Despite the enormous potentials of algal biofuels, their costs of production are still too high to compete with fossil fuels. Over the years, applications of algae have spread across various fields. These include applications in the production of high-value and high-volume products and in bioremediation. Making algal biofuels economically feasible requires the adoption of biorefinery concept which properly integrates all/most of the biofuel production with production of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics. Pigments, vitamins, or essential polyunsaturated fatty acids can first be extracted from microalgae before lipid extraction for biodiesel followed by fermentation of defatted biomass for bioethanol. On the other hand, agar, alginate, or carrageenan may be extracted from macroalgae before lipid extraction and the fermentation of lipid-free biomass to bioethanol. To ensure zero waste, spent algal biomass (SAB) can further be fermented or digested anaerobically to produce bio-butanol, dihydroxyacetone, or biogas. Alternatively, SAB may undergo pyrolysis or hydrothermal liquefaction to generate bio-oil, biodiesel, syngas, and biochar. Bioelectricity and algal biomass production may be integrated into wastewater phycoremediation in addition to flue gas sequestration which drastically reduces carbon footprints and addresses the problems of environmental pollution. This chapter holistically presents various integrated routes with respect to economic feasibility of algal biofuels.
Let $H_i$ (where $i = 1, ..., m$) be Hilbert spaces, and let $H$ be another Hilbert space. Let $A_i: H_i \to H$ be bounded linear operators for $i = 1, ..., m$. We introduce the Multiple Split Equality Problem (MSEP), provide an algorithm for constructing a solution to MSEP, and establish the strong convergence of the algorithm to such a solution.
This systematic review synthesized evidence for the development of a preparatory process for first-time dissectors, geared toward improving cadaver dissection (CD) experiences. Eleven studies focused on pre-CD intervention were selected from a literature search in PubMed, the Education Resources Information Centre (ERIC), Google Scholar, PsycNET, and the Cochrane Library. A three-pronged preparatory process was formulated for first-time dissectors based on the evidence from the review. The process includes (1) background assessment; (2) pre-CD education; and (3) gradual exposure and desensitization. The preparatory process shows some hypothetical potential for decreasing negative CD-related experiences, but it still needs validation before implementation.
Introduction/Objective Selenium (Se) deficiency has been speculated to enhance Oxidative inflammation in Pregnancy, leading to endothelial dysfunction, which has been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of Hypertensive disorders of Pregnancy. This study aimed at evaluating the Selenium Status of pregnant women and its role in inflammation and cardio-metabolism in pregnant women with Hypertensive disorders of Pregnancy. Methods/Case Report The study involved 200 healthy women with Single Pregnancy who presented to Obstetrics and Gynaecology clinic of IMSUTH Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. These subjects were recruited between 10 to 15 weeks of gestation. 52 of the them who subsequently developed Hypertensive disorders ;Preeclampsia (PE)-15 and Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH)- 37) were compared with their148 counterparts who remained Normotensive. The groups were matched for age, BMI, gestational age and parity. The blood Selenium levels were determined using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer, while ELIZA was used for Markers of Inflammation and Cardio-metabolic risk (Hs Crp, Lipid profile, Insuline, MDA,TAC, GSH). P <0.05 was considered statistically significant for all variables. Results (if a Case Study enter NA) There was significant reduction in the mean levels of Selenium in Pregnant women with PE and PIH (52.41 μg/L, 56.02 μg/L) when compared with Normotensive (68.84 μg/L). Hs-CRP, LDL and MDA showed significant increase in the study groups (PE and PIH) against the Normotensive group (p=0.001, 0.004 and 0.001) respectively. A significant reduction was observed in the TAC and GSH in PE and PIH (p> 0.005).. There was also a significant increase in the Insulin levels of the PE group compared with the Control group. There was a negative correlation relationship between Selenium and Hs- CRP (r = -0.533, r=-601), serum lipids and Insulin and BMI in the study groups. Conclusion From our study, Selenium deficiency may be associated with Dyslipidemia, impaired Insulin Metabolism and may serve as a predictive Risk marker of Heart disease in women with Hypertensive disorders of Pregnancy.
