Neiker-Tecnalia Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development
Recent publications
Non‐tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) circulate between the environment, animals and humans entailing a double concern: their ability to interfere with tuberculosis diagnosis and their potential to cause infections in their hosts. However, published records on NTM infections in animals are still scarce. The aims of the present study were to describe the diversity of NTM circulating among wild and domestic species from Spain, and to analyse their implications as potential pathogenic microorganisms or as sources of interferences in the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Overall, 293 NTM isolates of 277 animals were obtained from tissue samples collected between 2012 and 2019, and analysed through a multigene approach for mycobacteria identification. Thirty‐one species were identified, being M. avium subsp. avium (Maa) and M. avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah), but also M. bouchedurhonense, M. nonchromogenicum and M. lentiflavum, the most abundant ones. Maa and M. lentiflavum were isolated in several animals showing tuberculosis‐like lesions. Maa, Mah and M. nonchromogenicum were recovered from many cattle that had reacted to the tuberculin skin test (TST). Other NTM were also associated to these phenomena. These four mycobacterial species were geographically associated between wild boar and other hosts. The findings of the present study suggest that a high diversity of NTM circulates among wildlife and livestock. Wild boar and M. avium seem to play a relevant role in this epidemiological scenario. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex, chronic, relapsing and heterogeneous disease induced by environmental, genomic, microbial and immunological factors. MCJ is a mitochondrial protein that regulates the metabolic status of macrophages and their response to translocated bacteria. Previously, an acute murine model of DSS-induced colitis showed increased disease severity due to MCJ deficiency. Unexpectedly, we now show that MCJ-deficient mice have augmented tumor necrosis factor α converting enzyme (TACE) activity in the context of chronic inflammation. This adaptative change likely affects the balance between soluble and transmembrane TNF and supports the association of the soluble form and a milder phenotype. Interestingly, the general shifts in microbial composition previously observed during acute inflammation were absent in the chronic model of inflammation in MCJ-deficient mice. However, the lack of the mitochondrial protein resulted in increased alpha diversity and the reduction in critical microbial members associated with inflammation, such as Ruminococcus gnavus, which could be associated with TACE activity. These results provide evidence of the dynamic metabolic adaptation of the colon tissue to chronic inflammatory changes mediated by the control of mitochondrial function.
Adjusting nitrogen fertilization to the nutritional requirements of crops is one of the major challenges of modern agriculture. The amount of N needed is mainly determined by crop yield, so yield maps can be used to optimize N fertilization. As the adoption of yield monitors is low among farmers, implementation of this approach is still low. However, as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is related to grain yield, the main objective of this work was to identify at which wheat growth stage a moderate agreement between NDVI and yield is obtained. For this, NDVI images obtained from Sentinel-2 were used, and the evolution of concordance was analyzed in 13 classified parcels of wheat employing the Kappa index (KI). In one-third of the plots, a moderate agreement (KI > 0.4) was reached before the stem elongation growth phase (when the last N application was made). In another one-third, moderate agreement was reached later, in more advanced development stages. For the cases in which this agreement did not exist, an attempt was made to find the causes. The MANOVA and subsequent descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA) showed that the NDVI dates that contribute the most to the differentiation between plots with and without agreement between grain yield maps and NDVI images were those corresponding to tillering. The sum of the NDVI values of the tillering phase was significantly lower in the group of plots that did not show concordance. Sentinel-2 imagery was successful on 66% of plots for de-lineation of management zones after GS 30, and thus is useful for producing fertilization maps for the upcoming season. However, to produce in-season fertilization maps, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms that regulate the relation between yield and NDVI at early growth stages (<GS 30).
