Ferrite materials have found applications in numerous areas, chiefly for hyperthermia in cancer therapy, targeted drug delivery and photodegradation. In this work, magnesium ferrite nanoparticles (MgFNPs) were formulated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a capping agent to tailor the properties and heighten the biocompatibility for suitable biomedical applications. The characterization results clearly showed the effect of PEG tailoring the properties of the formulated MgFNPs. A crystallite size with a value between 16 and 91 nm was determined from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed particles of spherical shape for all the samples and the particle size was enhanced as the concentration of PEG increased. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed a ferromagnetic nature for the samples with reduced saturation magnetization as the concentration of PEG was increased. The PEG concentration heightened the properties of the sample and can be highly optimized for suitable biomed-ical applications. ARTICLE HISTORY
Urban pollution is increasing at an alarming rate within the catchments of forested riverine systems in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. Assessing the impact of pollution in riverine systems in the Niger Delta region is still within the use of physico-chemical variables and biota-based assemblage. In covering this important gap in freshwater biomonitoring, we developed a macroinvertebrate-based multimetric index (MMI) that would be useful in monitoring, assessing, and managing forested riverine sites affected by urban pollution. We collected macroinvertebrates and physico-chemical samples monthly at 20 sites in 11 streams. Physico-chemical variables were analysed using standard methods while a kick sampling procedure was employed in collecting macroinvertebrates. The physico-chemical variables were used to classify the sites into three disturbance categories: least-impacted sites (LIS), moderately impacted sites (MIS), and heavily impacted sites (HIS). Fifty-nine candidate macroinvertebrate metrics were selected and screened for developing our MMI. We employed sensitivity, seasonality, repeatability and redundancy tests, and metric scoring in screening and arriving at the final metrics for the MMI development. Five metrics were finally selected for the MMI development: Trichoptera abundance, %Chironomidae+Oligochaeta, Coleoptera richness, Simpson diversity, and Shannon–Wiener index. Correlation in the selected metrics with physico-chemical variables showed that Simpson diversity was negatively correlated with pH in the MIS and Coleoptera richness was positively correlated with dissolved oxygen (DO) and water depth in the LIS. Nitrate, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), conductivity, and water temperature were negatively correlated with %Chironomidae+Oligochaeta in the HIS. This MMI can aid river and stream managers in assessing the ecological conditions of rivers and streams in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
Background Current evidences have implicated copper in amyloid aggregation that trigger the downstream oxidative stress-mediated neuroinflammation that characterized memory deterioration in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of D-Ribose-L-Cysteine (DRLC), a potent antioxidant agent, on copper sulfate (CuSO4)-induced memory deterioration and the biochemical mechanisms underpinning its action in mice. Methods Male Swiss mice were randomly distributed into 5 groups (n = 10/group). Mice in group 1 were given distilled water (control), group 2 CuSO4 (100 mg/kg) while groups 3 to 5 were pretreated with CuSO4 (100 mg/kg) 30 min before administration of DRLC (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg). Treatments were given through oral gavage, daily for 28 days. Memory function was evaluated on day 28 using Y-maze test. The isolated liver and brain tissues were then processed for oxidative stress biomarkers, and proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6)] assays. Brian acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were also determined. Results DRLC reversed memory impairment and dysregulated levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitrite and glutathione S-transferase in the liver and brain tissues of mice pretreated with CuSO4. The increased proinflammatory cytokines concentrations in the liver and brain tissues of mice pretreated with CuSO4 were reduced by DRLC. The elevated brain AChE and liver enzymes activities induced by CuSO4 were also reduced by DRLC. Conclusion Taken together, these findings suggest that DRLC attenuates CuSO4-induced memory dysfunctions in mice through enhancement of antioxidative pathway, inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and augmentation of liver function.
