New Mexico Highlands University
Recent publications
Dating app users are likely to experience a high frequency of viewing the sexually explicit material of potential partners prior to a physical meeting. The present study aimed to investigate what information is inferred from a picture of a penis at zero-acquaintance. Past research in impression formation at zero-acquaintance has demonstrated a stability with regard to personality and trait perceptions of faces. Utilizing 106 participants, our study extends this paradigm by testing the hypothesis that penis prototypicality would be associated with attractiveness, as well as explore the personality and sexual perceptions of penises along the dimensions of girth, length, and amount of pubic hair. The hypotheses were confirmed and the analysis of penis dimensions revealed strong results. Penises which were wider, longer, and moderately hairy were perceived more positively in terms of personality and sexual appeal. Shorter and narrower penises were perceived as more neurotic. The results demonstrate the function of impression formation within the digital sexual landscape with regard to sexually explicit material.
Arsenic exposure produces significant hematotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our previous work shows that arsenic (in the form of arsenite, AsIII) interacts with the zinc finger domains of GATA-1, inhibiting the function of this critical transcription factor, and resulting in the suppression of erythropoiesis. In addition to GATA-1, GATA-2 also plays a key role in the regulation of hematopoiesis. GATA-1 and GATA-2 have similar zinc finger domains (C4-type) that are structurally favorable for AsIII interactions. Taking this into consideration, we hypothesized that early stages of hematopoietic differentiation that are dependent on the function of GATA-2 may also be disrupted by AsIII exposure. We found that in vitro AsIII exposures disrupt the erythromegakaryocytic lineage commitment and differentiation of erythropoietin-stimulated primary mouse bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), producing an aberrant accumulation of cells in early stages of hematopoiesis and subsequent reduction of committed erythro-megakaryocyte progenitor cells. Arsenic significantly accumulated in the GATA-2 protein, causing the loss of zinc, and disruption of GATA-2 function, as measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation and the expression of GATA-2 responsive genes. Our results show that the attenuation of GATA-2 function is an important mechanism contributing to the aberrant lineage commitment and differentiation of early HPCs. Collectively, findings from the present study suggest that the AsIII-induced disruption of erythro-megakaryopoiesis may contribute to the onset and/or exacerbation of hematological disorders, such as anemia.
Background Genomic prediction (GP) and genome-wide association (GWA) analyses are currently being employed to accelerate breeding cycles and to identify alleles or genomic regions of complex traits in forest trees species. Here, 1490 interior lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud. var. latifolia Engelm) trees from four open-pollinated progeny trials were genotyped with 25,099 SNPs, and phenotyped for 15 growth, wood quality, pest resistance, drought tolerance, and defense chemical (monoterpenes) traits. The main objectives of this study were to: (1) identify genetic markers associated with these traits and determine their genetic architecture, and to compare the marker detected by single- (ST) and multiple-trait (MT) GWA models; (2) evaluate and compare the accuracy and control of bias of the genomic predictions for these traits underlying different ST and MT parametric and non-parametric GP methods. GWA, ST and MT analyses were compared using a linear transformation of genomic breeding values from the respective genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model. GP, ST and MT parametric and non-parametric (Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces, RKHS) models were compared in terms of prediction accuracy (PA) and control of bias. Results MT-GWA analyses identified more significant associations than ST. Some SNPs showed potential pleiotropic effects. Averaging across traits, PA from the studied ST-GP models did not differ significantly from each other, with generally a slight superiority of the RKHS method. MT-GP models showed significantly higher PA (and lower bias) than the ST models, being generally the PA (bias) of the RKHS approach significantly higher (lower) than the GBLUP. Conclusions The power of GWA and the accuracy of GP were improved when MT models were used in this lodgepole pine population. Given the number of GP and GWA models fitted and the traits assessed across four progeny trials, this work has produced the most comprehensive empirical genomic study across any lodgepole pine population to date.
We examined whether intragroup helping mediates the relationship between identification with one’s fandom and self-esteem and psychological well-being in three different samples of fans: bronies (fans of the television series My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic), anime fans (fans of Japanese animation and graphic novels), and furries (fans of anthropomorphic art and stories). Fans completed measures of ingroup identification, intragroup helping, and self-esteem (Studies 1 & 2) or psychological well-being (Study 3). Across all studies, the results tended to support intragroup helping as a mediator of the relationship between identification and self-esteem (Studies 1 & 2) and psychological well-being (Study 3). The results highlight a possible mechanism contributing to the benefits of belonging to fan groups and illustrate the possible benefits of helping others within one’s fan group.
