replaces the linear regression of traditional spectral analysis methods with neural networks to learn the pseudo label space. Besides, we embed neural networks into the self-expression model to improve the representative ability by preserving the local structure with an adaptive graph regularization module. Then we propose an efficient alternative iterative algorithm to solve the proposed model. Experimental results on 8 public datasets show NNSE outperforms the other state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, experimental results are also presented to show the convergence of the proposed method. The source code is available at: https://github.com/misteru/NNSE.
Oil pollution is causing deleterious damage to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The utilization of agricultural waste such as corn stalk (CS) to produce biosorbents has been considered an ecofriendly and efficient approach for removing oil. However, most previous studies focused on the modification of the whole CS, which is inefficient due to the heterogeneity of CS. In this study, corn stalk pith (CP), which has excellent amphipathic characteristics, was selected to prepare a high-efficiency oil sorbent by grafting dodecyl gallate (DG, a long-chain alkyl) onto CP surface lignin via laccase mediation. The modified biomass (DGCP) shows high hydrophobicity (water contact angle = 140.2°) and superoleophilicity (oil contact angle = 0°) and exhibits a high oil sorption capacity (46.43 g/g). In addition, DGCP has good stability and reusability for adsorbing oil from the aqueous phase. Kinetic and isotherm models and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy integrated with FTIR analyses revealed that the main sorption mechanism involves the H-bond effect, hydrophobic effect and van der Waals force. This work provides an ecofriendly method to prepare oil sorbents and new insights into the mechanisms underlying the removal of spilled oil from wastewater.
Considering the importance of rapid and effective detection of nitrite in food samples, herein, we report a multistep heterophase synthetic strategy for constructing crystalline–amorphous zinc/cobalt iron porous nanosheets (C-A Zn/Co-Fe PNSs) on carbon cloth. Notably, the C-A Zn/Co-Fe [email protected] electrochemical interface consists of interlaced carbon fibers with many uniformly distributed hybrid nanosheets containing crystalline-amorphous interfacial sites. This particular hybrid structure permits local enrichment of nitrite for enhanced nitrite capture efficiency, laying a solid foundation for the ultrasensitive detection of nitrite. In proof-of-concept experiments, we verified that C-A Zn/Co-Fe [email protected] could be used to analyze nitrite with good sensitivity and reproducibility. It is worth mentioning that an ultra-low LOD of 0.44 μM was obtained for the detection of nitrite. The designed electrochemical sensor worked well in complex samples such as sausages and tap water under optimal parameters.
In agroecosystem soils, abundant and rare biospheres have coexisted, resulting in complex interactive systems. It has remained unclear how agricultural practices have impacted the assembly of abundant and rare bacteria within root-associated compartments. The response of abundant and rare bacteria to plastic film mulch (PM) was investigated on a fine-compartment scale from bulk soil to rhizoplane, based on an in-situ experiment. The results indicated that root-associated communities were reactive to root selection, with abundant taxa having a greater niche breadth than rare taxa. The results of SourceTracker and the reduction of niche breadths from bulk soil to rhizoplane emphasized the role of roots in bacterial recruitment, with PM exerting greater host selection pressure. The assembly of abundant taxa was primarily impacted by variable selection, whereas that of rare taxa was influenced by homogeneous selection. PM amplified the impact of deterministic and stochastic processes on abundant and rare taxa. In contrast to rare taxa, abundant taxa were more frequently located in the center of networks, and PM greatly strengthened co-occurrence. Several abundant operational taxonomy units (OTUs) reflected their roles in maintaining microbial co-occurrence as keystone species. While the stochastic assembly of rare taxa was closely related to crop yield at the community level. Overall, these findings demonstrated how agricultural practices have had an impact on soil microbial communities along with the fine-scale compartments. They have demonstrated that PM would be having a major impact on the assembly of abundant and rare root-associated bacteria in drylands.
