Nihon University
  • Tokyo, Japan
Recent publications
It is generally considered that warm rain is less likely to occur in urban areas where the air is polluted. However, heavy precipitation from shallow convective clouds is occasionally reported in Tokyo. In this study, we observed microphysical characteristics of warm convective precipitation in Tokyo on 19-20 August 2019 using an X-band polarimetric radar, a Ka-band radar, a cloud droplet spectrometer and an optical disdrometer. The radar reflectivity and the specific differential phase from the X-band radar tended to increase in the lower layers, suggesting accretion growth of raindrops. On the other hand, the differential reflectivity decreased in the lower layers, suggesting the presence of low concentrations of large raindrops near the echo top. According to range height indicators, precipitation clouds were composed of streak-like echoes. The Z-R relationship on the ground was close to that of the Marshall-Palmer raindrop size distribution. Mean cloud number concentration (Nc) was 370 cm⁻³, which was larger than the average of low-level clouds in Tokyo (213 cm⁻³). Parcel model simulations suggested that warm rain could be initiated when Nc < 1200 cm⁻³, although the threshold of Nc depends on the cloud base temperature.
Initial three-dimensional computed tomography and cerebral angiography fail to identify any aneurysm in 20% of cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Basilar artery (BA) perforator aneurysms are rare, and approximately 30%-60% were not identified by initial angiography. A 71-year-old male was transferred with a sudden onset of headache and loss of consciousness. Computed tomography demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage, but no ruptured aneurysm was detected. Repeat preoperative cerebral angiography indicated a bifurcation aneurysm of the circumflex branch of the superior cerebellar artery perforator, but microsurgical observation identified the BA perforator aneurysm. If the location of the BA perforator aneurysm cannot be clearly identified, as in this case, repeat angiography should be considered, and the treatment strategy should be decided based on a detailed consideration of the site of the aneurysm. Fullsize Image
This work investigated adsorption of carbon dioxide on Shirasu‐based materials with various pretreatment procedures. A Shirasu‐based material pretreated via calcination procedure followed by treatment in aqueous ammonia solution adsorbed significantly high amount of carbon dioxide compared with pristine Shirasu‐based material and the Shirasu‐based material pretreated via only solution treatment in aqueous ammonia solution. The ability improved through addition of appropriate amount of water before the adsorption process of carbon dioxide, and exhibited comparative adsorption amount of carbon dioxide with high performance materials previously reported.
In this article, we prove a generalized Rodrigues formula for a wide class of holonomic Laurent series, which yields a new linear independence criterion concerning their values at algebraic points. This generalization yields a new construction of Padé approximations including those for Gauss hypergeometric functions. In particular, we obtain a linear independence criterion over a number field concerning values of Gauss hypergeometric functions, allowing the parameters of Gauss hypergeometric functions to vary.
The purpose of this paper is to characterize Noetherian local rings \((R, \mathfrak {m})\) such that the Chern numbers of certain \(\mathfrak {m}\)-primary ideals in R are bounded above or range among only finitely many values. Consequently, we characterize the Gorensteinness, Cohen-Macaulayness, and generalized Cohen-Macaulayness of local rings in terms of the behavior of their Chern numbers.
In this paper, we discuss our previous experimental results and recent considerations on the preparation of solidified oxide eutectic coating on non-oxide ceramics by unidirectional solidification method using light focusing apparatus. As an example, an explanation is given here with regard to the formation mechanism of Al 2 O 3 -HfO 2 eutectic coatings on SiC substrate. The Al 2 O 3 component in oxide melt easily reacts with SiC and primary HfO 2 phase solidified on SiC substrate. However, the solidified HfO 2 phase also react with SiC substrate and HfC-HfO 2 graded functional layer is formed on SiC substrate and Al 2 O 3 -HfO 2 eutectic microstructure is formed on the graded functional layer
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a nonselective cation channel that is activated by a variety of stimuli and acts as a nociceptor. Mouse and human TRPA1 exhibit different reactivity to some stimuli, including chemicals such as menthol as well as cold stimuli. The cold sensitivity of TRPA1 in mammalian species is controversial. Here, we analyzed the reactivity of heterologously expressed canine TRPA1 as well as the mouse and human orthologs to menthol or cold stimulation in Ca2+-imaging experiments. Canine and human TRPA1 exhibited a similar response to menthol, that is, activation in a concentration-dependent manner, even at the high concentration range in contrast to the mouse ortholog, which did not respond to high concentration of menthol. In addition, the response during the removal of menthol was different; mouse TRPA1-expressing cells exhibited a typical response with a rapid and clear increase in [Ca2+]i (“off-response”), whereas [Ca2+]i in human TRPA1-expressing cells was dramatically decreased by the washout of menthol and [Ca2+]i in canine TRPA1-expressing cells was slightly decreased. Finally, canine TRPA1 as well as mouse and human TRPA1 were activated by cold stimulation (below 19°C–20°C). The sensitivity to cold stimulation differed between these species, that is, human TRPA1 activated at higher temperatures compared with the canine and mouse orthologs. All of the above responses were suppressed by the selective TRPA1 inhibitor HC-030031. Because the concentration-dependency and “off-response” of menthol as well as the cold sensitivity were not uniform among these species, studies of canine TRPA1 might be useful for understanding the species-specific functional properties of mammalian TRPA1.