Recent theoretical approaches in archaeology have focused on “big data” that is the production of large and varied datasets reflective of advances in scientific methods and data science. While such data are now more common, the need for “thick data”, qualitative and contextual information, has also become significant. Particularly for ceramic research where big data from neutron activation analysis is combined with thick data from petrography, the juxtaposition has revealed issues of interpretation. Through a regional case study of painted ware and unpainted utility ware from AD 1200 to 1450 settlements in southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico, three areas of concern were identified. These centered around issues of scale: (1) number of samples (sometimes in the thousands); (2) geographic area (often necessarily extensive); and (3) organization of production (potters can be centralized and/or dispersed on the landscape). Interestingly, only the combined datasets reveal these issues, which highlights why they work well together and are necessary for more accurate explanations. Once the specifics of the disjunction between compositional “big data” interpretations and those arrived at through petrographic thick data are accounted for, a more contextual approach can be taken in reconstructing past behavior.
Community gardens are collective projects in which participants collaborate to maintain a garden. They provide many biophysical and cultural ecosystem services, contributing to individual and community resilience and wellbeing. These benefits may be even more appreciated during a crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic. However, since community gardens require efforts from multiple gardeners in shared spaces, the pandemic also exposed some of their vulnerabilities. This study focuses on the benefits community gardens have offered during the COVID-19 pandemic, the challenges the pandemic posed to sustaining community garden activity, and recommendations to address these issues moving forward. We conducted our study in four cities in New York representing a gradient of socioeconomic and biophysical characteristics: Binghamton, Buffalo, Ithaca, and New York City. We collected data from surveys and semi-structured interviews with community gardeners and analyzed them using mixed models and thematic coding. The primary benefits gardeners derived from their community garden experiences were: a sense of connection with other gardeners, their communities, and nature; mental and physical wellbeing; and a safe space of refuge. In addition to material shortages (e.g., seeds), the biggest challenge gardeners faced due to the pandemic was the limited degree of socializing in the gardens resulting from personal behavioral changes and rules imposed by gardens. Despite the challenges, gardeners reported enjoying the 2020 garden season. The pandemic also created opportunities for gardens to serve their communities, such as organizing programs for composting, food donation and distribution, and home gardening. Our findings suggest that community gardens can be resilient sites of reprieve during crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, providing essential benefits for gardeners and local residents. To sustain community garden resilience, we recommend community gardens and gardeners cultivate connections and diversity, within and between the biological and human communities of their gardens.
Furries can be described as a mediacentric fandom, similar to other fandoms, which organizes around an interest in anthropomorphic art. Past research has also aimed to highlight and understand the sexual motivations of furries, leading to questions regarding the relative strength of fandom and sexual motivations for joining and maintaining membership within the group. The goal of the present study was to test the relative contributions sex- and fandom-related motivations (e.g., social belonging) have in determining furry identity to provide better conceptualizations of this unique community for future research and education. In a sample of furries (n = 1,113), participants reported sexual attraction to facets of their interest and were found to be sexually motivated to engage in specific fan behaviors. However, a series of follow-up analyses revealed that non-sexual motivations were not only stronger in magnitude than sexual motivation was, but were also much more strongly correlated with furry identification.
Mucoid cysts are associated with osteoarthritis (OA) of the digital joints and frequently recur after needle drainage, injection, or surgical ablation. This study determined whether intraarticular injection of the adjacent interphalangeal joint rather than the cyst itself might be effective in resolving digital mucoid cysts. Using paired case series design and sterile technique, 25 consecutive OA digital joints with an adjacent mucoid cyst underwent dorsal non-transtendinous intraarticular injection with a 25-gauge needle and 20-mg triamcinolone acetonide, followed by puncture and manual expression of cyst fluid. Patient pain was measured with the 10-cm Visual Analogue Pain Scale prior to the procedure and at 6 months. Cyst resolution was determined at 6 months and 3 years. The subjects were 61.0 ± 7.7 years old and 60% (15/25) female. Mucoid cysts were adjacent to 19 distal interphalangeal, 3 metacarpophalangeal, and 3 interphalangeal joints. Pre-procedural pain was 4.7 ± 1.0; procedural pain was 6.2 ± 0.6 cm, and post-procedural pain at 6 months was 1.2 ± 0.8 cm (74.5% reduction, 95% CI of difference: 3.0 < 3.5 < 4.0 (p < 0.0001)). 84% (21/25) of the cysts resolved at 6 months; however, 60% (15/25) of the mucoid cysts recurred within 3 years and required retreatment (14 adjacent joints re-injected and 1 ablative cyst surgery). No complications were noted. Intraarticular corticosteroid injection using a dorsal non-transtendinous approach of the joint adjacent to a mucoid cyst is effective resolving cysts and reducing pain at 6 months; however, 60% of mucoid cysts reoccur within 3 years and may require reinjection or surgery. Trial registration: This was not a clinical trial.
