Northern Technical University
Recent publications
The global interest in solar energy as an alternative to traditional fuels has led to a significant overall increase of attentiveness to solar energy systems, especially the solar chimney system. Because one potential drawback of solar chimney systems is the low efficiency of more traditional solar chimneys, researchers and scientists are trying to improve the efficiency of the solar chimney system by integrating them with other conventional or renewable energy systems called hybrid solar chimneys. The current review article examines solar chimney systems combined with other renewable or conventional energy systems. The emphasis of this article was placed on compact solar chimneys with solar panels, solar ponds, and geothermal energy, in addition to a presentation on some solar chimney systems integrated with power stations. These hybrid solar chimneys are described, quantifying the improvement in efficiency, identifying future challenges, and providing insights to researchers on designs that have been introduced in recent years. Suggestions have been submitted to develop the performance of hybrid solar chimneys.
The spillways are one of the most important hydraulic structures used in river engineering, dam construction, irrigation, and drainage engineering projects. Recently, a new type of such spillways with a circular crest has been proposed. In this paper, the hydraulic properties of the circular crested stepped spillway (CCSS) including flow pattern, distribution of velocity on the crest and pressure, turbulence intensity, discharge coefficient (C d) and energy dissipation ratio (EDR) were investigated numerically. To model the free surface of flow the volume of fluid technique, and for modeling the turbulence of flow, k − ε (RNG) was utilized. Results declared that there is a good agreement between the laboratory observations and numerical simulation. The C d of the CCSS changes between 0.9 and 1.4 considering the range of relative upstream head (h up ∕R) between 0.33 m and 2.67. The observation of the flow streamlines showed that they are tangential to the curvature of the crest and there is no separation of the flow from the crest. Examination of the pressure distribution on the CCSS model shows that just downstream part of the crest, the pressure is partially negative. Of course, the same partial negative pressure is observed on the edge of the steps. The steps increase the maximum intensity turbulence by 50%. The CCSS can dissipate the energy of flow between 90 and 30%, and in the skimming flow regime, the portion of each step in the energy dissipation regardless of their position is almost identical.
Modified algae with nano copper oxide (CuO) were used as adsorption media to remove tetracycline (TEC) from aqueous solutions. Functional groups, morphology, structure, and percentages of surfactants before and after adsorption were characterised through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Several variables, including pH, connection time, dosage, initial concentrations, and temperature, were controlled to obtain the optimum condition. Thermodynamic studies, adsorption isotherm, and kinetics models were examined to describe and recognise the type of interactions involved. Resultantly, the best operation conditions were at pH 7, contact time of 240 min, 5 g/L of dosage, initial concentration of 25 mg/L, and a temperature of 45 °C. The removal percentage of TEC under the optimum condition was 96%. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the removal efficiency was slightly increased with temperature depending on the positive value of Δ𝐻°, thus indicating that the adsorption phenomenon was endothermic. The Langmuir model fitted the study (R² = 0.998), demonstrating that the adsorption sites were homogenous. The experimental results were best matched with the second-order kinetic model, implying that chemisorption was the primary process during the adsorption process. Compared to previous research and based on the value of qmax (15.60 mg/g), the biomass was suitable for TEC removal.
The power factor (PF) is an important measurement in an AC electrical system that indicates how much power ‎is utilized to accomplish productive work by a load and how much power is consumed. As a result, it's one of ‎the primary causes of excessive energy costs and power outages. This paper aims to present a simple, cost-‎effective, and accurate PF metering and monitoring system implemented using an Arduino microcontroller with ‎a novel methodology different from other papers. The proposed method is to design the software code instead ‎of using external components of Zero-Crossing Detectors (Z-CDs) for both voltage (V) and current (I) signals, and ‎instead of using Exclusive-OR (X-OR) gates also. Determining the phase-angle and PF in an efficient manner ‎can be useful in many approaches to electrical systems: 1-for synchronization of parallel connections of ‎alternators; 2-for directional protection systems; 3-for PF correction and load management; and 4-for designing ‎watt/energy meters. Using the Proteus 8 Professional (ISIS program), the proposed designed circuit was ‎simulated for more verification. The simulation and experimental findings are presented to validate the ‎proposed metering system's effectiveness.
