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    ABSTRACT: Intake of the essential micronutrient selenium (Se) has health implications. This work addressed whether some effects of Se on gene expression are exerted through microRNAs (miRNA). Human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) were grown in Se-deficient or Se-adequate medium for 72 h. RNA was extracted and subjected to analysis of 737 miRNA using microarray technology. One hundred and forty-five miRNA were found to be expressed in Caco-2 cells. Twelve miRNA showed altered expression after Se depletion: miR-625, miR-492, miR-373*, miR-22, miR-532-5p, miR-106b, miR-30b, miR-185, miR-203, miR1308, miR-28-5p, miR-10b. These changes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Transcriptomic analysis showed that Se depletion altered expression of 50 genes including selenoproteins GPX1, SELW, GPX3, SEPN1, SELK, SEPSH2 and GPX4. Pathway analysis identified arachidonic acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, positive acute phase response proteins and respiration of mitochondria as Se-sensitive pathways. Bioinformatic analysis identified 13 transcripts as targets for the Se-sensitive miRNA; three were predicted to be recognised by miR-185. Silencing of miR-185 increased GPX2 and SEPSH2 expression. We propose that miR-185 plays a role in up-regulation of GPX2 and SEPHS2 expression. In the case of SEPHS2 this may contribute to maintaining selenoprotein synthesis. The data indicate that micronutrient supply can regulate the cell miRNA expression profile.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers in women. Evidence suggests that genetic variation in antioxidant enzymes could influence BC risk, but to date the relationship between selenoproteins and BC risk remains unclear. In this report, a study population including 975 Danish cases and 975 controls matched for age and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use was genotyped for five functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SEPP1, GPX1, GPX4 and the antioxidant enzyme SOD2 genes. The influence of genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer risk was assessed using conditional logistic regression. Additionally pre-diagnosis erythrocyte GPx (eGPx) activity was measured in a sub-group of the population. A 60% reduction in risk of developing overall BC and ductal BC was observed in women who were homozygous Thr carriers for SEPP1 rs3877899. Additionally, Leu carriers for GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism (rs1050450) were at ∼2 fold increased risk of developing a non-ductal BC. Pre-diagnosis eGPx activity was found to depend on genotype for rs713041 (GPX4), rs3877899 (SEPP1), and rs1050450 (GPX1) and on HRT use. Moreover, depending on genotype and HRT use, eGPx activity was significantly lower in women who developed BC later in life compared with controls. Furthermore, GPx1 protein levels increased in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells exposed to β-estradiol and sodium selenite.In conclusion, our data provide evidence that SNPs in SEPP1 and GPX1 modulate risk of BC and that eGPx activity is modified by SNPs in SEPP1, GPX4 and GPX1 and by estrogens. Our data thus suggest a role of selenoproteins in BC development.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive optical imaging technique used to monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF) and by proxy neuronal activation. The use of NIRS in nutritional intervention studies is a relatively novel application of this technique, with only a small, but growing, number of trials published to date. These trials-in which the effects on CBF following administration of dietary components such as caffeine, polyphenols and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are assessed-have successfully demonstrated NIRS as a sensitive measure of change in hemodynamic response during cognitive tasks in both acute and chronic treatment intervention paradigms. The existent research in this area has been limited by the constraints of the technique itself however advancements in the measurement technology, paired with studies endeavoring increased sophistication in number and locations of channels over the head should render the use of NIRS in nutritional interventions particularly valuable in advancing our understanding of the effects of nutrients and dietary components on the brain.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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