Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka
  • Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Recent publications
Background There is growing evidence for physiotherapy in the intensive care unit (ICU), but physiotherapy in the ICU and patients’ referral rate remains low in Nigeria. This study assessed the healthcare professionals’ perception of the physiotherapists’ scope of practice and skills in managing patients in the ICU of selected teaching hospitals in Southern Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional survey that involved seventy healthcare professionals working in the ICU who completed an adapted and validated questionnaire. The data obtained from the cross-sectional study were presented using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation, frequency distribution, and percentage. Results The mean age of the participants was 39.74 ± 7.08 years. The majority of the participants had a bachelor’s degree and had worked for a minimum of 5 years in the ICU, with all the participants working in a mixed ICU and 46.7% work in ICUs with four to six beds. Physiotherapists (PTs) are not posted exclusively to the ICUs, and PTs were reported to be on call in most of the ICUs during the weekdays and weekends. Patients were referred for physiotherapy by the physicians. Healthcare professionals had negative perceptions about PTs’ scope in airway suctioning, nebulization, weaning, and adjustment of mechanical ventilators, intubation, extubation, and changing tracheostomy tubes for ICU patients. Participants had a positive perception about PTs’ assessment skills in the ICU except for hypoxemia calculation, readiness for weaning, and the need for humidification. Conclusion Healthcare professionals working in the ICU in the selected hospitals had both negative and positive perceptions regarding certain areas about the scope of practice and skills of PTs in managing patients in the ICU.
Background Starches have been shown to be important across various disciplines such as the pharmaceutical industries, food industries and also paper industries. Starch is basically a mixture of polymers consisting of α- d -glucose as the monomeric unit. The goal of this study is to modify the native starches which were obtained from Zea mays , Triticumestivum and Oriza sativa through cross-linking (using sucrose and formaldehyde at different concentrations) and also to assess the utilizability of the modified starches as potential excipients [binder] for tableting of paracetamol. Results Maize and rice starches cross-linked with 2.5% sucrose gave the least percentage moisture content. The batches cross-linked with 40% formaldehyde showed the highest moisture content. The densities (bulk and tapped) of maize wheat and rice starches showed a reduction with the increasing concentration of the cross-linking agent for sucrose, which is the reverse case for formaldehyde. The different concentrations of sucrose and formaldehyde cross-maize, wheat and rice starches had pH values between 4.50 and 5.52. The onset and end set of the glass transition temperatures were varied for all the starches modified with formaldehyde. The melting peak temperatures obtained indicated that the formaldehyde-modified rice starch had significantly lower melting temperature than those of wheat and maize starches. Conclusions This study reveals that various concentrations of sucrose and formaldehyde had some influence on the properties of the native starches and resulted in the production of new starch motifs with improved or new functionalities suitable for use as drug excipients in tableting.
Objectives Physiotherapy has evolved over the years in training and practice. Physiotherapists’ perception of first contact physiotherapy (FCP) and the patient self-referral (PSR) practice model in Nigeria may form a basis for the actualization of FCP practice in Nigeria. This study assessed physiotherapists’ perception of FCP practice and PSR in Nigeria. Design and setting This study was a cross-sectional survey of 72 physiotherapists from purposively selected academic and health institutions. Methods A previously validated questionnaire on the global view of FCP and PSR was used in this study. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results The majority of the physiotherapists were aware of national legislation regulating physiotherapy practice (97.2%) and defined the scope of practice (94%) in Nigeria. Respondents who expressed the view that the expected competency of entry-level physiotherapy is sufficient for first contact practitioners were in preponderance (75%). More than half (52.8%) of the respondents perceived medical and political views, as well as professional skills of the physiotherapists as strong barriers to first contact physiotherapy practice in Nigeria. Conclusion Physiotherapists in Nigeria seem to intuitively recognize some form of first contact practice or direct access to patients, but unfortunately lack the legislative backing for such practices. There is a widespread assumption of professional autonomy among physiotherapists in Nigeria.
