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    ABSTRACT: Making the simplest possible assumption about the activity coefficient of the charged species, pH values of standard buffer solutions have been evaluated from the thermodynamic acidity constants, K, of the weak acids involved. A general equation is given for a triprotic acid, H3A, as it can be simplified to derive the equations for other systems. A computer program for the solution of the equation was written giving mH values, species distribution coefficients, α, buffer capacities, β, species activity coefficients, γ, and ionic strength, I. Iteration was continued until agreement between successive values to within 1 ± 10−6 was reached.The activity coefficients of singly charged ions were taken as equal to γCl, where log γCl=−AI1/2 (1 + 1.5I1/2), which is the Bates-Guggenheim convention, and those of doubly and triply charged ions were given by the valence relations of the Debye-Hückel theory as γ4Cl and γ9Cl, respectively.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Analytica Chimica Acta
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    ABSTRACT: Reaction of 6-methyl-2-pyridone (Hmhp) with Na or K metal, or with Rb or Cs 2-ethylhexoxide, in an appropriate single or mixed solvent, yields a series of solvated polymeric complexes with the empirical formulae M(mhp)(H2O)2 [(1), M = Na; (2), M = K], M(mhp)(H2O) [(3), M = Rb; (4), M = Cs] and Cs(mhp)(ROH) [(5), R = Me; (6), R = Et]. All of the products have been crystallographically characterized and show sheet polymeric structures, except for a double-chain structure for (2). In all of the structures, mhp(-) and solvent molecules function as bridging ligands; two metal ions are bridged (μ2) by each solvent molecule in (1), (5) and (6), while (2) contains both μ2 and μ3 triple bridges, and (3) and (4) display highly unusual μ4 quadruple bridging of metal ions by water molecules. The pyridonate O atom bridges two or three metal ions in each case. Nitrogen is also involved in coordination to the heavier metals; it bonds to a single ion in (3) and (4), but has an almost unprecedented bridging role in (5) and (6). As a result of the extensive bridging by ligands, coordination numbers between 6 and 8 are achieved for the metal ions. In each structure, all solvent OH groups form hydrogen bonds to pyridonate O and, in some cases, N atoms. With one exception, these are the first reported pyridonate complexes of the alkali metals Na-Cs that do not also include transition metals.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that irreversible inhibition of Nek2 kinase [(Never in mitosis gene a)-related kinase 2], overexpression of which is observed in several cancers, can be achieved using Michael acceptors containing an ethynyl group, which target the enzyme's cysteine 22 residue lying near the catalytic site. The model studies described herein demonstrate an analogous capture of the ethynyl moiety in a series of ethynyl-heterocycles (e.g. 6-ethynyl-N-phenyl-9H-purin-2-amine) by N-acetylcysteine methyl ester in the presence of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane in either dimethyl sulfoxide or N,N-dimethylformamide. Kinetic studies showed a 50-fold range in reactivity with 7-ethynyl-N-phenyl-3H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-5-amine being the most reactive compound, whereas 4-ethynyl-N-phenyl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-amine was the least reactive. Studies of the isomeric compounds, 2-(3-((6-ethynyl-7-methyl-7H-purin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acetamide and 2-(3-((6-ethynyl-9-methyl-9H-purin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acetamide, revealed the N(7)-methyl isomer to be 5-fold more reactive than the 9-methyl isomer, which is ascribed to a buttressing effect in the N(7)-methyl compound. Comparison of the crystal structures of these isomers showed that the ethynyl group is significantly displaced away from the methyl group exclusively in the N(7)-methyl isomer with an sp(2) bond angle of 124°, whereas the corresponding angle in the N(9)-methyl isomer was the expected 120°. The results of this study indicate heterocyclic scaffolds that are likely to be more promising for inhibition of Nek2 and other kinases containing a reactive cysteine.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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