A new pseudopolymorph of berberine, 9,10-dimethoxy-5,6-dihydro-2 H -7λ ⁵ -[1,3]dioxolo[4,5- g ]isoquinolino[3,2- a ]isoquinolin-7-ylium chloride methanol monosolvate, C 20 H 18 NO 4 ⁺ ·Cl ⁻ ·CH 3 OH, was obtained during co-crystallization of berberine chloride with malonic acid from methanol. The berberine cations form dimers, which are further packed in stacks. The title structure was compared with other reported solvates of berberine chloride: its dihydrate, tetrahydrate, and ethanol solvate hemihydrate. Hirshfeld analysis was performed to show the intermolecular interactions in the crystal structure of the title compound, and its fingerprint plots were compared with those of the already studied solvates.
We investigated growth and a suite of physiological and structural traits of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson var. scopulorum Engelm.) seedlings from different provenances using a field common garden study. Twenty-one provenances from a range of elevations across Arizona and New Mexico were planted in 2018 at a field site in the core of the species range in northern Arizona. We measured stem growth rate for three years (2019 to 2021), leaf carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C), and leaf nitrogen concentration in 2020 on all provenances, and leaf-level gas exchange, instantaneous water use efficiency, predawn and midday water potentials, soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and specific leaf area on nine provenances in 2020. Provenances differed significantly in stem growth rate, ∆13C, and specific leaf area, and several traits were correlated with provenance environmental and climatic characteristics. Seedlings with higher growth rate had greater ∆13C suggesting a trade-off between growth rate and water use efficiency. Provenances from warmer sites had lower growth rate and ∆13C (higher water use efficiency) than provenances from cooler sites during the driest year. Growth rate of provenances in the driest year was positively associated with stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rate, and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and negatively associated with instantaneous water use efficiency indicating the importance of maintaining water uptake and gas exchange to growth during drought under dry conditions. Our results enhance understanding of physiological mechanisms of establishment for planted ponderosa pine seedlings and show a trade-off between growth rate and water use efficiency of provenances from different thermal environments that should be useful in selection of seed sources for reforestation.
Background: While breast cancer and its treatments may affect cognition, the longitudinal trajectories of cognition among those receiving differing cancer treatment types remain poorly understood. Prior research suggests hippocampal-prefrontal cortex network integrity may influence cognition, although how this network predicts performance over time remains unclear. Methods: We conducted a prospective trial including 69 patients with early-stage breast cancer receiving adjuvant therapy and 12 controls. Longitudinal cognitive testing was conducted at four visits: pretreatment-baseline, 6-7 months, 14-15 months, and 23-24 months. Cognitive composite scores of episodic memory, executive functioning, and processing speed were assessed at each timepoint. Baseline structural MRI was obtained in a subset of these participants, and hippocampal and prefrontal cortex regional volumes were extracted. Results: Longitudinal linear mixed modeling revealed significant group by time interactions on memory performance, controlling for age and education. Post hoc analyses revealed this effect was driven by patients treated with chemotherapy or chemotherapy plus hormone therapy, who demonstrated the least improvement in memory scores over time. Treatment group did not significantly influence the relationship between time and processing speed or executive functioning. Neither pretreatment hippocampal nor prefrontal volume differed between groups, and there were no significant group by time by baseline regional volume effects on cognition. Conclusion: Patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with chemotherapy or chemotherapy plus hormone therapy benefit less from practice effects seen in healthy controls on memory tests. Loss of longitudinal practice effect may be a new and clinically relevant measure for capturing patients' experience of cognitive difficulties after treatment.