A sheet-like nano-biocomposite, comprising nanoplatelets of expanded graphite and thermosetting polymer resin from cardanol on the surface of cellulose nanofibrils defibrillated from rice straw has been fabricated. Blends of cardanol thermosetting resin (CTR) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with varying amounts of expanded graphite (EG) were used in preparation of the CTR/CNF/EG nano-biocomposites. Direct (shear) mixing with hot plate magnetic stirrer at 1100 rpm and high shear mixing with laboratory disperser (high-speed Ultra-Turaax IKA T25) at 300 rpm were employed in the fabrication process to obtain nano-biocomposite with homogeneous blend. Morphological and microstructural analysis revealed that rice straw CNF has a rough topography and an average diameter of 22 nm, while uniform distribution of EG nano-sheets was observed in the CTR/CNF/EG blends. Notable enhancement in the mechanical (71 % increment) and thermal behaviour (287 °C) were observed on inclusion of 5.0 wt% concentration of EG. Water absorption behavior of the nano-biocomposite was greatly improved at 5 wt% (70 % reduction) upon EG incorporation. Flammability analysis of the CTR/CNF/EG nano-biocomposites revealed significant enhancement in flame repression when compared to pristine CTR and CTR/CNF blends. An improved WCA (from 86 to 121°, a maximum increase of 51 %) and a high thermal conductivity of 0.98 W/ mK, a 239 % increase over CTR, was achieved for the nano-biocomposite with 5 wt% filler content. The results of the flammability, water absorption, mechanical and thermal properties of the fabricated nano-biocomposites suggest applicability in coatings systems and automotive applications, where weight reduction and the amount of VOC’s released to the environment is of great importance.
The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is a core concept of unsaturated soil mechanics. To date, while various SWRC prediction models have been developed, they require large datasets to generate accurate results. Most importantly, and uncoincidentally, obtaining large SWRC datasets from experimental procedures might prove costly, time-consuming, and sometimes rigorous; thus, making only limited data available for use. However, determining the inherent uncertainties in predictions when using finite data has been elusive. To address this problem, we propose a reliability-based approach using a Bayesian framework that is logical and rigorous for quantifying uncertainty in model parameters. The proposed Bayesian method is Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC). The HMC is a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method that applies the Hamiltonian dynamics to solve and update posterior distributions in Bayesian analysis. Different SWRC datasets and models were used to validate and test the efficacy and robustness of the model in making predictions. The results show that the method is so robust that even imperfect prior knowledge provides reliable SWRC prediction results comparable with other methods. Furthermore, computation time and cost are significantly reduced because of the small (MCMC) sample size required to complete numerical solutions.
This research examined the effect of selected chemical treatment on Banana fibre. The morphological, mechanical and chemical properties effects were investigated using the Scanning electron microscope, computerized Tensile machine and FTIR Instrument. The chemicals applied in fibre treatment were Alkali (NaOH), Permanganate (KmnO4), and Acetylation. The results obtained showed that the surface roughness of the fibres was increased, and the hydrophilic nature of the fibres was reduced. There was a void introduction on the surface of the fibre thereby providing better mechanical locking properties and reduction of water absorption tendency. The results of FT- IR spectroscopy showed gradual changes consistent with the removal of pectin, lignin, Hemicelluloses, oil, and waxes as chemical treatment time increased by comparing the changes in the intensity of the carbonyl-H, OH, CC−H, C−H and CO stretch. It also showed that the number of hydroxyl groups on the fibre surface decreased as treatment time increased. Alkali chemical surface modification treatment of fibres enhanced the properties of the fibres by disrupting hydrogen bonding in their network structure. Permanganate chemical handling accounted for the formation of cellulose radicals with MnO⁻³ ion formation and fibre surface modification treatment using acetic acid enhanced the reduction of the hygroscopic nature of the banana fibres leading to increased dimensional stability. Mostly, the α cellulose contents of the fibre were increased from 63.40% to 82.23% at Silane chemical handling, while the other major components were reduced comparatively. Mechanical properties of the fibres such as tensile strength, flexural modulus, and percentage elongation increased after chemical treatment. There was an increased loss in weight of fibres with increased chemical modification time which enhanced the mechanical properties of fibre strands.