Fruits and vegetables are sources of parasitic infections in humans. This study was designed to determine the epidemiology of parasitic contamination of fruits, vegetables, and water, as well as the perception of retailers, buyers, and consumers about its contamination in Kwara Central, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study design was employed for this study. A total of 160 fruits, 349 vegetables, and 51 water samples were randomly purchased/collected from thirty different markets. The samples were subjected to sedimentation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. All the types of fruits and vegetables sampled were contaminated with one or more parasites. Eleven different species of zoonotic parasites (6 protozoans and 5 helminths) were detected. Entamoeba coli (39.8%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (9.6%) were the most prevalent protozoan and helminth respectively. The prevalence of other protozoan parasites ranged between 21.3% (Entamoeba histolytica) and 2.3% (Balantidium coli), while that of helminths was between 5.7% (Ascaris lumbricoides) and 2.1% (Trichuris trichiura). Source of fruits and vegetables, source of manure for cultivation, the source of water for washing/wetting purpose, market type, washing of fruits and vegetables before display, the presence of children at home and in the market, and knowledge of parasitic contamination were the risk factors associated (P<0.05) with parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables among sellers. There is a need to educate the general public on the possibilities of parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables and its public health implications.
Introduction: In 2020, the World Health Organization announced that Corona virus (Covid-19) is a global pandemic. Since then, social distancing and sterilization have become essential as precaution measures to decrease the infection. The risk of Covid virus spread led people, industries as well as governments to implement several approaches to control the transmission rate of the virus. During their daily life activities such as work, shopping, eating, etc. people touch a lot of surfaces and also open a large number of doors. This is considered to be one of the fastest ways to spread viruses because many people touch door handles which are generally rarely cleaned. Method: In this paper, the implementation of a cost-effective smart device has been presented. The device sprays ethanol onto a doorknob from an ethanol sterilizer after any person touches the knob. The sensor detects a hand touching the knob, after that a signal is sent to the Arduino for processing, and then after a 4.5-sec delay, the Arduino sends a signal to the water pump to pump ethanol alcohols through the nozzle directly to the knob. Results: The device shows precise and accurate results regarding the number of uses and the temperature of the surrounding ambient. Conclusion: The system is applicable in offices and public buildings. Due to its functionality, it can be of great assistance in decreasing the contamination of doorknobs.
Introduction: Laparoscopic surgery is the standard method for cholecystectomy, and pneumoperitoneum is performed either in a closed or open technique. However, exposure to the consequences of the port site may increase the patient's morbidity. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare both approaches in terms of complications at the port site of each procedure and potential risk factors. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the department of surgery, in hospitals affiliated with Kirkuk and Diyala governorates in Iraq, from January 2019 to March 2022. The participating patients (200) were electively divided into two groups, each group comprising 100 patients. The pneumoperitoneum was established in the first group by an open technique (Hasson) while in the second group it was by using a closed technique (Veress needle). A comparison was made between the two techniques for intraoperative and postoperative complications that may have occurred due to port insertion up to 18 weeks. Results: According to the results, the highest percentage was for the following: females (84.0%), ages between 50 and 59 years (43.5%), and body mass index (BMI) range 25-30 kg/m2 (49.0%). No significant difference was observed between those variables for the two surgical techniques (p-value > 0.05). No death was recorded in the study. Consequences at the port site were observed in 10.5% of patients, the majority reported in the open approach (8.5%) as follows: bleeding (3.0%), hematoma (2.0%), wound infection (1.5%), hernia (1.5%), and vascular injury (0.5%). Conclusions: Thus, we concluded that port site complications are lowest in closed laparoscopic surgery which was not shown to be statistically significant but values showed less complications. Furthermore, samples could be used to gain a good statistical significance.