Modeling environmental spatial heterogeneity can improve the efficiency of forest tree genomic evaluation. Furthermore, genotyping costs can be lowered by reducing the number of markers needed. We investigated the impact on variance components, breeding value accuracy, and bias of two phenotypic data adjustments (experimental design and autoregressive spatial models), and a relationship matrix calculated from a subset of markers selected for their ability to infer ancestry. Using a multiple-trait multiple-site single-step Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (ssGBLUP) approach, four scenarios (2 phenotype adjustments × 2 marker sets) were applied to diameter at breast height (DBH), height (HT), and resistance to western gall rust (WGR) in four open-pollinated progeny trials of lodgepole pine, with 1490 (out of 11,188) trees genotyped with 25,099 SNPs. As a control, we fitted the conventional ABLUP model using pedigree information. The highest heritability estimates were achieved for the ABLUP followed closely by the ssGBLUP with the full marker set and using the spatial phenotype adjustments. The highest predictive ability was obtained by using a reduced marker subset (8000 SNPs) when either the spatial (DBH: 0.429, and WGR: 0.513) or design (HT: 0.467) phenotype corrections were used. No significant difference was detected in prediction bias among the six fitted models, and all values were close to 1 (0.918–1.014). Results demonstrated that selecting informative markers, such as those capturing ancestry, can improve the predictive ability. The use of spatial correlation structure increased traits’ heritability and reduced prediction bias, while increases in predictive ability were trait-dependent.
Barriers to success experienced by former foster youth are well documented; however, missing is the full exploration of the experiences of ethnic minority foster youth. This qualitative exploratory study presents a hermeneutic thematic analysis of interviews conducted with eight youth, of varying ethnic and cultural backgrounds, who recently aged out of foster care in a largely rural southwestern state. For many participants, their definition of success differed markedly from mainstream measures of successful transition into adulthood. Major themes of participant interviews included; education, family, community, and financial struggles/work. Although both education and financial difficulties have been widely documented among former foster youth, the attention to family and community factors have not been fully explored. This qualitative study encourages an expanded view of how a successful transition to adulthood can be markedly different among ethnically diverse foster care alumni and encourages continued exploration into the needs of this population.
Biological monitoring is important for assessing the ecological condition of surface waters. However, there are challenges in determining what constitutes reference conditions, what assemblages should be used as indicators, and how assemblage data should be converted into quantitative indicator scores. In this study, we developed and applied biological condition gradient (BCG) modeling to fish and macroinvertebrate data previously collected from large, sandy bottom southwestern USA rivers. Such rivers are particularly vulnerable to altered flow regimes resulting from dams, water withdrawals and climate change. We found that sensitive ubiquitous taxa for both fish and macroinvertebrates had been replaced by more tolerant taxa, but that the condition assessment ratings based on fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages differed. We conclude that the BCG models based on both macroinvertebrate and fish assemblage condition were useful for classifying the condition of southwestern USA sandy bottom rivers. However, our fish BCG model was slightly more sensitive than the macroinvertebrate model to anthropogenic disturbance, presumably because we had historical fish data, and because fish may be more sensitive to dams and altered flow regimes than are macroinvertebrates.
Aim Complete arthrocentesis of the effusive knee ameliorates patient pain, reduces intra-articular and intraosseous pressure, removes inflammatory cytokines, and has been shown to substantially improve the therapeutic outcomes of intra-articular injections. However, conventional arthrocentesis incompletely decompresses the knee, leaving considerable residual synovial fluid in the intra-articular space. The present study determined whether external pneumatic circumferential compression of the effusive knee permitted more successful arthrocentesis and complete joint decompression. Methods Using a paired sample design, 50 consecutive effusive knees underwent conventional arthrocentesis and then arthrocentesis with pneumatic compression. Pneumatic compression was applied to the superior knee using a conventional thigh blood pressure cuff inflated to 100 mm Hg which compressed the suprapatellar bursa and patellofemoral joint, forcing fluid from the superior knee to the anterolateral portal where the fluid could be accessed. Arthrocentesis success and fluid yield in mL before and after pneumatic compression were determined. Results Successful diagnostic arthrocentesis (≥3 mL) of the effusive knee was 82% (41/50) with conventional arthrocentesis and increased to 100% (50/50) with pneumatic compression (P = .001). Synovial fluid yields increased by 144% (19.8 ± 17.1 mL) with pneumatic compression (conventional arthrocentesis; 13.7 ± 16.4 mL, pneumatic compression: 33.4 ± 26.5 mL; 95% CI: 10.9 < 19.7 < 28.9 mL, P < .0001). Conclusions Conventional arthrocentesis routinely does not fully decompress the effusive knee. External circumferential pneumatic compression markedly improves arthrocentesis success and fluid yield, and permits complete decompression of the effusive knee. Pneumatic compression of the effusive knee with a thigh blood pressure cuff is an inexpensive and widely available technique to improve arthrocentesis outcomes.
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Jay Ted Lee
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