Background Aquatic ecosystems provide breeding sites for blood-sucking insects such as Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), but factors affecting their distribution and host choice are poorly understood. A study was undertaken at two nature reserves in northern Spain to examine the abundance, species composition, population dynamics and feeding patterns of biting midges between 2018 and 2019. Methods Culicoides were captured by light suction traps baited with CO2 and by sweep netting vegetation. Blood meals and species identification of blood-fed specimens were determined using cytochrome c oxidase I subunit (COI) DNA barcoding. Multivariate generalized linear models were used to evaluate the associations between the abundance of Culicoides, the species richness and other parameters. Results The 4973 identified specimens comprised 28 species of Culicoides. These included two species reported for the first time in northern Spain, thus raising to 54 the number of Culicoides species described in the region. Specimens of all 28 species and 99.6% of the total specimens collected were caught in suction traps, while sweep netting vegetation revealed just 11 species and 0.4% of the total specimens. Midge abundance peaked in June/early July, with five species comprising > 80% of the captures: Culicoides alazanicus (24.9%), Culicoides griseidorsum (20.3%), Culicoides poperinghensis (16.2%), Culicoides kibunensis (10.7%) and Culicoides clastrieri (9.6%). DNA barcode analysis of blood meals from eight Culicoides species revealed that they fed on 17 vertebrate species (3 mammals and 14 birds). Species in the subgenus Avaritia were primarily ornithophilic, except for C. griseidorsum and C. poperinghensis. Host DNA from blood meals was successfully amplified from 75% of blood-fed females. A pictorial blood meal digestion scale is provided to accurately assess the blood-fed status of female Culicoides. Conclusions The large number of different blood meal sources identified in the midges captured in this study signals the likely importance of wild birds and mammals (e.g. red deer and wild boar) as reservoir/amplifying hosts for pathogens. Available hosts are more exposed to being bitten by biting midge populations in aquatic ecosystems in late spring and early summer.
Tick vaccines are necessary as part of a One Health approach for the control of tick infestations and tick-borne diseases. Subolesin (SUB, also known as 4D8) is a tick protective antigen that has shown efficacy in vaccine formulations for the control of ectoparasite infestations and pathogen infection/transmission. A recent proof-of-concept study reported oral vaccination combining Rhipicephalus microplus SUB with heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis (IV) as an immunostimulant for the control of cattle tick infestations. Based on the efficacy of Rhipicephalus decoloratus SUB for the control of multiple cattle tick species in Uganda, herein we design a controlled pen trial using an oral formulation combining R. decoloratus SUB with IV for the control of R. decoloratus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus cattle tick infestations. Vaccine efficacy (E) of SUB + IV on tick life cycle was compared with IV and SUB alone and with PBS as control. The IgG antibody titers against SUB and M. bovis P22 and the serum levels of selected protein immune biomarkers (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, C3) were determined and analyzed as possible correlates of protection. Oral immunization with IV and SUB alone and in SUB + IV combination were effective for the control of tick infestations (E = 71-96% for R. decoloratus and 87-99% for R. appendiculatus) with highest E (higher than 95%) for SUB + IV. The results demonstrated that oral immunization with the SUB + IV formulation resulted in effective control of cattle tick infestations through the activation of multiple immune mechanisms. These results support the application of oral vaccine formulations with SUB + IV for the control of cattle infestations with Rhipicephalus species towards improving animal health.
Tuberculosis (TB) still represents a major global health problem affecting over 10 million people worldwide. The gold-standard procedures for TB diagnosis are culture and nucleic acid amplification techniques. In this context, both lipoarabinomannan (LAM) urine test and rapid molecular tests have been major game changers. However, the low sensitivity of the former and the cost and the prohibitive infrastructure requirements to scale-up in endemic regions of the latter, make the improvement of the TB diagnostic landscape a priority. Most forms of life produce extracellular vesicles (EVs), including bacteria despite differences in bacterial cell envelope architecture. We demonstrated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB, produces EVs in vitro and in vivo as part of a sophisticated mechanism to manipulate host cellular physiology and to evade the host immune system. In a previous serology study, we showed that the recognition of several mycobacterial extracellular vesicles (MEV) associated proteins could have diagnostic properties. In this study, we pursued to expand the capabilities of MEVs in the context of TB diagnostics by analyzing the composition of MEVs isolated from Mtb cultures submitted to iron starvation and, testing their immunogenicity against a new cohort of serum samples derived from TB+ patients, latent TB-infected (LTBI) patients and healthy donors. We found that despite the stringent condition imposed by iron starvation, Mtb reduces the number of MEV associated proteins relative to iron sufficient conditions. In addition, TB serology revealed three new MEV antigens with specific biomarker capacity. These results suggest the feasibility of developing a point-of-care (POC) device based on selected MEV-associated proteins.