The bioremediation of Asa River sediment using agricultural wastes such as rice husk and abattoir effluent was investigated through characterization of the river sediment and agricultural wastes with the aim of finding a solution to Ilorin's low soil fertility. The physicochemical characteristics of the sediment were evaluated. Using a serial dilution method, various fungi were isolated from the river sediment as well as the organic amendments. The isolated fungi were utilized for the bioremediation of the river sediment, and the biological activities (basal respiration, dehydrogenase activity, phytotoxicity, and microbial biomass) during the remediation process were studied. The ANOVA method was used to analyse the data obtained from the bioremediation experiments. The results showed that the sediment sample contains high concentrations of organic carbon, organic matter, and heavy metals, which were attributed to industrial wastes and agricultural runoff. Results also showed that higher amounts of the metals present in the river sediment were very phytotoxic (p < 0.05) and prevented crop germination. A total of 21 fungi were isolated from the sediment and agricultural wastes, and they significantly degraded the heavy metals in the sediment. Among the fungi, Aspergillus niger was the most effective in degrading most of the heavy metals, except for nickel, where Fusarium solani had the highest degradation. This study presents bioremediation as a low-cost and environmentally benign technique for remediating Asa River sediment.
In this paper, the exponentially generated system was used to modify a two-parameter Chen distribution to a four-parameter distribution with better performance. Te property of complete probability distribution function was used to verify the completeness of the resulting distribution, which shows that the distribution is a proper probability distribution function. A simulation study involving varying sample sizes was used to ascertain the asymptotic property of the new distribution. Small and large sample sizes were considered which shows the closeness of the estimates to the true value as the sample size increases. Lifetime datasets were used for model comparison which shows the superiority of exponentially generated modified Chen distribution over some existing distributions. It is therefore recommended to use the four-parameter Chen distribution in place of the well-known twoparameter Chen distribution.
This research employed binary logistic regression and machine learning techniques; Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Support Vector Machine (SVM), to predict functional outcomes following ischemic stroke. The main goal was to determine the most suitable model for the dataset through a comprehensive performance evaluation. Four models were examined for predicting post-ischemic stroke functional outcomes: Decision Tree, Random Forest, Logistic Regression, and SVM. The evaluation involved metrics such as Accuracy, Precision, F1-Score, and Recall. The Logistic Regression model achieved the highest accuracy at 90%, accurately predicting outcomes in 90% of cases. However, it had lower precision (50%), indicating an increased rate of false positive predictions. On the other hand, the SVM model displayed the highest precision (71.3%), implying fewer false positive predictions. It also attained the highest F1-Score (77.5%), indicating a strong balance between precision and Recall compared to the other models. Notably, the Logistic Regression model achieved perfect Recall (100%), correctly identifying all positive outcomes, while the Random Forest model showed significant recall performance (93.2%). Conversely, the Decision Tree model exhibited moderate accuracy (66.11%) but lower precision (66%), F1-Score (6.15%), and recall (3.2%), suggesting challenges with false positives and false negatives. Choosing the best model depends on analysis priorities. For accurate identification of positive outcomes, the Logistic Regression model's perfect recall is advantageous. For balanced performance, the SVM model's high F1-Score makes it a compelling option.
