Northern Illinois University
  • DeKalb, Illinois, United States
Recent publications
The circumcentered-reflection method (CRM) has been applied for solving convex feasibility problems. CRM iterates by computing a circumcenter upon a composition of reflections with respect to convex sets. Since reflections are based on exact projections, their computation might be costly. In this regard, we introduce the circumcentered approximate-reflection method (CARM), whose reflections rely on outer-approximate projections. The appeal of CARM is that, in rather general situations, the approximate projections we employ are available under low computational cost. We derive convergence of CARM and linear convergence under an error bound condition. We also present successful theoretical and numerical comparisons of CARM to the original CRM, to the classical method of alternating projections (MAP), and to a correspondent outer-approximate version of MAP, referred to as MAAP. Along with our results and numerical experiments, we present a couple of illustrative examples.
The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
This study highlighted how particular intersections of personal characteristics were related to Motivation to Learn (MtL) among adults. MtL is a prerequisite for adult education and training participation. However, little is known about MtL across subpopulations due to several methodological limitations. This study developed a national profile of MtL by key subpopulations that are defined by combinations of age, gender, education level, and literacy proficiency in the United States. Data were obtained from 2012/2014/2017 Program for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) restricted use file ( N = 8400). The alignment optimization (AO) method was employed to estimate subpopulation means of a PIAAC-based latent MtL construct. Subpopulations with younger age, greater educational attainment, and higher literacy proficiency showed significantly greater MtL.
The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed to meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.
The Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropics and has a documented influence on extratropical extreme weather through modulation of synoptic atmospheric conditions. MJO phase has been correlated with anomalous tornado and severe hail frequency in the United States (US). However, the robustness of this relationship is unsettled, and the variability of physical pathways to modulation is poorly understood, despite the socioeconomic impacts that tornadoes and hail evoke. We approached this problem using pentad MJO indices and practically perfect severe weather hindcasts. MJO lifecycles were cataloged and clustered to document variability and potential pathways to enhanced subseasonal tornado and hail predictability. Statistically significant increases in US tornado and hail probabilities were documented 3–4 weeks following the period of the strongest upper-level divergence for the 53 active MJO events that propagated past the Maritime continent, contrasting with the 47 MJO events that experienced the barrier effect, during boreal spring 1979–2019. The 53 MJO events that propagated past the Maritime continent revealed three prevailing MJO evolutions—each containing unique pathways and modulation of US tornado and hail frequency—advancing our knowledge and capability to anticipate these hazards at extended lead times.
The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerability of frontline employee (FLEs) to infections and other hazards and highlighted the importance of workplace safety practices (WSP) for service organizations. In response to the critical issue of service safety, we developed and empirically tested a model proposing that WSPs negatively influence FLE perceptions of pandemic related threats and positively influence their perceptions of organizational supportiveness (POS). In turn, these perceptions have time-lagged effects on two aspects of FLE wellbeing-reduced emotional exhaustion and increased work engagement. Utilizing data from a two-wave (separated by a month) survey panel consisting of 310 FLEs across the United States, we found evidence for all hypothesized relationships. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of our findings and provide suggestions for future research on service safety on the organizational frontlines.
This paper investigates the correlation of socioeconomic characteristics of communities close to Superfund sites with the duration of cleanup using spatial survival analysis with frailty effects. Census-tract-level data is used to achieve a more accurate representation of affected areas. We find evidence of slower cleanup in areas with higher minority population, particularly when controlling for EPA Region. Additionally, sites that are more costly, have high assessed hazards, and have a Community Action Group are associated with longer cleanup times, while sites which are federally owned and have low assessed hazards are associated with shorter cleanup times.
The objective of this paper is to provide an introduction to high-quality, practical, and evidence-based instructional resources from medical educators that can be adapted and adopted by accounting educators. The American Accounting Association (AAA) Pathways Commission Final Report set a goal of accounting becoming a learned profession by 2036. An AAA Presidential Scholar has advised that the achievement of this goal will require collaboration with other academic areas inside and beyond the business school. Responding to this call, this paper identifies a subset of Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE) Medical Education Guides that are relevant to accounting educators interested in problem-based learning (PBL), team-based learning (TBL), peer assisted learning (PAL) and reflection. Other opportunities for application of the medical resources to faculty responsibilities in teaching, research and service are shared to encourage accounting educators to learn from a well-established learned profession.
US students who are blind or have visual impairments do not read at the level of a third-grader with typical sight until, on average, halfway through the seventh grade. As a first step toward narrowing that gap, we investigated levels of linguistic awareness among teachers of students who are blind or visually impaired (TSBVIs) because research with general education teachers has demonstrated a link between teacher linguistic awareness and student literacy outcomes. We also examined the accuracy of dyslexia beliefs among TSBVIs and whether TSBVI linguistic awareness and dyslexia beliefs are associated with training and experience variables. A survey of licensed or certified TSBVIs (N = 236) in the US revealed that TSBVIs’ understanding of linguistic concepts was comparable to that of educators in previous studies, and TSBVIs’ overall beliefs about dyslexia were more accurate than those of other educators. Linguistic awareness was not associated with training and experience variables, suggesting linguistic awareness is not a focus of reading courses offered to preservice TSBVIs and they do not acquire it in the field. Master’s degree attainment was significantly related to the overall accuracy of TSBVIs’ dyslexia beliefs and years of experience working as a TSBVI was marginally associated with the overall accuracy of TSBVIs’ dyslexia beliefs. Only years of experience diminished the misconception that dyslexia is a visual disorder. Because TSBVIs did not appear to know less about linguistic concepts and dyslexia than other educators, the reading achievement gap between students with visual impairments and students with typical sight is unlikely to be attributable to underdeveloped TSBVI knowledge.