Background Systematic reviews demonstrated that gait variables are the most reliable predictors of future falls, yet are rarely included in fall screening tools. Thus, most tools have higher specificity than sensitivity, hence may be misleading/detrimental to care. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the validity, and reliability of the velocity field diagram (VFD -a gait analytical tool), and the Timed-up-and-go test (TUG)-commonly used in Nigeria as fall screening tools, compared to a gold standard (known fallers) among community-dwelling older adults. Method This is a cross-sectional observational study of 500 older adults (280 fallers and 220 non-fallers), recruited by convenience sampling technique at community health fora on fall prevention. Participants completed a 7-m distance with the number of steps and time it took determined and used to compute the stride length, stride frequency, and velocity, which regression lines formed the VFD. TUG test was simultaneously conducted to discriminate fallers from non-fallers. The cut-off points for falls were: TUG times ≥ 13.5 s; VFD’s intersection point of the stride frequency, and velocity regression lines (E 1 ) ≥ 3.5velots. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curves (AUC) was used to explore the ability of the E 1 ≥ 3.5velots to discriminate between fallers and non-fallers. The VFD’s and TUG’s sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were determined. Alpha was set at p < 0.05. Results The VFD versus TUG sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 71%, 27%, 55%, and 42%, versus 39%, 59%, 55%, and 43%, respectively. The ROC’s AUC were 0.74(95%CI:0.597,0.882, p = 0.001) for the VFD. The optimal categorizations for discrimination between fallers/non-fallers were ≥ 3.78 versus ≤ 3.78 for VFD (fallers versus non-fallers prevalence is 60.71% versus 95.45%, respectively), with a classification accuracy or prediction rate of 0.76 unlike TUG with AUC = 0.53 (95% CI:0.353,0.700, p = 0.762), and a classification accuracy of 0.68, and optimal characterization of ≥ 12.81 s versus ≤ 12.81 (fallers and non-fallers prevalence = 92.86% versus 36.36%, respectively). Conclusion The VFD demonstrated a fair discriminatory power and greater reliability in identifying fallers than the TUG, and therefore, could replace the TUG as a primary tool in screening those at risk of falls.
Radiation induces deterioration to life, the environment and electronic gadgets. Also, the escalating quests in use of radioactive entities has induced increased radioactive hazards resulting in the need to fabricate advanced materials for efficient protection against the deteriorating effects of radiation. Inclusive of differing techniques to achieve radiation attenuation, the use of compounds exhibiting elevated atomic number (Z), including lead, has been attained. On the other hand, lead exhibit toxicity. Therefore, varying researches have investigated the use of minimally-toxic post-transitionally metallic-oriented compounds, such as bismuth. However, polymeric materials offer great prospects attributable to their inherent electrical, mechanical, thermal, as well as multi-functional dispositions. However, composites fabricated from polymers with elevated atomic number reinforcements facilitate attainment of materials exhibiting minimal weight, good flexibility, and exceptional processability. Therefore, this paper elucidates emerging advancements in synthesization of polymeric materials and nanoarchitectures for radiation protection, focusing on application of polymeric nanoarchitectures for attenuation of varying forms of radiation.