Ubiquitous toxic metal ions and pathogenic microbes in contaminated water affects the lives of millions of people globally. The synthesis of multifunction composites that can uptake metal ion from contaminated water and simultaneously inhibit the growth of microbes is a novel concept. This study developed composite substances from fennel seeds impregnated with binary nanoparticles of CuO-ZnO. These composites were used to remove Cr(VI) from water and inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. SEM analysis of the surface of the starting material showed various sizes and shapes of pores. In contrast, the composites showed unique surface morphology cavity features and a rough texture. FTIR spectra indicated that peaks for (–OH), (–C=O) and (–COOH) shifted in the composites. The Freundlich model and PSO described the uptake process. The highest adsorption capacity recorded at pH 2 and 308 K were 75.96 and 84.77 mg/g for FS/CuO-ZnO[1:2] and FS/CuO-ZnO[2:1], respectively. Cr(VI) uptake was due to different adsorption processes such as electrostatic attraction, weak hydrogen bond and Cr(VI)–π complexation. The values of ΔGo became more negative when the solution temperature was increased. Data for ΔHo revealed that adsorption was controlled by chemisorption. The antibacterial assays indicated that the materials are effective in preventing the growth of microbes. The incorporation of CuO-ZnO onto the fennel seeds improved their antimicrobial activity. PFS were ineffective against E. coli but effective (MIC- 50 μg/mL) against S. aureus. Furthermore, composites were more effective against S.aureus (MIC- 25 μg/mL) than E.coli (MIC- 50 μg/mL).
The principle of common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR), as one of the differing senses in which the concept of responsibility is used, represents an exception to the rules governing the equal treatment of States under international law. Its centrality in discussions relating to addressing global challenges has led to its recognition as a potent tool for examining the principle of solidarity. While the status of solidarity as a principle in international law remains uncertain, its influence as a moral value and as a tool for critical analysis of the law are clear. As such, there is a need to examine the extent to which solidarity influences the CBDR principle and vice versa particularly from a conceptual perspective. Drawing out the normative implications of the conceptual nexus between the CBDR principle and solidarity will form the foundation for the development and interpretation of international law in this regard. The chapter develops this argument as follows. It first discusses responsibility under international law as the foundation for the discussion of the CBDR principle. Secondly, the conceptual connections CBDR shares with solidarity will be explained. Thirdly, the chapter will discuss select reference areas of international law to determine the extent to which these connections are currently manifest. Finally, the chapter concludes with recommendations targeted at further strengthening of the CBDR principle as a platform for solidarity in the development of international law.KeywordssolidarityresponsibilityCBDR principleinternational lawInternational Environmental Law (IEL)climate changeozone layer protectionbiodiversity
The Stubbs Creek Forest Reserve (SCFR), which was officially established in 1930, is a biodiversity hotspot containing various ecosystem types, including freshwater, mangrove swamps and beach ridges, which formed a habitat to a variety of flora, fauna and microbes. Biodiversity of the reserve had sustained local communities in the area for decades, especially for the provision of food and edible fruits, water, timber and non-timber forest products, fuelwood, building materials, fibre, medicinal herbs and spices. The reserve is currently being threatened by several factors. Exotic nipa palm that was introduced into the area in the 1900s is fast displacing indigenous mangrove vegetation, not just in the forest reserve alone but in the entire Nigerian coastline. Oil exploration, which started in the area in the 1950s, opened up the area for human encroachment, farming, wood logging, waste disposal and palm wine tapping which is now threatening the survival of the forest reserve. Except urgent steps are taken to control unstainable resource exploitation in the forest reserve, the biodiversity of the area could be destroyed beyond remedy within few years.
Soil pollution, as one of the primary recipients of toxins, should not be a hidden secret anymore. There are many dangers associated with soil pollution, but its effects reach more than just the dimension of soil, as soil pollutants might negatively impact both human as well as ecological health. This review adds to increase in awareness of the problems faced by soil from pollution by bringing together a science-based approach to soil contamination as well as the interconnection with other global environmental challenges. As the Planetary Health and One Health initiatives stress, ecosystems and human health are inextricably linked, but none is isolated from one another. Toxins from polluted soil can affect all environmental compartments, including water, food, and air, as well as organisms, including humans. However, soil pollution cannot be effectively addressed without addressing pollution and its sources. As a result of soil pollution, ecosystem services can be lost, as well as serious economic losses and social injustices jeopardize the attainment of the 2030 Agenda at risk. Among the top contaminants sources resulting in soil contamination (order of significance) are mining, industrial operations, agriculture, waste treatment, extraction as well as processing of fossil fuels, as well as transportation emissions. However, there is not anything solid as well as comparable statistics on each sector's real emissions. Most contaminant releases to soil, with the exception of pesticide inputs, remain difficult to quantify and, as a result, continue to be highly unknown. Contaminants from industries continue to enter the environment at several phases of their whole life cycle, together with manufacture, contaminant manufacturing containing commodities, transportation, usage, as well as disposal are all factors to consider. Global yearly industrial chemical output has nearly quadrupled to over 2.3 billion tons in recent years, with an 85% rise expected by 2030. If production and consumption patterns do not change rapidly, environmental pollution and erosion are thus predicted to worsen unless there is a commitment towards true sustainable management of the environment that fully respects nature. Despite decades of research, there remain remarkable knowledge gaps and great uncertainty regarding the quantity and scope of affected locations, which is exacerbated by new contaminants contributing to the situation. There is a growing gap in knowledge regarding soils impacted through pollution diffusion as well as its influence on other environmental compartments has grown even wider.
