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    ABSTRACT: The design of high-Q resonators such as Xylophone Bar Resonators (XBRs) capable of being fabricated using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) processes is of considerable interest in light of the widespread and rapidly growing use of systems dependent on their availability and performance. This paper is concerned with vibration analysis and Q optimisation of an XBR, with the method extending directly to other planar frames and straightforwardly to more complex structures. The Rayleigh–Ritz method is discussed in some detail, first treating the discrete case, followed by developing and applying a kinematical procedure to an L-frame structure. Attention is given to geometric interpretation of the Rayleigh–Ritz procedure and to developing an intuitive understanding the method before turning to the XBR case. Having developed an approximation for system dynamics, the results are used in conjunction with an analytical model of elastic wave propagation in the substrate to obtain an estimate for the support Q factor. Natural frequencies, mode shapes, and support Q values are presented and compared to Finite Element models of the same problem, with excellent agreement observed at substantially lower computational cost. For the first time in the literature, the geometric impedance tuning principle underlying the XBR design is validated and quantified, including sensitivity to manufacturing error.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Sound and Vibration
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    ABSTRACT: Influenced by globalisation, internationalisation and different social needs it appears that the higher education is currently changing from an input-output based professor-led approach towards a more integrated competence-based student-led approach. The necessity to develop deep understanding of multi-disciplinary concepts and orientations for a sustainable future has forced industrial, technological and service sectors to cross boundaries. In this paper we discuss concepts, standards and designs for innovative curricula for an MSc in Rail Freight and Logistics which employs a flexible mobility-based hybrid model integrating subjects, teaching and learning methods from four European Universities.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest in the potential of urban rail to reduce the impact of metropolitan transportation due to its high capacity, reliability and absence of local emissions. However, in a context characterised by increasing capacity demands and rising energy costs, and where other transport modes are considerably improving their environmental performance, urban rail must minimise its energy use without affecting its service quality. Urban rail energy consumption is defined by a wide range of interdependent factors; therefore, a system wide perspective is required, rather than focusing on energy savings at subsystem level. This paper contributes to the current literature by proposing an holistic approach to reduce the overall energy consumption of urban rail. Firstly, a general description of this transport mode is given, which includes an assessment of its typical energy breakdown. Secondly, a comprehensive appraisal of the main practices, strategies and technologies currently available to minimise its energy use is provided. These comprise: regenerative braking, energy-efficient driving, traction losses reduction, comfort functions optimisation, energy metering, smart power management and renewable energy micro-generation. Finally, a clear, logical methodology is described to optimally define and implement energy saving schemes in urban rail systems. This includes general guidelines for a qualitative assessment and comparison of measures alongside a discussion on the principal interdependences between them. As a hypothetical example of application, the paper concludes that the energy consumption in existing urban rail systems could be reduced by approximately 25–35% through the implementation of energy-optimised timetables, energy-efficient driving strategies, improved control of comfort functions in vehicles and wayside energy storage devices.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Energy Conversion and Management
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