The inculcation of interlayer spacing sarchitectures between MXene (M-X) sheets is a simplified approach to inhibit restacking of Ti3C2Tx sheets and hinder this inclination. Hence, spacing architectural materials like conductive polymers (CP), carbon, and so on can undergo integration with Ti3C2Tx-M-X in order to benefit from their inherently electrical conductivity as well as elevated energy-storage disposition to attain a synergistic influence on enhanced electrochemical behavior. Furthermore, the intercalation of polymeric architectures into M-X layers presents another prospective pathway to expand the interlayering spacing between Ti3C2Tx-M-X, thereby further enhancing electrochemical capacitance as well as mechanical strength. Metallic oxides, susceptible to benefitting from wide oxidation states, can attain superior pseudocapacitance via redox reactions. Thus, energy-storage capacitance of Ti3C2Tx-M-X can be enhanced through the comingling with metallic oxides. Additionally, Ti3C2Tx-M-X layers restacking can be hindered through inculcation of transitional metallic oxides (TMOs) spacing architectures. Moreover, inclusion of conjugated polymers (CPs), serving as electrochemical materials, can hinder intercalation between Ti3C2Tx sheets. Therefore, this paper elucidates the effects of surface and interfaces on M-X and M-X polymeric nanoarchitectures properties and applications in energy storage devices and structures. Graphical Abstract
Background: Antibiotic resistance is currently the most serious global threat to the effective treatment of bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance has been established to adversely affect both clinical and therapeutic outcomes, with consequences ranging from treatment failures and the need for expensive and safer alternative drugs to the cost of higher rates of morbidity and mortality, longer hospitalization, and high-healthcare costs. The search for new antibiotics and other antimicrobials continues to be a pressing need in humanity's battle against bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance appears inevitable, and there is a continuous lack of interest in investing in new antibiotic research by pharmaceutical industries. This review summarized some new strategies for tackling antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Methods: To provide an overview of the recent research, we look at some new strategies for preventing resistance and/or reviving bacteria's susceptibility to already existing antibiotics. Results: Substantial pieces of evidence suggest that antimicrobials interact with host immunity, leading to potent indirect effects that improve antibacterial activities and may result in more swift and complete bactericidal effects. A new class of antibiotics referred to as immuno-antibiotics and the targeting of some biochemical resistance pathway components including inhibition of SOS response and hydrogen sulfide as biochemical underlying networks of bacteria can be considered as new emerging strategies to combat antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Conclusion: This review highlighted and discussed immuno-antibiotics and inhibition of SOS response and hydrogen sulfide as biochemical underlying networks of bacteria as new weapons against antibiotic resistance in bacteria.
The present research explores the synthesis of imidazolium based ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]) and its application for the protection of aluminum alloy (AA) in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte using gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), response surface methodology (RSM), density functional theory (DFT) and MD-simulation respectively. The studied (IL) showed appreciable inhibition efficiencies of 84.21 % for gravimetric, 90 % for PDP and 87.10 % for the EIS at 0.80 g/L inhibitor concentration and 313 K, respectively. The results of EIS and PDP reveal the corrosion inhibition process is charge transfer controlled, and the studied IL acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The optimization result via RSM model gave an optimum prediction of 84.21 % at 0.8g/L inhibitor concentration at 313 K. Adsorption of [BMIM][Cl] on the aluminum surface obeyed the Frumkin adsorption isotherm. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the formation of protective film of the inhibitor on the aluminum surface. Theoretical modeling were used to correlate the experimental results. The best fit of the theoretical models were functions of molecular structure and fractions of electron transferred from the inhibitor to the aluminum surface.