This article displayed the method of partial discharge (PD) measurement in high-voltage insulator and calibrating the effective element (capacitor) to enhance the PD signal. The cavity shapes were plate–plate, cylindrical and spherical inside the solid insulator. The proposed system enables from detecting the reverse and main discharge, respectively, through the rise and tail time of the pulses. PD that took place was bounded with internal cavities. Proteus simulator and Matlab simulation models were used to measure and display the PD signal. The results showed PD-calibrated waveforms and the voltage values across the cavity (V c). Finally, this work concluded that the spherical cavity shape gave a higher value of the calibrated capacitor and lower voltage across the cavity (V c) for both models.
With the rapid changes in wireless communication systems, indoor wireless communication (IWC) technology has undergone tremendous development. Antennas are crucial components of IWC systems that transmit and receive signals within indoor environments. Thus, the development of indoor technology is highly dependent on the development of indoor antennas. However, indoor environments with limited space require the fewest indoor antenna units and the smallest indoor antenna sizes possible. Hence, indoor antennas with compact size and broad applications have become widely preferred. In an IWC system, circularly polarised (CP) antennas are generally important, especially in dense indoor environments, because compared with linearly polarised (LP) antennas, CP antennas reduce polarisation mismatch and multipath losses. This paper combs through the existing studies related to three-dimensional (3D) geometry (nonplanar) or waveguide indoor antennas and the two common approaches to two-dimensional (2D) geometry (planar) indoor antennas, namely, broadband CP printed monopole antennas (BCPPMAs) and broadband CP printed slot antennas (BCPPSAs). The advantages, disadvantages and limitations of previous works are highlighted as well. These research works are summarised, compared and analysed to understand the recent specifications of BCPPMAs and BCPPSAs to generate the most appropriate design structure suitable for current IWC systems.
Land Use / Land Cover (LULC) classification is considered one of the basic tasks that decision makers and map makers rely on to evaluate the infrastructure, using different types of satellite data, despite the large spectral difference or overlap in the spectra in the same land cover in addition to the problem of aberration and the degree of inclination of the images that may be negatively affect rating performance. The main objective of this study is to develop a working method for classifying the land cover using high-resolution satellite images using object based method. Maximum likelihood pixel based supervised as well as object approaches were examined on QuickBird satellite image in Karbala, Iraq. This study illustrated that use of textural data during the object image classification approach can considerably enhance land use classification performance. Moreover, the results showed higher overall accuracy (86.02%) in the o object based method than pixel based (79.06%) in urban extractions. The object based performed much more capabilities than pixel based.
Building a balanced relation between image quality and the payload, the robustness of the method in facing electronic attacks and securing data, all the mentioned processes represent the main challenge in steganography. Here, a novel approach to steganography is suggested using Vigenere Cipher and Huffman Coding methods to encrypt and compress the mystery message content. This approach will raise the security and ensure the message content cannot be extracted without earlier knowledge of decrypting rules and the Huffman Dictionary Table. Later, the image is segmented into blocks, size (w*h) groups for each block and with each group having n pixels. Subsequently, the knight tour algorithm and arbitrary function are utilized to select which blocks and groups can be used to conceal the mystery digit within a specific pixel in the group randomly. This is to address the weakness of the Exploiting Modification Direction (EMD) technique that uses a serial selection to enhance the robustness of the suggested scheme. The EMD technique is then utilized to insert the mystery digits inside a specific pixel. Later, the chi-square method is employed to apply statistical attacks on the stego-image to estimate the suggested scheme robustness. The empirical outcomes show that the suggested scheme is more efficient compared to the old Steganography schemes with respect to Imperceptibility by PSNR of 55.71 dB, the Payload of 52,400 bytes and the robustness.
Optimization and improvement of the electrical system are applied to cope with the increased demand for electrical power in the vehicular system; they must be carried out in many ways to ensure that the vehicles are provided with the necessary electricity for their performance work electrical equipment. This paper reviews the various optimization approaches for the alternator used in automotive applications and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The optimization is achieved to the field excitation current that influences the alternator output voltage, and the other techniques designed a controller to optimize the output power of the alternator using power electronic converters. The most suitable approaches are those approaches that use real-time optimization and self-optimization methods. Combining the above two methods can achieve the best results, higher efficiency, stable performance, and a large amount of power produced by the alternator.