nirK-Denitrifying bacteria are closely related to N2O emissions and they have been studied widely in agro-ecosystems. However, the mechanisms associated with maintenance of the diversity of nirK bacterial communities in agro-ecosystems are unclear. In particular, the ecological roles of “generalists” and “specialists” in nirK bacterial communities under different soil organic carbon (SOC) levels have not been characterized. In this study, we divided 102 soil samples (0–20 and 20–40 cm) from 62 apple orchards in China's main apple producing areas (Shaanxi and Shandong provinces) into four groups according to the SOC content and soil depth, i.e., high organic carbon soils in the 0–20 cm depth, low organic carbon soils in the 0–20 cm depth, high organic carbon soils in the 20–40 cm depth, and low organic carbon soils in the 20–40 cm depth. In the nirK bacterial community, 4187 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (∼51.32 %) were classified as specialists and 1781 OTUs (∼21.83 %) as generalists. The α-diversity of generalists was higher in the high SOC soils than the low SOC soils, which was consistent with the α-diversity of the whole nirK bacterial community. However, the observed number of specialist species was lower in high SOC soils than low SOC soils. Analysis based on the Spearman's correlation coefficients also showed that the α-diversity and relative abundances of generalists and specialists responded differently to environmental factors. Both deterministic and stochastic processes contributed to the assembly of generalists and specialists. Among the deterministic processes, variable selection was important for the assembly of the generalist community, whereas homogeneous selection was important for the assembly of the specialist community. The niche breadth of generalists was higher than that of specialists, whereas the niche overlap of specialists was higher than that of generalists. The niche breadth of generalists was higher in high SOC soils than low SOC soils. In both networks, generalists had higher degrees than specialists, although the number of generalists was much lower than that of specialists. Our findings demonstrate the contributions of generalists and specialists to the changes in the diversity of the nirK bacterial community at different SOC levels as well as providing new insights into the mechanisms responsible for maintaining the diversity of the nirK bacterial community.
Recently, there has been increased advocacy for the adoption of rational cropping systems to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) levels and health and ensure food security. The intercropping and crop rotation of legumes with other crops is believed to improve soil environment and influence SOC dynamics. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effects of legume incorporation into cropping systems (LCS) on SOC fractions is still lacking. Therefore, this study aims to elucidate the effects of LCS on SOC fractions under different climatic conditions, soil properties, and agronomic practices, based on meta-analysis of 85 publications. LCS significantly increased the concentrations of microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon, light fraction carbon (LFC), heavy fraction carbon, labile carbon pool, and recalcitrant carbon pool by 21.4 %, 7.2 %, 9.1 %, 29.6 %, 6.4 %, 7.1 %, and 7.9 %, respectively, compared with cropping systems without legume. LCS-induced increase in the contents of SOC fractions was stronger under relatively suitable climatic conditions (mean annual temperature > 15 °C, mean annual precipitation > 1000 mm, and aridity index (AI) > 0.65) and soils with more severe nutrient limitation (soil organic matter < 10 g kg⁻¹, pH < 6.6, and subsoils). Specifically, AI was positively correlated with the response ratios of labile organic carbon fractions, whereas initial soil pH was negatively correlated with MBC, DOC, and LFC. Additionally, low nitrogen fertilizer application rates (< 120 kg ha⁻¹) and intercropping favored an increase in SOC fractions under legume cultivation. Overall, these results provide insights into the ecological benefits of legumes and highlights the importance of developing site-specific strategies to effectively manage SOC dynamics under legume cultivation for sustainable agricultural practices.