Pigmentation is one of the most striking examples of diversity in the natural world. Specifically, primate pelage (hair/fur) pigmentation provides a substrate for selection, and is tied to functions such as crypsis, signaling, and thermoregulation. However, most of our hypotheses on the forces responsible for primate pelage pigmentation are based solely on macro-evolutionary studies. Here, we test how distinct hypotheses around climate, age, and sex might be influencing pelage color variation in a wild primate population. We characterize pelage color and pattern variation within a population of wild diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) exhibiting striking diversity in coloration (melanic to tri-colored). Our approach jointly assesses climate and pelage variation across the region. We score pelage using a semi-quantitative methodology (n = 87 individuals). We then test if pelage variation is associated with climatic or demographic factors (i.e., sex–class, age–class) across the Tsinjoarivo forest, Madagascar. We find darker bodies and greater facial complexity in colder and more fragmented forests. We conclude that three explanations may explain the phenotypic pattern: isolation by distance, an environmental gradient, or local adaptation. Although it is difficult to reach a causal conclusion without genetic data, each scenario signals the need for enhanced conservation of diademed sifakas in the Tsinjoarivo forest. More studies on primate pigmentation in wild populations will be needed to contextualize if this pattern is exceptional or typical. We argue that primate color in wild populations may also foretell either adaptation or maladaptation (i.e., via environmental mismatch).
Background Fear of recurrence (FoR) is prevalent among breast cancer survivors (BCS) and may be exacerbated by avoidance coping. This study examined BCS with avoidance coping and their engagement in a FoR eHealth intervention (FoRtitude). Methods BCS (N = 196) with elevated FoR participated in FoRtitude. Patient-reported measures assessed avoidance coping with FoR and baseline emotional and behavioral health. Intervention engagement was measured quantitatively (e.g., website logins, telecoaching attendance) and qualitatively (i.e., telecoaching notes). Results 38 BCS (19%) endorsed avoidance coping, which was associated with more severe post-traumatic anxiety-related symptoms and worse global mental health (ps < .05), but not anxiety (p = .19), depression (p = .11), physical health (p = .12), alcohol consumption (p = .85), or physical activity (p = .39). Avoidance coping was not associated with engagement levels (ps > .05) but did characterize engagement-related motivators and barriers. Conclusions Avoidance coping was not a barrier to FoRtitude engagement. eHealth delivery is a promising modality for engaging survivors with avoidance coping in FoR interventions.
Deviation of the car from the lane is very dangerous and it leads to crashes. Hence, lane detection is one of the most important features that helps in maintaining the car stay in the respective lane. The main goal of this paper is to detect the lanes with road lane markings with higher accuracy under sharp curve scenarios. In this paper, lane points are extracted using image processing techniques, lane detection of solid lines and dashed lines using a combination of Augmented sliding windows and Clustering technique is discussed. Lanes are simulated in a laboratory for an input data set of 1388 images. The input data set consists of curved lines of dashed and solid lines which split and merge. This combined technique (Augmented sliding windows + clustering) is mainly used to detect the split lanes scenario. Further partially obscured lanes are also tested with the algorithm. The center of the lanes throughout the lane is calculated. Missing lane markings of obscured lanes are also estimated using the relative position of adjacent lanes based on lane width. The detection accuracy of Clustering and Augmented sliding window for the considered input dataset of 1388 frames is 97.70%. The algorithm is showing reliable accuracy in detecting the sharp curves.
The large number of closures of department stores in recent years has called into question the role of traditional brick and mortar stores in today’s retail environment. Under this context, this research investigates if the characteristics identified as significant contributors toward department store closures are consistent across time and how store closures are related to spatial accessibility. The study employs logistic regression to identify the main contributing variables toward department store closures and a 2-Step Floating Catchment Area Method is to measure the spatial accessibility of department stores. Findings reveal that early on, stores in the Western United States were the safest from closures but that effect wore off over time. Larger stores in large shopping centers were more likely to close but that effect wore off for JCPenney by 2010. Older JCPenney stores are more likely to close consistently across time, while Macy’s and Sears closures have no association with store age. The results also suggest that in general there are more stores in areas with lower accessibility but the proportion of open versus closed stores within the different ranges varies by chain, with a general trend of less closures occurring in areas with higher accessibility scores. These findings provide important information for industry practitioners and retail managers to make strategic decisions.
The violation of Bell’s inequality has shown that quantum theory and relativity are in tension: reality is nonlocal. Nonetheless, many have argued that GRW-type theories are to be preferred to pilot-wave theories as they are more compatible with relativity: while relativistic pilot-wave theories require a preferred slicing of space-time, foliation-free relativistic GRW-type theories have been proposed. In this paper I discuss various meanings of ‘relativistic invariance,’ and I show how GRW-type theories, while being more relativistic in one sense, are less relativistic in another. If so, the initial claim that GRW-type theories have a greater compatibility with relativity is unwarranted: both type of theories violate relativity, one way or another.
The current study examined the role of moral disengagement in cyberbullying participant role behavior among college-aged individuals. Participants included 434 students who completed surveys measuring their participation in cyberbullying, including online bystander role behaviors, as well as their moral disengagement. Regression analysis results indicated that moral disengagement was positively associated with cyberbullying perpetration, cyberbullying victimization, passive bystanding online behavior, and reinforcing online behavior. The current study furthers knowledge on the associations between online bullying-related behavior and moral disengagement and could lead to necessary cyberbullying prevention and intervention support for young adults.
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Hamed Alhoori
  • Department of Computer Science
R. Meganathan
  • Department of Biological Sciences
Michelle Kilpatrick Demaray
  • Department of Psychology
Winifred Creamer
  • Department of Anthropology
Holly P. Jones
  • Department of Biological Sciences
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