Biodiversity is critically threatened in sub-Saharan Africa (hereafter SSA). Concerns in the form of declarations, conventions, treaties and communiques have been issued and held severally in SSA. Whereas these efforts are commendable, what is responsible for the inertia on biodiversity conservation by state authorities in SSA, especially resource-rich states? How many such conferences were to be held and declarations issued in the future to spur states of SSA into assertive action? Is it greening the environment unending? Worried by the foregoing questions, this chapter interrogates the sterility of assertive actions on biodiversity conservation by state authorities in SSA. This chapter relies on the Rentier State Theory (RST) as its theoretical handle and argues that to the extent that resource-rich states such as Nigeria, Angola, Gabon, Ghana, South Sudan, Equatorial Guinea and others are rentier states whose economic well-being and sustainability depend on economic rents/royalties which make them to have an asymmetry between economic development and biodiversity conservation, biodiversity protection remains rhetoric. The chapter is entirely qualitative. It concludes that while countless declarations, conventions, treaties and even communiques have been ratified and deposited by resource-rich states of SSA, these efforts remain ephemeral—as rentier states are ever reluctant to engage in sustainable resource extraction strategies in so far as economic rents accrue to their coffers. Therefore, this chapter recommends that resource-rich states of SSA should negotiate their economies away from the present knee-deep dependence on non-renewable resource exploitation to renewable resource extraction for the sake of biodiversity conservation; moreover, it is the international best practice.
Biodiversity loss is among the most urgent environmental concerns of our day, since it is a crucial element of the Earth’s backup systems, with direct impacts on human civilization. We examined the problems and conservation strategies, the role of governmental and nongovernmental stakeholders, as well as scientific data on the degree of biodiversity loss and the factors influencing it. The major direct cause of the continual mass extinction of populations and species of other creatures is the land conversion for agricultural purposes. Biodiversity loss is typically measured in terms of the degree of loss of species variety for practical reasons. Species populations, on the other hand, which are decreasing at an alarming rate than species, provide humanity with the benefits of biodiversity. Demographic heterogeneity has an impact on human health. Different populations of the same species may create different kinds or amounts of defensive chemicals (possible medicinal or pesticide substances). Thus, man’s well-being and the sustenance of his livelihood remain inextricably linked to biodiversity. As a result, there is a worldwide concern for biodiversity preservation and conservation in order for man to continue to preserve his livelihood. Industrial development is a component of man’s overall development activities. As beneficial as industries are, their expansion has negative effects. This study reviewed the threatened biodiversity caused by man’s varied activities and urged all levels of government and non-governmental organizations in Nigeria to prioritize biodiversity protection. This suggests that industrialization, urbanization, biodiversity loss, increasing desertification, greenhouse warming, water and air pollution, as well as hazardous waste buildup have had a deleterious impact on the ecosystem. Conserving natural resources is thought to give social, economic, visual, and aesthetic advantages that will maintain the citizens’ sound and qualitative health. This can be accomplished primarily through recognizing, comprehending, appreciating, and/or integrating endogenous and exogenous technologies.
Aim: Paediatric gastroenterology remains an under-recognised sub-speciality in Africa. We determined the preferred sub-specialities among paediatric residents in Southwest Nigeria and what influenced whether they chose paediatric gastroenterology. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of paediatric residents in seven teaching hospitals in Southwest Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on their socio-demographics, educational attainment, choice of sub-speciality and the factors influencing that choice. Results: Of 144 eligible paediatric residents, 124 (86.1%) completed the survey. Their mean age was 35.0 ± 1.7 years and 83 (66.9%) were females. The majority (94.4%) had already chosen their sub-speciality and nearly two-thirds (65.0%) made the decision during training. The most popular sub-speciality was neonatology (30.6%) and only three (2.4%) residents chose gastroenterology. Factors influencing the choice of sub-speciality were perceived ability (85.3%) and academic experience (83.8%). Financial reasons were less frequent (32.5%). Lack of diagnostic equipment (30.6%) and role models (21.0%) were the most frequent reasons for residents being disinterested in paediatric gastroenterology. Conclusion: Few residents were interested in paediatric gastroenterology and there is a need to encourage interest in this subject at an early stage in their training and provide more diagnostic equipment and greater mentorship.