Trained immunity (TRAIM) may be defined as a form of memory where innate immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic and natural killer (NK) cells undergo an epigenetic reprogramming that enhances their primary defensive capabilities. Cross‐pathogen protective TRAIM can be triggered in different hosts by exposure to live microbes or microbe‐derived products such as heat‐inactivated Mycobacterium bovis or with the glycan α‐Gal to elicit protective responses against several pathogens. We review the TRAIM paradigm using two models representing distinct scales of immune sensitization: the whole bacterial cell and one of its building blocks, the polysaccharides or glycans. Observations point out to macrophage lytic capabilities and cytokine regulation as two key components in nonspecific innate immune responses against infections. The study of the TRAIM response deserves attention to better characterize the evolution of host‐pathogen cooperation both for identifying the etiology of some diseases and for finding new therapeutic strategies. In this field, the zebrafish provides a convenient and complete biological system that could help to deepen in the knowledge of TRAIM‐mediated mechanisms in pathogen‐host interactions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The objective of this study was to assess the ability of experimental advanced breeding clones as parental genotypes to transmit agronomic and quality traits to their progenies in breeding programs. A half diallel set of crosses (excluding reciprocals) with six parents was assayed in field trials for three years; four of the parents were Solanumtuberosum subsp. tuberosum cultivars, and two of them were advanced breeding clones that included genes from S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum with immunity to PVY virus and good agronomic performance. However, no information was available about the behavior of these clones as parental materials for quality traits, such as potato chip quality. The diallel mating design allowed us to discover their ability to transmit agronomic and quality traits to their offspring. Significant effects on general combining ability and specific combining ability were found for plant maturity, only general combining ability effects for specific gravity were found, and interactions of both general combining ability and specific combining ability with the environment for the chip color trait were found. However, no genetic effects were detected for yield. Where general combining ability significant effects were found, additive genetic effects are predominant; thus, so for those traits, it would be possible to use these genotypes as parents to obtain improved progenies. Such abilities were not found in the advanced breeding clones.
Soil is one of our most important natural resources. Regrettably, the expansion of human activities has resulted in the degradation of the soil resource due to contamination with a myriad of organic and inorganic compounds. The remediation of mixed contaminated soils, i.e. soils contaminated with both organic compounds and metals, is challenging as it requires actions to simultaneously decrease metal-induced risks and organic contaminant concentrations. Here, we evaluated the effect of the addition of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nanoremediation) and organic amendments (biostimulation) on the rhizoremediation, using Brassica napus plants, of soil simultaneously contaminated with zinc (2,500 mg kg ⁻¹) and lindane (100 mg kg⁻¹). We used a factorial design with three factors (amendment, nZVI, plant) to evaluate the impact of the applied remediation actions on lindane and extractable Zn concentrations, as well as on soil health recovery as manifested by the values of different soil microbial indicators. The studied microbial indicators were not negatively affected by nZVI application. The application of nZVI was the most effective factor regarding the targeted reduction in lindane concentration (51% average reduction in nZVI treated soils). The highest reduction in extractable Zn was achieved in the presence of B. napus, nZVI and organic amendments (99 and 95% reduction in horse manure-amended and sewage sludge-amended soils, respectively). The combination of the three factors led to the highest values of soil microbial indicators (although a significant triple interaction was not observed for all parameters), especially when combined with horse manure amendment: in this case, prokaryotic richness increased by 64%, respiration by 376%, eukaryotic abundance by 333%, and prokaryotic abundance by 437%, compared to untreated soils. The combination of remediation approaches (rhizoremediation with B. napus, nanoremediation with nZVI, biostimulation with organic amendments) can help overcome the limitations of each individual strategy.