Objective Prevalence and patterns of cognitive impairment were studied in older people from Nigeria. Method Four hundred and forty one participants (263 females; age: 60-87) were recruited from community dwelling adults in Anambra state Nigeria. Five domains of cognition were tested using the Uniform Data Set Version 3 (UDS-3). Result Prevalence: 49.7% were classified as normal cognition, 34% as borderline, 12.9% as MCI (2.72% with amnesic MCI) and 3.4% as dementia. We showed in descending order in that 13% of the participants were impaired on visual-spatial index; 6.8% on memory index; 5.2% on attention/concentration index; 2.7% were impaired on executive function index and 34.80% (based on mean) of the participants were impaired on processing speed index. There were significant interaction effects for gender and education on visual spatial and attention domains respectively. Significant effects of education were seen on executive function and processing speed while interaction effect was found on executive function alone. 8% scored 1.5 SD below the mean on MoCA. There was a significant effect of education on MoCA with the pairwise comparison showing a significant difference between tertiary education and other two levels of education. The groups did differ significantly for hypertension on MoCA. Conclusion This study showed a high prevalence of cognitive impairment among older adult population from Nigeria. A significant proportion of the sample were impaired on the visual spatial domain and at least half of the participants were impaired on one cognitive domain. Hypertensive participants performed significantly poor on MoCA compared to non-hypertensive group.
Over the years, Njaba has been known to be bedeviled with worrying gully erosion challenges. This is attributed to the geo-logic makeup of the soil and other environmental factors. Geophysical and geotechnical characterization of the soil within Njaba and its environs has been carried out with the aim of determining the potentials in the development and enhancement of gullies within the area. 23 vertical electrical sounding were conducted using Schlumberger array configuration with maximum current electrode spacing of 350 m, while two soil samples were also collected for geotechnical studies. The first layers were used to categorize the soils into competence and corrosive soils. Qualitative interpretation reveals that the sites are characterized by six (6) resistivity type curves, namely; 6-HK, 2-AK, 3-KH, 2-QH, 4-KK, 2-AH. The results from the iso-resistivity showed that the resistivities of the layers increased progressively with depth as the maximum electrode spacing increased. The transverse resistance calculated varies from 1408950 to 30987 Ωm, and the longitudinal conduct-ance varies from 0.03163 to 0.00099876 mho. From the competence and corrosivity rating, the soils were categorized from highly competent to moderately competent for the competence categories with varying resistivities of 2800 to 154 Ωm and for the corrosivity category, soils were categorized from essentially non-corrosive to mildly corrosive soils with varying resistance of 182.0 to 154.0 Ωm. The coefficient of anisotropy determined averages 1.25, 1.14 and 1.06 at three different sites. The results of the compaction tests indicate that the Optimum Moisture Content ranged from 11.1-11.5% is required to achieve Maximum Dry Density of the samples ranging from 0.18-2.15 mg/m3. From the study, it can be ascertained that the soil is of low compressibility. The study suggests among others that surface and subsurface flows and drainage should be controlled by directing water through concrete channels into lined artificial reservoirs or straight into lakes or river plains.
There is a high demand for sustainable biofuel to curtail the challenges of environmental pollution and scarcity associated with the limited hydrocarbon-based petrol concentrated in certain parts of the globe. In this research, an extraction operation was carried out to obtain tiger nut oil (TNO) using n-hexane. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were applied to examine the fatty acid compositions of the bio-oil and subsequent biofuel properties. The interactive effect of significant variables on the extraction and transesterification process was studied. The central composite design result confirmed optimum temperature (55 °C), catalyst weight (3.10 wt%), methanol-to-oil ratio (8:1), and stirring speed (550 rpm) respectively. The output corresponds to 92% biodiesel yield, indicating ± 7.02 standard deviation from the experimental practicable. The kinetic parameters were employed to model a chemical reactor geometry (radius = 3.0 m, reactor length = 9.0 m, mean retention time (MRT) = 3.42, and space-time of 0.30 min) at the optimum conditions. The finding confirmed that the biodiesel properties produced complied with the ASTM-D6751 and EN-141215 specifications, proving to be a reliable feedstock with better fuel properties over TNO-based biodiesel blends (B100, B10, B20, and B30). The research will provide a datum for comparison with other established bio-diesel feedstocks and require future investigation in the direction of the vehicular performance level and practicability of the TNO-based feedstock in the internal combustion (IC) engine.
Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women globally, with quality of life (QOL) being a major concern for patients with cervical cancer, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This is largely due to the advanced nature of the disease at presentation. Although there are a higher number of studies focusing on the QOL of high-income countries, the QOL of cervical cancer patients in LMICs is not available. The aim of this study is to evaluate QOL among women with cervical cancer in Nigeria using a 2-point assessment. Methods A multi-center prospective cohort study will be conducted in 6 tertiary health facilities randomly selected from the 6 geopolitical zones of Nigeria and consisting of a 2-point assessment of the QOL of participants at the time of diagnosis of cervical cancer and after treatment. Women who were recently diagnosed with histologically confirmed cervical cancer (treatment naïve) will be included. QOL will be assessed using Quality of Life Questionnaire domains (EORTC QLQ30) as developed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). In addition to the QOL assessment, relevant and clinicopathological variables will be obtained using a self-structured data extraction sheet designed for this study. All data will be anonymized and will be analyzed using SPSS version 25. Levels of QOL will be calculated using EORTC QLQ30. Ethical approval was obtained from National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC/01/01/2007-08/11/2021). Discussion In view of the paucity of data on QOL in LMICs like Nigeria, where most women with cervical cancer present with advanced disease, this research was designed to help in formulating evidence-based interventions to improve the QOL and treatment outcomes provided to women with cervical cancer in Nigeria and other LMICs. The study is expected to fill these knowledge gaps.
Background Timely access to safe blood and blood components is still a challenge in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine blood donation practices, processing and utilization of blood components across government tertiary hospitals (THs) in Nigeria. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study done in Nigeria in June–July 2020. Data were analysed with SPSS version 21.0. Results Data were collected from 50 THs. The majority (68%) of the THs lack facilities for blood component preparation and only 18% and 32% provide cryoprecipitate and platelet concentrate, respectively. Whole blood was most commonly requested (57.04%). All facilities tested blood for HIV, HBV and HCV, but the majority (23 [46%]) employed rapid screening tests alone and nucleic acid testing was not available in any hospitals. The manual method was the most common method of compatibility testing in 90% (45/50) and none of the THs routinely perform extended red cell typing. The average time to process routine, emergency and uncross-matched requests were a mean of 109.58±79.76 min (range 45.00–360.00), 41.62±25.23 (10.00–240.00) and 11.09±4.92 (2.00–20.00), respectively. Conclusion Facilities for blood component preparation were not widely available. Concerned government authorities should provide facilities for blood component preparation.
The modeling of the chemical kinetics of the transesterification of papaya seed oil (PSO) heterogeneously catalyzed using a novel catalyst, calcined hybrid banana and plantain peel ash (CHBPPA) catalyst in papaya seed oil methyl ester synthesis (PSOME) was investigated. The synthesized catalyst (CHBPPA) properties were ascertained using EDAX and BET. GC–MS was used to ascertain the distribution of the transesterified products. The kinetic study was conducted at the reaction conditions of temperatures of 50 °C, 55 °C, 60 °C, agitation speed of 600 rpm, methanol/oil molar ratio of 9:1, CHBPPA catalyst amount of 2.5 wt% and time range of 0–2 h. Two elementary reaction mechanisms; Eley–Rideal (ER) and Langmuir–Hinshelwood–Hougen–Watson (LHHW) were used for the kinetics study. A kinetic model based on methanol adsorption as rate-limiting step (RLS) in LHHW reaction mechanism is the most reliable representation of the experimental data. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were determined from the RLS of the transesterification reaction. The activation energy and frequency factor of the forward reaction were determined as 24.3 kJ/mol and 1.42 × 1039/h. The enthalpy change ∆H, entropy change ∆S, and Gibb’s free energy ∆G of the process were determined to be 24.3 kJ/mol, 75 kJ/mol/K and 1382 kJ. The extrapolative power of the developed model was verified by fitting the experimental data with proven satisfactory correlation.