Inadequate attention is given to the influence of local women in fostering peace. Scholars and policymakers in striving to plug this deficit now pay more attention to the contributions women make to peace. This article supports this reorientation and makes a case for encouraging local women in peace processes by pointing out the difficulties in ending conflict when they channel their efforts to conflict exacerbation out of being denied formal spaces to contribute to peace. Using events from the conflict in Liberia (1989–2003), Burundi (1993–2005) and Sudan’s Darfur (2007 to date), this study points to the significance of harnessing the energies of local women in forging peace during conflict and sustaining it post conflict. Using descriptive analysis, this article argues in support of conventional feminist thought that the absence of women from peace initiatives conjures a vital missing link in achieving stability.
As the world population increases, the generation of waste bones will multiply exponentially, increasing landfill usage and posing health risks. This review aims to shed light on technologies for recovering valuable materials (e.g., alkaline earth material oxide such as CaO, hydroxyapatite, beta tri-calcium phosphate, phosphate and bone char) from waste bones, and discuss their potential applications as an adsorbent, catalyst and catalyst support, hydroxyapatite for tissue engineering, electrodes for energy storage, and phosphate source for soil remediation. Waste bone derived hydroxyapatite and bone char have found applications as a catalyst or catalyst support in organic synthesis, selective oxidation, biodiesel production, hydrocracking of heavy oil, selective hydrogenation and synthesis of bioactive compounds. With the help of this study, researchers can gather comprehensive data on studies regarding the recycling of waste bones, which will help them identify material recovery technologies and their applications in a single document. Furthermore, this work identifies areas for further research and development as well as areas for scaling-up, which will lead to reduced manufacturing costs and environmental impact. The idea behind this is to promote a sustainable environment and a circular economy concept in which waste bones are used as raw materials to produce new materials or for energy recovery.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important organic group in particulate matter which has attracted much attention among the scientific community in terms of health risk because of their carcinogenic, mutagenic, and ubiquitous nature in the environment. In this study, PAHs in particulate matter in Okitipupa were determined. Indoor and outdoor particle samples were sampled with the aid of SKC Air Check XR5000 high-volume gravimetric sampler, and analyzed using gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The results obtained showed that high molecular weight PAHs (5-ring, 6-ring PAHs) had higher mean concentration than low molecular weight PAHs (2-ring, 3-ring PAHs), in both indoor and outdoor particulate matter. Health risk assessments from exposure to these PAHs were also determined using toxicity equivalence quotient (TEQ), mutagenicity equivalence quotient (MEQ), incremental life cancer risk (ILCR), and hazard quotient (HQ). Dibenz(a,h)anthracene had the highest mean concentration across the sample location in both indoor and outdoor with values ranging from 33 to 31 and 90 to 93 µg/m³ respectively. The total mean concentration in outdoor PAHs ranged from 280 to 329 µg/m³, while total mean concentration in indoor PAHs ranged from 74 to 104 µg/m³. The incremental lifetime cancer risk in indoor ranged from 6.9 × 10–7 to 1.2 × 10–5, while the ILCR in outdoor ranged from 8.5 × 10–6 to 1.0 × 10–5. The hazard quotient in indoor ranged from 7.6 × 10–5 to 2.2 × 10–3, while the HQ in outdoor ranged from 10 × 10–4 to 1.4 × 10–3. These values are within the WHO permissible limit, and therefore underscores the danger associated with the inhalation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Okitipupa.