Background: Tyrosine dephosphorylation, catalyzed by protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP), prevents trypanosome differentiation to a procyclic form that lacks diverse mechanisms for survival within the mammalian host's bloodstream. Thus, differentiation to a procyclic form in the mammalian host's bloodstream would be potentially lethal to the parasite. This demonstrates that PTP is a critical regulator of trypanosome differentiation, making it a strategic therapeutic target for trypanosomiasis. Purpose: The in vitro inhibitory effect of seven compounds from the active fraction of Khaya senegalensis stem bark (4‑hydroxy-2-butanone, 1,3-butanediol, 2-methylpropyl butanoate, n-tridecanoic acid (CH3-(CH2)11-COOH), n-tetratriacontane, n-hexadecanoic (CH3-(CH2)14-COOH), and 14-pentadecenoic acid (CH2=CH-(CH2)12-COOH)) on the enzymatic activity of recombinant human PTP1B (MBL-SE332–0050) was investigated in this study. Method: The inhibition study was performed according to the standard procedure for analytical experiment and was monitored spectrophotometrically. PTP1B was assayed with 10 mM of p-nitrophenylphosphate. Bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol stem bark extract from K. senegalensis yielded the potent PTP1B inhibitors. Sodium orthovanadate was used as the positive control for inhibition. The kinetic parameters were determined by Lineweaver-Burk plots and calculated using Sigma Plot (SPCC Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) Results: The active fraction that contains the seven compounds inhibited PTP1B dose-dependently with an IC50 of 1.32 µM. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that PTP1B was inhibited non-competitively with a Ki of 0.46 ± 0.03 mg/ml, while sodium orthovanadate inhibited the enzyme competitively with an IC50 of 1.02 µM and Ki of 0.26 ± 0.01 mg/ml. Cleavage of the substrate para-Nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) by PTP1B showed a KM of 4.99 mM and Vmax of 0.053 µmol/min. Conclusion: The mixture of compounds tested is potent PTP1B inhibitors that could serve as scaffolds for new trypanocidal drug candidates that target protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity.
Objectives. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of interpregnancy interval (IPI) on the incidence of placenta previa and placenta accreta spectrum disorders in women with a previous cesarean section. Methods. A prospective cohort three-center study involving parturients who had previous cesarean section was conducted. Participants were included if pregnancy has lasted up to 34 weeks. Parturients with co-existing uterine fibroids, multiple gestations, premature rupture of membranes, and those with prior postcesarean delivery wound infection were excluded. The eligible women recruited were distributed into two groups, namely, short (<18 months) and normal (18–36 months) IPI. The outcome measures were incidences of placenta previa and placenta accreta spectrum disorder and factors associated with the occurrence of placenta previa. A univariate analysis was performed using the chi-square test or Mann–Whitney U test, wherever appropriate, to examine the significance of the differences in clinical variables. Results. A total of 248 women met the inclusion criteria. The incidence of placenta previa by ultrasound was 8.9% and 4.0% for short and normal IPI (odds ratios = 2.32; 95% confidence intervals = 0.78–6.88; p = 0.13 ), respectively. The incidence of placenta accreta spectrum disorder was 1.6% and 0.8% for short and normal IPI (odds ratios = 2.02; 95% confidence intervals = 0.18–22.13; p = 0.57 ), respectively. The only observed significant difference between the clinical variables and placenta previa is the number of cesarean sections ( p = 0.02 ) in women with short IPI. Conclusion. A short interpregnancy interval does not significantly affect the incidence of placenta previa and placenta accreta spectrum disorder following a cesarean section. There is a need for further study with large numbers to corroborate these findings in low- and middle-income settings.
This paper examined the efficiency of artificial neural network (ANN) and multivariate linear regression (MLR) models in the prediction of groundwater quality parameters such as ecological risk index (ERI), pollution load index (PLI), metal pollution index (MPI), Nemerow pollution index (NPI), and geoaccumulation index (Igeo). 40 groundwater samples were collected systematically and analyzed for mainly heavy metals. Results revealed that adopting measured parameters is effective in modeling the parameters with high level of accuracy. Contamination factor results reveal that Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cu have relatively low values < 1 within the region while the Iron values ranged from low contamination to very high contamination (> 6). PLI, MPI, and ERI results indicated low pollution. NPI results indicated that the majority of the samples were heavily polluted. Quantification of Contamination results revealed that most of the sample's quality was geogenically influenced. Igeo results revealed that most of the samples had extreme pollution. The health risk assessment results revealed that children are substantially prone to more health risk more than adults. The ANN and MLR models showed a high effective tendency in the prediction of ERI, PLI, MPI, NPI and Igeo. Principal Component Analysis results showed appreciable variable loadings while the Correlation matrix results reveal that there exists weak and positive correlation amongst elements. Based on the outcome of this study, this research recommends the use of ANN and MLR models in the prediction of groundwater quality parameters as they yielded positive, reliable, acceptable, and appropriate accuracy performances.
