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    ABSTRACT: The ability of an aqueous extract of W. somnifera L. Dunal (Family: Solanaceae) roots to inhibit fibril formation by the amyloid-β peptide in vitro was investigated. W. somnifera is used extensively in traditional Ayurvedic medicine as a nerve tonic with reputed memory enhancing properties. Inhibition of fibrillogenesis measured by transmission electron microscopy and ThT fluorescence assay showed that an aqueous extract of W. somnifera strongly inhibited Aβ fibril formation in a concentration-dependent manner, when compared with control samples. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of W. somnifera root has an ability to inhibit the formation of mature amyloid-β fibrils in vitro, which are known to lead to amyloid plaque formation in vivo.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Phytotherapy Research
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    ABSTRACT: This paper includes a mesoscopic simulation modelling methodology developed for analysing and evaluating freight train operations in a rail network. The product of this methodology is a simulation rail network model implemented using an event-based simulation computer package called SIMUL 8. For simulation modelling purposes a decomposition approach is used. This approach allows us to separate the rail network under study into its components such as rail lines, rail yards, rail stations, rail terminals and junctions. The components of the rail network are thought of as interconnected queuing systems that interact and influence one another, so that the global impact of freight train operations in a rail network is captured.The products presented in this paper are of interest to rail freight tactical management, where global benefits are pursued.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory
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    ABSTRACT: The toxicity of a range of plant essential oils to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanyssidae), a serious ectoparasitic pest of laying hens throughout Europe and elsewhere, was assessed in the laboratory. Dermanyssus gallinae may cause losses in egg production, anaemia and, in extreme cases, death of hens. With changes in legislation and consumer demand, alternatives to synthetic acaricides are needed to manage this pest. Fifty plant essential oils were selected for their toxicity to arthropods reported in the literature. Twenty-four of these essential oils were found to kill > 75% of adult D. gallinae in contact toxicity tests over a 24-h period at a rate of 0.21 mg/cm(2). Subsequent testing at lower rates showed that the essential oils of cade, manuka and thyme were especially toxic to adult D. gallinae. The toxicity of the seven most acaricidal essential oils was found to be stable at different temperatures likely to be encountered in commercial poultry housing (15 degrees C, 22 degrees C and 29 degrees C), although results suggest that humidity and dust might influence the toxicity of some of the oils tested. The toxicity of clove bud essential oil to D. gallinae, for example, was increased at high humidity and dust levels compared with ambient levels. The results suggest that certain essential oils may make effective botanical pesticides for use against D. gallinae, although it is likely that issues relating to the consistency of the toxic effect of some oils will determine which oils will be most effective in practice.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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