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a ubiquitous bacterium that causes listeriosis, a serious foodborne illness. In the nature-to-human transmission route, Lm can prosper in various ecological niches. Soil and decaying organic matter are its primary reservoirs. Certain clonal complexes (CCs) are over-represented in food production and represent a challenge to food safety. To gain new understanding of Lm adaptation mechanisms in food, the genetic background of strains found in animals and environment should be investigated in comparison to that of food strains. Twenty-one partners, including food, environment, veterinary and public health laboratories, constructed a dataset of 1484 genomes originating from Lm strains collected in 19 European countries. This dataset encompasses a large number of CCs occurring worldwide, covers many diverse habitats and is balanced between ecological compartments and geographic regions. The dataset presented here will contribute to improve our understanding of Lm ecology and should aid in the surveillance of Lm. This dataset provides a basis for the discovery of the genetic traits underlying Lm adaptation to different ecological niches.
Trained immunity is the capacity of innate immune cells to produce an improved response against a secondary infection after a previous unrelated infection. Salmonellosis represents a public health issue and affects the pig farming industry. In general, vaccination against salmonellosis is still facing problems regarding the control of distinct serovars. Therefore, we hypothesized that an immunostimulant based on heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis (HIMB) could have an immune training effect in pigs challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) and decided to explore the amplitude of this non-specific immune response. For this purpose, twenty-four 10 days-old female piglets were randomly separated in three groups: immunized group (n = 10) received orally two doses of HIMB prior to the intratracheal S. Choleraesuis-challenge, positive control group (n = 9) that was only challenged with S. Choleraesuis, and negative control group (n = 5) that was neither immunized nor infected. All individuals were necropsied 21 days post-challenge. HIMB improved weight gain and reduced respiratory symptoms and pulmonary lesions caused by S. Choleraesuis in pigs. Pigs immunized with HIMB showed higher cytokine production, especially of serum TNFα and lung CCL28, an important mediator of mucosal trained immunity. Moreover, immunized pigs showed lower levels of the biomarker of lipid oxidation malondialdehyde and higher activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase than untreated challenged pigs. However, the excretion and tissue colonization of S. Choleraesuis remained unaffected. This proof-of-concept study suggests beneficial clinical, pathological, and heterol-ogous immunological effects against bacterial pathogens within the concept of trained immunity, opening avenues for further research.
In recent years, the potential of the forest-based bioeconomy to provide competitiveness, differentiation, and sustainability to the European economy has often been claimed. Interestingly, regions, as territorial units with their own political and socioeconomic strategies, have been highlighted as the most suitable targets for the development of the European forest-based bioeconomy. Here, using the case method, we evaluated the development of the forest-based bioeconomy in three European regions (i.e., North Karelia in Finland, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, the Basque Country in Spain), by appraising the status of 10 previously identified key drivers through primary (interviews with experts) and secondary (literature review) sources of information. In our analysis, North Karelia and the Basque Country obtained the highest and lowest score, respectively, with regard to forest-based bioeconomy development. In any case, for the successful development of the forest-based bioeconomy in a European region, it is essential to accept the unnegotiable, critically, of the long-term sustainability of forest bioresources and production processes, as well as the need to foster the required changes in consumption patterns.
Since the ban in January 2012 of conventional cages for egg production in the European Union (Council Directive 1999/74/EC), alternative systems such as floor, aviary, free-range, and organic systems have become increasingly common, reaching 50% of housing for hens in 2019. Despite the many advantages associated with non-cage systems, the shift to a housing system where laying hens are kept in larger groups and more complex environments has given rise to new challenges related to management, health, and welfare. This review examines the close relationships between damaging behaviours and health in modern husbandry systems for laying hens. These new housing conditions increase social interactions between animals. In cases of suboptimal rearing and/or housing and management conditions, damaging behaviour or infectious diseases are likely to spread to the whole flock. Additionally, health issues, and therefore stimulation of the immune system, may lead to the development of damaging behaviours, which in turn may result in impaired body conditions, leading to health and welfare issues. This raises the need to monitor both behaviour and health of laying hens in order to intervene as quickly as possible to preserve both the welfare and health of the animals.