The need for a viable and sustainable environment has triggered the increased preference for eco-friendly agro-based biosorbents to synthetic ones. In this study, a super-absorbent hydrogel ('c-hydrogel') synthesized from a renewable agro-based precursor via polyacrylonitrile (PAN) graft copolymerization and subsequent hydrolysis was utilized for aqueous lead [Pb(II)] uptake. The chemical structure (using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FTIR equipment), surface morphology (using scanning electron microscopy, SEM equipment) and the physicochemical properties of the synthesized 'c-hydrogel' were investigated. Similarly, the effect of some process variables on the bio sorbent's adsorption capacity, as well as the process equilibrium and kinetics modelling, was also undertaken in the study. The isotherm data were best fitted to the Langmuir and Temkin model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 264.37 mg/g and fast kinetics of 40 min at pH 5.0. Conversely, the kinetic data were well fitted to the pseudo-first-order model. The 'c-hydrogel' showed a high water absorbency of 550 g water/g 'c-hydrogel' and demonstrated effectiveness, as a renewable and eco-friendly biosorbent for the aqueous lead ion [Pb (II)] removal.
As plastics, metals and agricultural wastes are mounting up daily, one major aspect of solid waste management is recycling of multiple solid wastes to develop functional materials. A ternary composite of aluminium filings, biochar from Delonix regia pod reinforced in solvated polystyrene has been produced via hand lay method. Thermal and microstructural properties are determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and SEM–EDX respectively. The functional groups present in the composite produced were also analyzed using FTIR. It was observed from the DSC results that thermal passage overtime decreases steadily then sharply and then increases steadily as the temperature increase. The heat capacity of 25% aluminium filler with 75% resin composite has the highest heat capacity as high as 2949.40 J/kg K while the biochar alone has the lowest heat capacity of 693.27 J/kg K. The resin has the heat capacity of 2120.90 J/kg K. Generally, the SEM image does not show any coagulation of either biochar or aluminium fillings to a particular area rather there was an even distribution of the fillers in the matrix thus a good interaction exists between matrix (polystyrene resin) and fillers (aluminium filings and biochar from D. regia pod). The EDX result confirms carbon (about 90%) as the major element present in the composite with traces of other elements like Potassium, Magnesium, Silicon, Iron and Calcium. The FTIR result shows the presence of alkane, alkene and aromatics which are basic components of the samples tested. Graphical Abstract
High-grade adsorbent (Fe–CS) was successfully synthesized from waste crab shells (CS) for the adsorptive removal of ammonia–nitrogen (A–N) from abattoir wastewater. Fe–CS was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy, and Thermogravimetric analysis. The characterization results indicated that Fe–CS possessed important qualities required for surface-driven chelation. The analysis of variance result showed that Fe–CS dosage (with f –value of 284.5) was the most effective process parameter of influence during A-N adsorption. The regression coefficients obtained from the process modeling illustrated the applicability of RSM ( R ² = 0.9799), ANN ( R ² = 0.9025), and ANFIS ( R ² = 0.9998) in predicting the A–N adsorptive removal, while the comparative statistical analysis established the superiority of ANFIS model over ANN and RSMs’ data prediction accuracy. The optimization result further demonstrated that ANFIS–GA predicted an optimum removal efficiency of 92.60% at pH of 6.5, a dosage of 2.2 g, A–N conc. of 18.8 mg/L, Temp. of 317 K, and adsorption time of 156 min. The mechanistic plot obtained from Weber–Morris model depicted that three regions were involved in the adsorption process. Boyd model parameters revealed that intraparticle diffusion controlled the process at low A–N concentration (A–N concentration ≤ 15 mg/L), while film diffusion dominated the adsorption process at concentrations higher than 15 mg/L. The average Gibbs free energy value ( $$- \Delta G^{0}$$ - Δ G 0 = 3.08212 kJ/mol), enthalpy ( $$\Delta H^{0}$$ Δ H 0 = 4.1150 kJ/mol), activation energy ( $$E_{A}$$ E A = 3.7454 kJ/mol) and entropy ( $$\Delta S^{0}$$ Δ S 0 = 22.9710 J/mol K) obtained from thermodynamic studies confirmed the spontaneous, endothermic, favorable and physical nature of the process.