This paper examines the significance of waterside space for the "quality of life improvement effect" from an urban ecological perspective. We measured the physical quantity of external conditions in the residents' living environment and surveyed the local residents' awareness of the role of waterside space in their living environment. The results showed that the natural environment in the region is relatively rich, and that waterside space contributes to the development of a sense of community attachment and settlement. It was also revealed that the "relationship with the Ochiai River" contributed to the improvement of the quality of daily life.
Ribonuclease (RNase) He1 is a small ribonuclease belonging to the RNase T1 family. Most of the RNase T1 family members are active at neutral pH, except for RNase Ms, U2, and He1, which function at an acidic pH. We crystallized and analyzed the structure of RNase He1 and elucidated how the acidic amino residues of the α1β3- (He1:26–33) and β67-loops (He1:87–95) affect their optimal pH. In He1, Ms, and U2, the hydrogen bonding network formed by the acidic amino acids in the β67-loop suggested that the differences in the acidification mechanism of the optimum pH specified the function of these RNases. We found that the amino acid sequence of the β67-loop was not conserved and contributed to acidification of the optimum pH in different ways. Mutations in the acidic residues in He1 promoted anti-tumor growth activity, which clarified the role of these acidic amino residues in the binding pocket. These findings will enable the identification of additional targets for modifying pH-mediated enzymatic activities. Fullsize Image
We previously reported that macrolide antibiotics, such as clarithromycin (CAM), blocked autophagy flux, and simultaneous proteasome and autophagy inhibition by bortezomib (BTZ) plus CAM resulted in enhanced apoptosis induction in multiple myeloma (MM) cells via increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress loading. However, in actual therapeutic settings, cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance between bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and MM cells has been known to be a barrier to treatment. To investigate whether CAM could enhance BTZ-induced cytotoxicity in MM cells under direct cell adhesion with BMSC, we established a co-culture system of EGFP-labeled MM cells with BMSC. The cytotoxic effect of BTZ on MM cells was diminished by its interaction with BMSC; however, the attenuated cytotoxicity was recovered by the co-administration of CAM, which upregulates ER stress loading and NOXA expression. Knockout of NOXA in MM cells canceled the enhanced cell death by CAM, indicating that NOXA is a key molecule for cell death induction by the co-administration of CAM. Since NOXA is degraded by autophagy as well as proteasomes, blocking autophagy with CAM resulted in the sustained upregulation of NOXA in MM cells co-cultured with BMSC in the presence of BTZ. Our data suggest that BMSC-associated BTZ resistance is mediated by the attenuation of ER stress loading. However, the addition of CAM overcomes BMSC-associated resistance via upregulation of NOXA by concomitantly blocking autophagy-mediated NOXA degradation and transcriptional activation of NOXA by ER stress loading.
We developed an optical time-of-flight measurement system using a time-resolved and mode-selective up-conversion single-photon detector for acquiring tomographic images of a mouse brain. The probe and pump pulses were spectrally carved from a 100-femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser at 1556 nm using 4f systems, so that their center wavelengths were situated at either side of the phase matching band separated by 30 nm. We demonstrated a sensitivity of 111 dB which is comparable to that of shot-noise-limited optical coherence tomography and an axial resolution of 57 μm (a refractive index of 1.37) with 380 femtosecond probe and pump pulses whose average powers were 1.5 mW and 30 μW, respectively. The proposed technique will open a new way of non-contact and non-invasive three-dimensional structural imaging of biological specimens with ultraweak optical irradiation.
Past research has assumed that a one-factor structure can illustrate the Implicit Theory of Intelligence (ITI), however recent studies revealed that rather two-factor structure could account for the ITI. Thus, the present study focused on two-factor structure ITI and examined whether the incremental theory or the entity theory affect more Grit that consists of perseverance and passion for long-term goal dimensions. The survey adopted 162 undergraduate students, who were asked to complete the questionnaire assessing about their items concerning the incremental theory, the entity theory, and Grit. The results of multiple regression analyses demonstrate that the incremental theory significantly relates to the perseverance of effort. These results suggest that the incremental theory would be one of the predictors influencing the perseverance of effort but not the consistency of interest.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) system plays an important role in stress response. Chronic stress is thought to induce neuronal damage and contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders by causing dysfunction of the HPA system and promoting the production and release of glucocorticoids, including corticosterone and cortisol. Several clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of herbal medicines in treating psychiatric disorders; however, their effects on corticosterone-induced neuronal cell death remain unclear. Here, we used HT22 cells to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of herbal medicines used in neuropsychiatry against corticosterone-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death. Cell death was assessed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and Live/Dead assays. Hangekobokuto, Kamikihito, Saikokaryukotsuboreito, Kamishoyosan, and Yokukansan were supplied in the form of water-extracted dried powders. Exposure of HT22 cells to ≥ 100 μM corticosterone decreased MTT values. Exposure to 500 μM corticosterone alone reduced MTT values to 18%, while exposure to 10 μM Mifepristone (RU486)—a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist—restored values to 36%. Corticosterone-induced cell death was partially suppressed by treatment with RU486. At 100 μg/mL, Hangekobokuto significantly suppressed the decrease in MTT values (15–32%) and increase in the percentage of ethidium homodimer-1-positive dead cells caused by corticosterone exposure (78–36%), indicating an inhibitory effect on cell death. By contrast, Kamikihito, Saikokaryukotsuboreito, Kamishoyosan, and Yokukansan did not affect corticosterone-induced cell death. Therefore, our results suggest that Hangekobokuto may ameliorate the onset and progression of psychiatric disorders by suppressing neurological disorders associated with increased levels of glucocorticoids.