Background: While the rate of Cesarean Section (CS) has been increasing in developed countries, the same cannot be said about developing countries, especially Nigeria. Despite the various indications of CS that may arise, the CS rate in Nigeria has remained as low as 2.7% as against the 15% acceptable upper limit, according to the World Health Organization. The level of knowledge, perception, and attitude toward CS among pregnant women have been found to significantly influence the women's decision to utilize this life-saving means. Hence, the researchers conducted this study among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Babcock University Teaching Hospital (BUTH), Ogun State, to assess their level of knowledge, perception and attitude toward CS. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional design was utilized. A questionnaire designed by the researchers was used to collect data from 200 respondents, and the data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 25. Results were reported with frequencies , mean scores and percentages. Results: Findings of the study showed that 78.5% had a high level of knowledge of CS, 67.5% had a good perception of CS, and 93% had a positive attitude toward CS. Around average (52.5%) considered CS a safe procedure, and 78.5% would agree to have CS if medically indicated. The majority (76.5%) believed that opting for a CS could save the life of the mother or the child. Discussion: In conclusion, the findings of this study show that although majority of the respondents had good knowledge and perception of CS, and were willing to accept CS when medically indicated, around one-third had a poor perception of CS, and around two-tenths would not agree to have it if medically indicated. Hence, nurses and other stakeholders are thus encouraged to always include CS lessons in antenatal teachings to ensure that every woman is knowledgeable enough to accept CS, especially when medically indicated.
The consumption of unrefined vegetable oil poses acute and chronic health issues, yet improper disposal of waste plantain peels is not environmentally sustainable. This research investigates the feasibility, mechanism and thermodynamics of waste plantain peels, and commercial bentonite clay for soybean oil refining. Experiment was carried out using masses (1–4 g) of commercial bentonite clay, and unripe plantain peel ash (UPPA) to degummed and neutralized free fatty acid (FFA) contents in crude soybean oil at varying temperatures (50–120 °C), and time (15–35 min) for treatment of soybean oil. FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, and XRF techniques were applied to characterize the sample. The results established that at optimum 4.0 g dosage, the UPPA (97.73%) was more effective in the removal of FFA from oil at 50 °C and 20 min, while the clay (90%) was more effective in the removal of colour pigment from the vegetable oil 100 °C, and 25 min. The optimum efficiency of Clay-Ash-composite (70:30) in adsorbing pigment from soybean oil corresponds to 80%. The impact of changing viscosities, densities, and acid values on the performance of UPPA, clay, and clay-UPPA composite was investigated. Mechanistic studies confirmed the pseudo-second-order kinetics at 5 × 10–2 g/mg min−1 and 1.87 × 10–1 g/mg min−1, with corresponding adsorption capacity of 30.40 mg/g and 4.91 mg/g, at R2 ≤ 0.9982. The UPPA-driven sorption of FFA occurred as a physisorption and exothermic process (− 620.60 kJ/mol), while colour pigment removal occurred by chemisorption and endothermic process (22.40 kJ/mol). The finding recommends UPPA and composite as economically feasible for refining soybean oil.
Pomegranate peel contains bioactive ellagitannins including punicalagin, a major bioactive principle. However, studies have not optimally recovered and evaluated these ellagitannins for their antioxidant and glycaemic control potential. In the present study, temperature dependent extraction was employed to optimally recover bioactive ellagitannins and punicalagin from pomegranate (variety “Wonderful”) peel. The peel was extracted with distilled water at different temperatures (25, 37, 50, 65, 78 and 95 °C) and evaluated for phenol and flavonoid contents, in vitro antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory activities. XAD16N resin was used to recover tannins from the extracts and punicalagin was purified from the tannin recovered from the 78 °C crude extract. LC‐MS was used to characterize the ellagitannins profile. The dose dependent anti‐lipid peroxidative and glucose uptake potential of the punicalagin and its parent crude extract and tannin were measured. The extract obtained at 78 °C had the highest phenolic, flavonoid, tannin and punicalagin contents, which potentiated a stronger radical scavenging, ORAC (IC 50 = 9.64 versus 15.6 and 25.6 μg/mL, respectively), anti‐linoleic acid peroxidative (IC 50 = 9.97 versus 19.9 and 27.3 μg/mL, respectively) and antiglycation (IC 50 = 29.1 versus 34.2 and 79.1 μg/mL, respectively) activities than the extract and the purified punicalagin. Similarly, the cellular anti‐lipid peroxidative and glucose modulatory effects of the recovered tannin (IC 50 = 3.67 μg/mL; EC 50 = 14.8 μg/mL) outperformed that of the extract (IC 50 = 24.3 μg/mL; EC 50 = 55.0 μg/mL) and the purified punicalagin (IC 50 = 59.0 μg/mL; EC 50 = 112 μg/mL), which may be attributed to the complementary action of the tannin's constituent compounds (punicalagin, ellagic acid, granatin A, corilagin, casuarinin, gallic acid and quercetin hexoside). The α‐amylase inhibitory data, however, suggests the purified punicalagin influences enzyme inhibitory potential of pomegranate peel. The study suggests tannin/ellagitannin purified from pomegranate peel aqueous extract obtained at 78 °C may be a promising dietary supplement for exerting glycaemic control and mitigating oxidative stress.