The Chapters and Universities Mentorship Circle is a program designed to mentor student chapters in taking advantage of the benefits of SEG at their institutions. It was created by the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Geophysical Society (SEG-NAU) on 22 August 2021. Originally, five universities participated. Today, 11 universities from all parts of Nigeria are involved. Courtesy of the program, six student chapters have been reactivated and two have been created ( Figure 1 ).
Epoxidation-esterification of fatty acid methyl ester obtained from Anacardium occidentale kernel oil (AOKO), its characterization, kinetics and thermodynamics were the main focus of this study. The methyl ester obtained via base catalyzed transesterification was used for epoxidation-esterification modification process. Epoxidation kinetics and thermodynamics constants were also investigated. The properties of the AOKO and epoxidized-esterified Anacardium occidentale kernel oil (AOKO) methyl ester (MAOKOe) were determined using standard methods. Rate constant k for the epoxidation process was found to be in the range 4.15 ×10−5Lmol⁻¹s⁻¹ to 19.7 ×10−5Lmol⁻¹s⁻¹; while the activation energy Ea was 35.69 kJ/mol. ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS values for the epoxidation process were (131.59 to 144.40 kJ mol⁻¹), 32.97 kJ mol⁻¹, and −−320.20 J mol⁻¹ K⁻¹, respectively, indicating non-spontaneous, endothermic, and endergonic nature of the process. The physicochemical characteristics of MAOKOe were: 2°C, 293°C, 815 Kg/dm³, 7.54 mm²/s, 0.78 mgKOH/g, 0.92 mg/Kg and 42.23 KV, for pour point, flash point, density, viscosity, acid value, moisture content and dielectric strength, respectively. The MAOKOe properties indicated its potential for use as bio-transformer fluid.
Lagos is Africa's most populous megacity and one of the world's fastest-growing urban areas. Lagos city's land use and land cover (LU/LC) classes have changed dramatically in recent decades as a result of its continuing population growth and other human and anthropogenic activities. The UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development must be adopted in order to preserve the available land cover classes in Lagos. Goal 11 of the Sustainable Development Goals aims to make cities and human settlements more inclusive, safe, resilient, and long-term. The use of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) to track the progress of SDG 11 is an essential strategy. Remote sensing and geographic information systems were used to model and analyze the data in this study. To achieve this aim, remotely sensed data, such as Landsat 7 ETM+ and 8 OLI, was used to determine the rate of changes in Lagos from 2010 to 2020 by adopting the Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) and then project the likely changes that may occur by 2025 and 2030. Observed ground truthing information was adopted for validation and for checking the accuracy of the classification. The result shows that from 2010 to 2015 and to 2020, built-up area had increased from 11.73% to 12.81% and finally to 29.51%, while agricultural land declined by 11.84% to 3.37% and then to 2.99%. Water bodies and wetland percentages decreased from 19.00% and 19.50% in 2010 to 17.39% and 8.48% in 2015, and to 18.37% and 16.92% in 2020. Forest land and bare land classes have also changed from 25.4% and 12.52% in 2010, to 33.37% and 24.58% in 2015, and to 18.10% and 14.11% in 2020. The study shows that remote sensing and GIS are excellent tools for monitoring the environment and for the development of a sustainable city.
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4,650 members
Festus Okoye
  • Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry
Ken Ngwoke
  • Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry
Chide Okocha
  • Haematology department
Ebele Stella Nwokoye
  • Department of Economics
Michael Ezeani
  • Immunology Department
Enugu - Onitsha Express Way, P. M. B. 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Head of institution
Prof. Charles O. Esimone