Ungulate overbrowsing is a growing problem in forests worldwide due to its prolonged and pervasive impact on plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. It has been shown that overbrowsing not only reduces plant species diversity and biomass (i.e., direct effects) but also causes a loss of associated trophic levels that could potentially feedback to influence plant community structure (i.e., indirect effects). One of the primary pathways of such indirect effects that have not been fully examined is the impact of overbrowsing on soil microorganisms. Recent studies have shown that soil microorganisms maintain vegetation diversity and drive succession, so it is of critical importance to understand how soil microbial communities might be affected by or protected from the deer impact. To assess the consequence of creating artificial grazing refugia on the structure and composition of soil microbial communities, we compared the distribution and abundance of soil microbial taxa (bacteria, archaea, fungi) at the fenced versus unfenced control sites in the context of a catchment‐scale field experiment in Japan. The eDNA metabarcoding analysis of soil microbial communities showed that the numbers of archaea and basidiomycetes fungal species were greater in the fenced site than in the control, while no such pattern was found for bacteria and ascomycetes fungi. Despite the lack of significant influence of the fence treatment on taxonomic composition in the soil fungal communities, their functional guild composition was influenced by the fenced treatment, with significant changes in the abundance of animal pathogens. Thus, although the effect of fencing on soil microbial communities is characterized by complex responses that vary from taxon to taxon, our work suggests that creating ecosystem‐scale refugia from deer overgrazing might help sustain certain, if not all, taxa of soil microbial communities.
Purpose To investigate the incidence of intraocular inflammation (IOI) and its risk factors following intravitreal injections of brolucizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in Japan. Methods A total of 1351 Japanese consecutive patients with nAMD who were treated with brolucizumab from May 2020 to May 2022 at 14 institutions were examined. The variables analyzed were the number of brolucizumab injections, time to onset of IOI, and risk factors. Results IOI developed in 152 eyes (11.3%). Retinal vasculitis and/or retinal occlusion (RV and/or RO) occurred in 53 eyes (3.9%). Ninety-four patients received bilaterally, bilateral IOI occurred in 5 patients (5.3%). Sixteen eyes (1.2%) had irreversible visual acuity loss and nine eyes (0.67%) had visual loss of 3 lines or more due to RV and/or RO. The cumulative IOI incidence was 4.5%, 10.3%, and 12.2% at 30, 180, and 365 days (1-year), respectively. Prior history of IOI (including RV) and/or RO (odds ratio[OR], 5.41; P = 0.0075) and female sex (OR, 1.99; P = 0.0004) were significantly associated with IOI onset. Conclusion The 1-year cumulative incidence of IOI in Japanese nAMD patients treated with brolucizumab was 12.2%. Prior history of IOI (including RV) and/or RO and female sex were significant risk factors.
Background Only 80% of children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome respond well to glucocorticoid therapy. Multidrug-resistant nephrotic syndrome (MRNS) is associated with a poor kidney prognosis. Several retrospective studies have identified rituximab as an effective treatment for MRNS; however, prospective studies are required to assess its efficacy and safety. Methods We conducted a multicenter, non-blinded, single-arm trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with childhood-onset MRNS who were resistant to cyclosporine and more than three courses of steroid pulse therapy. The enrolled patients received four 375 mg/m ² doses of rituximab in combination with baseline cyclosporine and steroid pulse therapy. The primary endpoint was a > 50% reduction in the urinary protein/creatinine ratio from baseline on day 169. Complete and partial remissions were also evaluated. Results Six patients with childhood-onset MRNS were enrolled. All patients were negative for pathogenic variants of podocyte-related genes. On day 169, five patients (83.3%) showed a > 50% reduction in the urinary protein/creatinine ratio, two patients showed partial remission, and two patients showed complete remission. No deaths occurred and severe adverse events occurred in two patients (infection in one patient and acute kidney injury in one patient). Three patients needed treatment for moderate-to-severe infection. Conclusions The study treatment effectively reduced the urinary protein/creatinine ratio in patients with childhood-onset MRNS. The adverse events in this study were within the expected range; however, attention should be paid to the occurrence of infections.
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Jonas Aditya Pramudita
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering (College of Engineering)
Taiki Komatsu
  • College of Sports Science
Yusuke Echigoya
  • Department of Veterinary Medicine
Ken-ichi Matsuda
  • Department of Electrical Engineering (College of Science and Technology)
Takafumi Hayashi
  • College of Engineering
Tokyo, Japan