Although the genetic susceptibility to diseases has been extensively studied, the genetic loci and the primary molecular and cellular mechanisms that control disease tolerance are still largely unknown. Bovine paratuberculosis (PTB) is an enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). PTB affects cattle worldwide and represents a major issue on animal health. In this study, the associations between host genetic and PTB tolerance were investigated using the genotypes from 277 Spanish Holstein cows with two distinct phenotypes: cases) infected animals with positive PCR and bacteriological culture results but without lesions in gut tissues (N= 24), and controls) animals with negative PCR and culture results but with PTB-associated lesions (N= 253). DNA from peripheral blood of the study population was genotyped with the Bovine EuroG MD Bead Chip, and the corresponding genotypes were imputed to whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data. A genome-wide association study was performed using the WGS data and the defined phenotypes in a case-control approach. A total of 142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated (false discovery rate ≤ 0.05, P values between 1.5 × 10-7 and 5.7 × 10-7) with tolerance (heritability= 0.55). The 40 SNPs with P-values < 5 × 10-7 defined 9 QTLs and 98 candidate genes located on BTA4, BTA9, BTA16, BTA25, and BTA26. Some of the QTLs identified in this study overlap with QTLs previously associated with PTB, bovine tuberculosis, mastitis, somatic cell score, bovine diarrhea virus persistent infection, tick resistance, and length of productive life. Two candidate genes with important roles in DNA damage response (ERCC4 and RMI2) were identified on BTA25. Functional analysis using the 98 candidate genes revealed a significant enrichment of the DNA packaging process (TNP2/PRMI1/PRM2/PRM3). In addition, the TNF-signaling (bta04668; TRAF5/CREB5/CASP7/CHUK) and the toxoplasmosis (bta05145; TGFβ2/CHUK/CIITA/SOCS1) pathways were significantly enriched. Interestingly, the nuclear Factor NF-κβ Inhibitor Kinase Alpha (CHUK), a key molecule in the regulation of the NF-κB pathway, was enriched in both pathways. Taken together, our results define a distinct immunogenetic profile in the PTB-tolerant animals designed to control bacterial growth, modulate inflammation, limit tissue damage and increase repair, thus reducing the severity of the disease.
Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular zoonotic bacterium widespread in nature that causes Q fever in animals and humans. The most common sources of human infection are domestic ruminants, but wildlife can also act as reservoir. Here, spleen samples from 652 wild ungulates and 218 wild birds collected in 2011-2019 in the Basque Country (northern Spain) were analysed by real-time PCR (IS1111 gene) and the results compared with data from a past study in 2001-2006. Among wild ungulates, C. burnetii DNA was detected in 7.0% (6/86) of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 1.9% (9/484) of wild boar (Sus scrofa) and 2.4% (2/82) of red deer (Cervus elaphus). The prevalence in roe deer was significantly higher compared to wild boar (p = 0.006). Among wild birds, only one white stork (Ciconia ciconia) tested positive. SNP-typing of C. burnetii-positive samples showed that wild ungulates shared SNP 2, SNP 6 and SNP 8 genotypes with domestic ruminants of the region. However, the white stork harboured a C. burnetii genotype (SNP 3) never identified in the studied area before. Comparing these results with those obtained in the same area a decade before (2001-2006), no significant differences were observed in the prevalence of C. burnetii in any of the wildlife species, indicating stability in C. burnetii prevalence. Nevertheless, continuous surveillance is needed to monitor any future changes in the reservoir role of roe deer and wild boar considering the increase in density of both species observed in Europe in the last decades.