Background Healthcare workers were at the forefront of the COVID-19 pandemic. The acceptability and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines among healthcare workers was an important strategy in halting the spread of the virus as well as the antecedent implications on global health and the world economy. Objectives This study aims to determine the acceptability rate and barriers to COVID-19 vaccination of frontline healthcare workers in Awka, Nigeria. Design This is an analytical cross-sectional study. Methods An online cross-sectional survey was conducted from February 2022 to April 2022 to obtain the data for this study. One hundred healthcare workers were studied. Acceptability rate and barriers to uptake of COVID-19 vaccination were outcome measures. Results The COVID-19 vaccination rate was 45.0% among healthcare workers in study area of Awka metropolis. Ages 30–39 years had the highest acceptance rate of COVID-19 vaccination, 19 (47.5%; p = 0.262) with a more female preponderance of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance compared to males [26 (41.3%) vs 16 (42.2%), p = 0.721]. The place of residence of respondents (urban vs rural) and their marital status (married vs single) appeared not to influence the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination [(38 (42.2%) vs 3 (33.3%); p = 0.667; 25 (36.8% vs 17 (54.8%); p = 0.433)]. Years of work experience (<10 years vs >10 years) significantly affected COVID-19 vaccine acceptance [27 (45.8%) vs 12 (52.2%); p = 0.029]. Educational status and monthly income appeared not to influence vaccine uptake ( p > 0.05, for both). A significant number of respondents were not sure why they should or should not take the COVID-19 vaccine [49 (92.5%) vs 35 (83.3%); p = 0.001]. Conclusion The COVID-19 vaccination rate is still poor among healthcare workers in Awka metropolis. The majority of respondents do not know why they should or should not take COVID-19 vaccine. We therefore recommend robust awareness campaigns that will explain in clear terms the essence and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination in order to improve vaccine acceptance.
Background The rapidity of wound bed preparation is determined in part by the type of dressing agent employed. The extension phase in which the wound is characterized by the presence of sloughs and eschar and microbial invasion could be managed nonsurgically. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the rapidity of wound bed preparation using unripe papaya versus honey. Materials and Methods Sixty-four patients were assigned into two equal groups, each dressed, respectively, with unripe papaya or honey. All selected patients were monitored for eschar separation and bacterial clearance time. Data obtained with a pro forma were analyzed with SPSS version 25. Results Unripe papaya dressing had a mean eschar separation time of 5.53 ± 2.20 days and bacterial clearance time of 6.81 ± 3.64 days compared to the honey group which had an eschar separation time of 30.09 ± 27.90 days and bacterial clearance time of 15.33 ± 13.62 days. P <0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively, in comparing both outcome measures between the two groups. There was a statistically significant difference in both eschar/slough separation time and bacterial clearance time both in favor of the group prepared with unripe papaya. Conclusion The use of unripe papaya was superior to honey in wound bed preparation with respect to eschar/slough separation, bacterial clearance ultimately resulting in reduced length of hospital stay.
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