Aims: The aim of this study was assessing a phage displayed MilA protein of Mycoplasma bovis in an indirect ELISA for the detection of M. bovis antibodies in milk samples. Methods and results: The desired sequence of milA gene was synthesized and cloned into pCANTAB-F12 phagemid vector. The expression of the MilA on the phage surface was confirmed by Western blotting. The recombinant phage was used in the development of an indirect ELISA to detect M. bovis antibodies in milk samples. There was a significant agreement between the results of phage-based ELISA and recombinant GST-MilA ELISA for detection of M. bovis antibodies in milk samples. Conclusions: The inexpensive and convenient phage-based ELISA can be used instead of recombinant protein/peptide ELISA as an initial screening of M. bovis-associated mastitis. Significance and impact of study: Mastitis associated with M. bovis is a continuous and serious problem in the dairy industry. Sero-monitoring of M. bovis infections cases is one of the key factors for surveillance of the infections in dairy farms. Despite the existence of some commercially serological assays for M. bovis antibodies, they have some limitations regarding their sensitivity and availability. The development of an accurate diagnosis tools could contribute to control programs of M. bovis-associated mastitis in the dairy herds.
Deformation monitoring has conventional increasing consideration in recent years due to its great importance in modern engineering. Darbandikhan town was hit by a strong earthquake on 12th November 2017 which is the Sarpol-e Zahab earthquake. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique has been used to investigate Darbandikhan town stability and the surrounding areas of the Kurdistan region in Iraq. The purpose of this research is to estimate the ground vertical displacement induced by the earthquake as well as the east-west deformation components. Moreover, previous research covered more of Iran’s side country that the earthquake had an impact on with little on Iraq’s side (Northern-eastern of Iraq), so it was worth researching on Darbandikhan town and surrounding structures to estimate the displacement on its infrastructures. For this study, two pairs of Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are used from each ascending and descending tracks over the study area to validate the work. Then, two differential interferograms are created from these images, along Darbandikhan town and the surrounding areas. These differential interferograms are then converted to line of sight (LOS) displacements using open source software (SNAP 8.0). The overall vertical displacement of the residential area of Darbandikhan was estimated from -4 to -10 cm after the earthquake, and the overall east-west displacement was ranging from 2 to 6.4 cm. The current study does not only examine the northern east of Iraq but the whole area of Iran and Iraq in general that lies within the influence of the earthquake. This research could be useful to estimate the overall deformation of Darbandikhan town in particular and the whole area in general. Therefore, the authorities and civil engineers could think of more sustainable buildings and structures before they start to plan within the area of earthquake impact.
The objective of this research was to assess the use of unsaturated water flow in terms of soil water evaporation, which was determined by evaluating some soil hydraulic parameters in different soil textures. The results show that the predicted values of these parameters, which were obtained through inverse modeling with the HYDRUS-1D software and depend on the change of the volumetric water content, exhibited a significant agreement with the measured values from laboratory or field simulation data for soil water evaporation at 5. 10. 20. and 45 days of measurement. At the same time, inverse simulation was conducted on soil hydraulic parameters obtained from a 5-day laboratory soil evaporation period to predict field infiltration values and water retention curve, which showed a significant agreement with measured values for all soil textures.