Groundwater recharge reduces due to high transpiration from shallow-rooted to deep-rooted afforestation. However, reaching a steady state in recharge process is challenging and no methods are available for assessing potential groundwater recharge under unsteady state. Hence, this study developed a new method to quantify groundwater recharge in the unsteady state by (1) calculating the water age (A2) at maximum root depth (D2) for deep-rooted afforestation using the chloride accumulative age method; (2) determining the soil depth (D1) corresponding to A2 under shallow-rooted vegetation using the multi-year average pore water velocity multiplied by A2; (3) calculating the reduction in groundwater recharge (∆R) from shallow- to deep-rooted afforestation as the depth difference multiplied by the average water content between D1 and D2, divided by stand age. The average groundwater recharge for deep-rooted afforestation is equal to the average annual groundwater recharge under shallow-rooted vegetation minus ∆R. Soil cores with >25 m soil profiles below four land-use types of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. (H. rhamnoides), Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco (P. orientalis), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (R. pseudoacacia), and grassland were collected to measure soil water content, root distribution, and chloride and tritium contents. The results revealed that: (1) maximum root depths were 11.0 ± 0.5, 20.2 ± 1.2, and 22.6 ± 0.8 m, with soil water deficits of 373.48, 823.65, and 1847.92 mm under H. rhamnoides, P. orientalis, and R. pseudoacacia, respectively; (2) groundwater recharge following land-use change has not reached a steady state; (3) an average annual groundwater recharge was 89.12 mm yr⁻¹ under grassland, amounting to 16 % of the average annual precipitation; deep-rooted afforestation did not significantly differ, with 83.55, 84.91, and 85.65 mm yr⁻¹ under H. rhamnoides, P. orientalis, and R. pseudoacacia, respectively. This study contributes to a rational assessment of groundwater resources under unsteady state during land-use change.
Stripe rust is a serious wheat disease caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici Erikss. High-temperature resistance, which can be induced when the diurnal cycle changes to 15–28 °C or warmer temperatures, has been demonstrated to be non-race specific and durable. The objectives of this study were to evaluate a core collection of 305 Chinese wheat cultivars and landraces for responses to stripe rust in both seedling and adult-plant stages in the greenhouse and the field, determine the distribution of previously reported Yr genes, and select accessions with effective resistance, especially high-temperature resistance. Fifty-eight (19.0%) entries were found to carry all-stage resistance, 71 (23.3%) entries showed adult-plant resistance, 13 (4.3%) entries showed high-temperature all-stage (HTAS) resistance, and 8 (2.6%) entries showed high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance. Molecular marker detection identified Yr9, Yr10, Yr17, Yr18, Yr26, Yr30, Yr41, Yr78, and Yr80 at different frequencies in the collection, but did not detect Yr5, Yr15, and Yr36. The results in this study would be useful for the rational distribution of cultivars in different regions and breeding for new cultivars with effective and durable resistance.
Soil amendments are commonly used to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by altering the physical, biological, and chemical qualities of soil, but the mechanism by which this is achieved still vague. This two-year study surveyed the influences of biochar (BC), Bacillus mucilaginosus (BM), and Bacillus subtilis (BS) on the physical, enzyme activities, soil microbial and GHG emissions. Results indicated that soil amendment addition decreased the activities of β-glucosidase (BG), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), β-xylosidase (BX), sucrase, cellulase by 8.81%, 8.99%, 22.08%, 59.46%, 74.61%, respectively, and increased N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activity by 155.00%. Soil amendments had little effect on soil microbes, apart from those related to the C and N cycles, such as Proteobacteria, Mortierellomycota and Acidobacteriota. In addition, BC, BM, and BS amendments decreased mean cumulative CO2 emissions by 38.43%, 11.83%, and 38.54%, respectively. Cumulative N2O emissions from the BC treatment increased by 28.17% in 2019 and decreased by 37.22% in 2020. For the BM and BS treatments, cumulative N2O emissions did not significantly change in 2019 but decreased by 4.93% and 57.85% in 2020, respectively. Generally, soil amendments decreased the greenhouse emission intensity (GHGI) and global warming potential (GWP). Moreover, a structural equation model (SEM) revealed factors that directly or indirectly controlled GHG emissions, including NAG, BX, CBH, Proteobacteria, Mortierellomycota and Acidobacteriota. These factors were limited mainly by soil C and N substrates, such as ammonium-nitrogen (NH4⁺-N), available phosphorus (AP), and soil organic matter (SOM). Overall, soil amendments can reduce GHG emissions in the long term, but they are affected by many factors.However, soil amendments alone have limited effects on reducing GHG emissions on the Loess Plateau. Suggesting combining and applying biochar and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may enhance soil quality and alleviate GHG emissions.