A combined welfare assessment protocol, including indicators from the Welfare Quality ® and AWIN ® EU funded projects, was tested on commercial fast and medium growth commercial broiler flocks to determine differences in their assessments as measured with the used of animal welfare indicators. Ten commercial fast (Ross 308, Cobb 500, or a mix of both) and 10 medium growth (Hubbard JA×Ross 308), mixed sex commercial flocks were assessed at 32 and 48 days of age, respectively. Two observers simultaneously collected data on each flock. Observations included transect walks on central and wall areas to assess the AWIN ® welfare indicators, bedding quality, environmental parameters and positive behaviors, all of them collected with the i-WatchBroiler app. According to the WQ protocol, welfare assessment indicators including the human avoidance tests, gait score, body weight and hock burns were also measured on each flock. Novel object tests were also carried out. The results of the study show that fast growth flocks had a higher incidence of welfare issues shown by the higher percentage of immobile, lame, sick, featherless, and tail wounded birds. Positive behaviors such as play fighting, wing flapping and running were more frequently observed in medium growth flocks on central locations, while fast growth flocks had a more limited expression of such behaviors. Fast growth flocks also had worse gait scores. Medium growth flocks expressed a different response to behavioral tests depending on the house location, likely attributable to their better mobility and welfare state, and also to the smaller stocking densities at which they were housed, while on the other hand the behavior of fast growth broilers during tests was similar regardless house location, being likely affected by mobility problems and the higher stocking density specific to their management. These results provide quantitative evidences on the differences in animal welfare assessment outcomes in fast and medium growth broilers. Nevertheless, results also suggest that some of the test responses were associated with the physical state and movement ability of the birds and house location that limit their response capacity. Such limitations should be considered when interpreting animal welfare assessment outcomes. These results add to previously published scientific evidences showing the potential of the method and app technology for practical on-farm broiler welfare assessment, including positive indicators, with farmers, technical personnel, certification bodies or scientist as potential end-users.
Chile is a large country with a marked range of climate conditions that make it an ideal scenario for the study of vector-borne parasites; however, knowledge about their distribution is limited to a few confined areas of this country. The presence of Hepatozoon spp., piroplasmids, Leishmania spp. and filarioids was investigated through molecular and serological methods in blood samples of 764 free-ranging rural dogs, 154 Andean foxes (Lycalopex culpaeus), and 91 South American grey foxes (Lycalopex griseus) from six bioclimatic regions across Chile. Hepato-zoon spp. DNA was exclusively detected in foxes (43% prevalence), including sequences closely related to Hepa-tozoon felis (24.1%; only Andean foxes), Hepatozoon americanum (16.2%; only grey foxes), and Hepatozoon canis (1.25%; in one grey fox). Risk factor assessment identified a higher probability of Hepatozoon infection in juvenile foxes. DNA of piroplasmids was detected in 0.7% of dogs (Babesia vogeli) but in no fox, whilst antibodies against Babesia sp. were detected in 24% of the dogs and 25% of the foxes, suggesting a wider circulation of canine piroplasmids than previously believed. A positive association between the presence of antibodies against Babesia and high Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato burden was observed in dogs. Leishmania spp. DNA and anti-bodies were detected in 0.8% and 4.4% of the dogs, respectively. Acanthocheilonema reconditum was the only blood nematode detected (1.5% of the dogs and no fox). Differences in prevalence among bioregions were observed for some of the VBP. These results expand our knowledge about the occurrence of vector-borne parasites in Chile, some of which are firstly reported herein. This information will facilitate the diagnosis of vector-borne diseases in domestic dogs and improve the control measures for both domestic and wild canids.
Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker disease (GSS) is a rare neurodegenerative illness that belongs to the group of hereditary or familial Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE). Due to the presence of different pathogenic alterations in the prion protein (PrP) coding gene, it shows an enhanced proneness to misfolding into its pathogenic isoform, leading to prion formation and propagation. This aberrantly folded protein is able to induce its conformation to the native counterparts forming amyloid fibrils and plaques partially resistant to protease degradation and showing neurotoxic properties. PrP with A117V pathogenic variant is the second most common genetic alteration leading to GSS and despite common phenotypic and neuropathological traits can be defined for each specific variant, strikingly heterogeneous manifestations have been reported for inter-familial cases bearing the same pathogenic variant or even within the same family. Given the scarcity of cases and their clinical, neuropathological, and biochemical variability, it is important to characterize thoroughly each reported case to establish potential correlations between clinical, neuropathological and biochemical hallmarks that could help to define disease subtypes. With that purpose in mind, this manuscript aims to provide a detailed report of the first Spanish GSS case associated with A117V variant including clinical, genetic, neuropathological and biochemical data, which could help define in the future potential disease subtypes and thus, explain the high heterogeneity observed in patients suffering from these maladies.
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116 members
Joseba Garrido
  • Animal Health Department
Idoia Goiri
  • Department of Animal Production
Mariví Geijo
  • Sanidad Animal
Iker A Sevilla
  • Department of Animal Health
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