Adsorption is a well known effective technology for water treatment. Although limited capacities of adsorbents and regeneration issues are two common challenges. This study proposed and tested innovative approaches for improving adsorption/desorption of biochar made from macadamia nutshell (MBC). These approaches are capacitive deionization (CDI) and degaussing (full process detailed in methods), for the respective enhancement of adsorption and desorption of MBC. Nitrate was used as a model contaminant. It was found that CDI could extend the saturation time of MBC by increasing the bed specific throughput by 10 fold. Modeling of the breakthrough curves showed that the modified dose-response model fits well the experimental data. The regeneration of MBC with degaussing and deionized water backwash was compared with conventional tap and deionized water backwash. Degaussing increased the maximum nitrate recovery for deionized water from 50% to 73%. In comparison, the maximum nitrate recovery with tap water was 23%. The degaussing improvement of nitrate desorption holds for only the first 60 min. The obtained charge efficiency for MBC-CDI was slightly higher than literature values for the same applied voltage (78,6%). The degaussing system was also proven to be efficient with energy consumption of 43,7 J/mmol of NO 3 −. The possible mechanism behind degaussing improvement of nitrate desorption is the removal of the static charges on nitrate ion hydration. The regenerated MBC with degaussing and deionized water was tested with CDI for nitrate adsorption and compared to fresh MBC. The regenerated MBC-CDI exhibited better nitrate adsorption than fresh MBC for two cycles.
Soil supporting foundations behave in a nonlinear manner at loading close to its bearing capacity. This behavior affects soil pressure distribution and the corresponding stresses in the raft foundation, which differs significantly from considering the soil as elastic linear material. The present research uses the finite element method to study the effect of soil nonlinearity on the behavior of raft foundations subjected to concentrated loads. The analysis is based on the Winkler type of foundation. The analysis considered different values of the average soil pressure to its bearing capacity. The supporting soil was modeled as elastic perfectly plastic material. The effects of soil nonlinearity on the intensity and distribution of soil pressure, punching shear force, and bending moments in the raft are investigated. The effects of the foundation stiffness evaluation factor L·λ on the behavior of rectangular raft foundations were studied. This parameter combines the effects of the modulus of subgrade reaction, raft thickness, modulus of elasticity of concrete, and column spacing, as these parameters are interrelated. The results indicated that considering the subgrade soil as a linear elastic material underestimates punching shear and bending moments compared to modeling the soil as an elastoplastic material.
Impacts of blending fusel oil with gasoline on fuel combustion have been investigated experimentally in the current research to evaluate engine performance improvement and exhaust emission. Tested fuel include F10, F20 (10% and 20% of fusel oil by volume) and pure gasoline as baseline fuel have been used to operate 4-cylinder SI engine at increasing engine speed and constant throttle valve of 45%. The present results reveal a shorter combustion duration and better engine performance with F10 over engine speeds with maximum value of 33.9% for the engine brake thermal efficiency. The lowest BSFC of 251 g/kW h was recorded at 3500 rpm engine speed also with F10. All blended fuel have almost similar COVIMEP. Less NOx emission was measured with F10 at 4500 engine speed compared to gasoline. However, CO emissions reduced while higher CO2 was observed with introducing fusel oil in the blend. Moreover, HC emission increased an average by 11% over speed range and the highest value was achieved with 10% fusel oil addition compared to 20% and pure gasoline. Accordingly, higher oxygen content of fusel oil and octane number contribute to improve combustion of fuel mixture.
Air pollution caused by burning fossil fuel is a threat to human health and climatic change. Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and the resulting air pollution. This research examines the ambient air quality around the university highway of Northern Technical University (NTU), Mosul city, Iraq. Major pollutants such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and ozone (O3), were measured for a period of 90 days using mobile laboratory devices. Meteorological sensors were also utilized to record air temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity, and pressure, and all the data were analyzed. The pollutants concentrations were further analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis (PCA). The results revealed that the levels of NOx, PM2.5, and O3 were high, and the maximum benzene value was found to be 9.84 µg/m3 exceeding the established annual limit value of 5 µg/m3 by air quality guidelines and standards. The study is a valuable reference for air pollution and air quality data for Mosul city. The result could be helpful in monitoring and development of the most affordable strategy for air pollution remediation and implementation of control measures for the city of Mosul.
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1,048 members
Rakan Khalil Antar
  • Technical Engineering College
Eethar Thanon Dawood
  • Technical engineering College Building & Construction Eng.
Raid Daoud
  • Al-Hawija Technical Institute
Omar Rafae Alomar
  • Engineering Technical College of Mosul
  • Technical College of Mosul
Mosul, Iraq
Head of institution
Prof. Dr. Alyaa A. Al-Attar