Computed tomography (CT) in combination with advanced image processing can be used to non-invasively and non-destructively visualize complex interiors of living and non-living media in 2 and 3-dimensional space. In addition to medical applications, CT has also been widely used in soil and plant science for visual and quantitative descriptions of physical, chemical, and biological properties and processes. The technique has been used successfully on numerous applications. However, with a rapidly evolving CT technologies and expanding applications, a renewed review is desirable. Only a few attempts have been made to collate and review examples of CT applications involving the integrated field of soil and plant research in recent years. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to: (1) briefly introduce the basic principles of CT and image processing; (2) identify the research status and hot spots of CT using bibliometric analysis based on Web of Science literature over the past three decades; (3) provide an overall review of CT applications in soil science for measuring soil properties (e.g., porous soil structure, soil components, soil biology, heat transfer, water flow, and solute transport); and (4) give an overview of applications of CT in plant science to detect morphological structures, plant material properties, and root-soil interaction. Moreover, the limitations of CT and image processing are discussed and future perspectives are given.
Inﬂammatory bowel disease (IBD) has emerged as a global disease with a complex pathogenesis, while perturbations in the gut microbiota have been shown to be closely related to its initiation and progression. Gut microbiota-targeted nutritional interventions have been promoted as promising approaches for managing IBD. Here, we summarize the latest understanding of gut microbiota in the context of IBD through its interactions with susceptibility genes, the intestinal barrier, host immunity, and metabolites. We also present abundant evidence on the effects of nutritional strategies that target the microbiota, including probiotics, probiotic foods, and prebiotics. Our research suggests that more clinical trials and mechanistic studies on IBD are needed to contribute to their applications as dietary supplements or functional foods.
Deficit irrigation has been widely studied on fruit quality improvement, but it also leads to yield losses, especially, fruit size reduction. The objective of this study was to investigate if the silicon application could offset the negative influence brought by deficit irrigation while enhancing fruit quality. A two-factor-three-level split plot greenhouse experiment was conducted where the Fragaria × ananassa cv. Kaorino plants were subjected to full irrigation (FI) or deficit irrigation (DI), and within each irrigation regime the plants were subjected to no silicon application (N), silicon foliar application (L) or silicon root application (R), resulting in 6 treatments in total, viz., FIN, FIL, FIR, DIN, FIL and DIR. The results showed that DI increased the fruit sugars and anthocyanins concentrations without reducing the fruit size. Compared to foliar application, silicon root application was more favorable for fruit quality improvement, especially under full irrigation, by which the anthocyanins, ascorbate and glutamate concentration were significantly increased. Under deficit irrigation, silicon root application also altered the leaf photosynthetic pigments composition, increasing carotenoids and reducing membrane peroxidation to protect the photosynthetic complexes. Also, only when plants were under deficit irrigation, the silicon foliar application could perform better on the improvement of antioxidant capacity and nitrogen assimilation, enhancing the ROS scavenging and amino acids synthesis. Collectively, exogenous silicon application is promising in alleviating the negative effects of DI on fruit yield while improving fruit quality of strawberry.