The potential of phytoremediation of oil-based drill cuttings contaminated soil was assessed by measuring the level of petroleum hydrocarbons reduction. The contamination experiment was simulated in a randomized complete block design by factorial of 6 x 3 x 2 x 2 for grass species (Pennisitum purpureum, Panicum maximum, Andropogon gayanus, Heteropogon contortus, Axonopus compressus, and Chloris virgata), drill cuttings treatments (0%, 25%, and 50% oil-based drill cuttings contamination), time (0 day of planting and 105 days of harvesting), and growth stage (young and mature). The parameters assessed were total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, roots and shoots, bioconcentration factor in roots and shoots, and translocation factor. The TPH reductions achieved in 25% treatment level were young A. compressus (58.01%), mature P. purpureum, young A. gayanus and C. virgata (44.24%), young P. purpureum (27.67%), mature A. compressus (25.29%), mature H. contortus (2.56%), mature P. maximum (4.01%), and unplanted soils (2.10%). Thus young A. compressus, A. gayanus, C. virgata, and mature P. purpureum are recommended for TPH reduction in 25% oil-based drill cuttings contaminated soils. Young P. purpureum and mature A. compressus can be used to achieve 25% - 27% TPH reduction.
Background Several case reports abound in literature about cases of histoplasmosis misdiagnosed as tuberculosis (TB). Nigeria is one of the highest TB burdened countries but data on histoplasmosis in Nigeria are sparse in the literature. The aim of this research was to investigate patients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Calabar, Nigeria, for histoplasmosis. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 213 participants with presumptive diagnosis of pulmonary TB between April 2020 and March 2021. Urine samples were collected from selected patients for Histoplasma antigen test using enzyme immunoassay assay kits (IMMY, USA), while sputum samples were collected for GeneXpert test for confirmed diagnosis of TB and conventional PCR for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis. Results Of the 213 participants enrolled into the study, ninety-four subjects (44.0%) were confirmed TB patients, 75 (35.0%) were HIV-positive, 41 (19.0%) had advanced HIV disease (AHD), while 138 (37.0%) were HIV-negative. Twenty-seven of the 213 participants were positive for Histoplasma by antigen test and/or PCR, giving an overall prevalence rate of 12.7%. The prevalence of histoplasmosis amongst confirmed TB patients of 7.0% (7/94) was significantly lower than 16.8% (20/119) in unconfirmed TB patients (p = 0.04). Participants on anti-TB therapy also had significantly lower rate of histoplasmosis compared to those not on anti-TB drugs (p = 0.00006). Conclusion Histoplasmosis is not uncommon amongst presumptive TB patients. There should be proper microbiological investigation of patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of TB to exclude cases of histoplasmosis.
This article focuses on the language of the praise poetry of Chief Adolphus Munamuna of the Ịzọn ethnic group, located in Nigeria’s oil-rich Niger Delta region. It examines the extent to which the Ịjọ bard makes use of such stylistic devices as parallelism, ideophone, praise title, metaphor, simile, alliteration, assonance, and personification, amongst others. The article points out that the Otuan-born poet deliberately contrives elements of style to achieve balance, develop ideas and build up his chants. Moreover, the article highlights that some of the stylistic devices add drama and liveliness to the performances of the bard. In addition, the poetic qualities provide a musical element to the chants, as well as vividness to the events described.
Background: Monitoring the occurrence of tetracycline resistance and its determinants in both clinical and nonclinical settings is essential in understanding the role played by continuous usage of this drug in animal husbandry and the withdrawal of this drug from clinical practice. Limited information is available on this from our locale. This study, therefore, set out to explore the occurrence of specific tetracycline-resistant genes in Escherichia coli from clinical and nonclinical sources in Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods: Two hundred clinical and nonclinical samples were analyzed for the presence of E. coli using standard phenotypic and genotypic tests. Susceptibility testing was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, and specific tetracycline-resistant genes (tetA, tetB, tetG, and tetM) were assayed. Results: Results showed that stool samples had the highest occurrence of E. coli (39, 78%), and soil had the lowest (13, 26%). Tetracycline resistance was observed in 80.7% of total isolates. The tetA genes were the most commonly occurring (n = 80, 89.9%) detected in confirmed E. coli isolates, and tetG, the least commonly occurring (n = 16,18%) of isolates. The combined presence of tetA-tetM was the highest (n = 14, 15.7%), followed by tetA-tetB (n = 13, 14.8%). Conclusion: The present study reports on the occurrence and distribution of four tetracycline-resistant determinants in E. coli from clinical and nonclinical sources in Rivers State, Nigeria. The high-level occurrence of the most commonly occurring tetracycline gene even in nonclinical isolates could be indicative of a potential reservoir of this resistance. And, this could limit the reintroduction of tetracycline even in combination therapy.
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