Farmland mulching is applied widely as a soil management practice, especially in rainfed areas with scarce water resources. However, it is not clear how continuous mulch application might affect the carbon and nitrogen budget in rainfed agroecosystems. Therefore, we evaluated the impacts of different mulching measures (SM: flat planting pattern with full straw mulching; RM: ridge–furrow construction with half plastic film mulching; PM: flat planting pattern with full plastic film mulching; BM: flat planting pattern with full biodegradable film mulching; and NM: conventional tillage without mulching) on the maize yield, net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB), net global warming potential (NGWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and N surplus or deficiency. The results showed that compared with NM, the maize yield decreased significantly by 10.0% under SM, whereas the mulching treatments (RM, PM, and BM) significantly increased the maize yield by 15.1–24.4% (P < 0.05). SM, RM, and PM significantly increased CO2 emissions (24.8–38.2%), N2O emissions (21.1–47.1%), and NGWP (20.8–45.5%), but reduced NECB. By contrast, BM increased NECB and significantly reduced GHGI (P < 0.05). Regardless of the mulching method applied, the N balance indicated an N surplus. Each mulching treatment (SM, RM, PM, and BM) increased the harvested N removal (47.9–179.9 kg N ha–1) and decreased the N leaching loss (8.8–35.9 kg N ha–1). RM, PM, and BM inhibited the ammonia volatilization rate, whereas SM promoted it. PM and BM achieved a lower N surplus. In conclusion, biodegradable film mulching (BM) can significantly reduce GHGI and the risk of N losses while also ensuring high crop yields, and thus it can be used as a high-yield and sustainable production method in rainfed areas.
Plant somatic embryos are the best materials for woody plant reproduction, germplasm preservation and genetic transformation. However, the embryonic regeneration potential of most woody plant embryogenic cultures is reduced or lost after long-term subculture, and the morphological and physiological changes associated with embryogenic cultures during long-term in vitro culture are largely unknown. In this study, we compared grapevine pro-embryonic masses (PEMs) after 10 years of constant tissue culture with newly induced PEMs. The results showed that the somatic embryo induction rate of PEMs decreased significantly after long-term subculture, and up to 92.2% of abnormal embryos appeared. Moreover, the newly induced grapevine PEMs were composed of uniform embryogenic cell clusters. However, the classic cell cluster structure almost disappeared and the space between adjacent cells increased in the long-term subcultured PEMs. Notably, pectin content decreased significantly in the cell walls of the long-term subcultured PEMs, along with a decrease in pectin methylesterase activity and an increase in polygalacturonase activity. Meanwhile, pectin in the cell wall was predominantly methylated pectin, with less or almost undetectable de-methylated pectin not only in the newly induced grapevine PEMs but also in the 10-year-old PEMs. Nonetheless, both types of pectin were present at lower levels in long-term subcultured PEMs. Therefore, we speculate that the decrease in methylated and de-methylated pectin in the long-term subcultured grapevine PEMs may have destroyed the cell wall mechanics, which affected the ability of PEMs to develop into embryos. This study provides new insight into the long-term subculture of grapevine PEMs.
In this experiment the effect of light intensity (photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD) and cutting size (10 and 7 cm) was investigated during five weeks rooting of hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. ‘Adonicus Yellow’). The light regimes included three constant PPFD: 16, 76 and 151 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹; and three changing PPFD after two weeks: 16 → 76, 16 → 151 and 76 → 151 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The light intensity has a dual effect, promoting photosynthesis and carbohydrate production, but also water loss through transpiration with the potential for desiccating the cutting. The treatments starting with 16 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹ insufficiently supported the rooting process, illustrated by the lack shoot growth after two weeks. Within each treatment type (constant or changing PPFD) the root formation was linearly correlated to the total light integral for the propagation period (r² = 0.835–1.000) for respective cutting size. The changing PPFD treatments showed the strongest response to increasing light integral with the [76 → 151] treatment producing most roots for both cutting sizes, despite the constant 151 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹ having the highest total light integral. This indicates that conserving water is of crucial importance before root emergence in the third week of rooting. The 7 cm cuttings produced more root biomass and had higher root:shoot ratio than the 10 cm cuttings. The 7 cm cuttings had higher rates of photosynthesis one week after rooting, probably due to higher sink demand from the growing roots and mobilised more soluble sugars from the leaves. The rooting process takes five weeks and does not demand high light, so the results are promising for moving propagation of hibiscus from the greenhouse to a vertical production system based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) to save production area for final production.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.