Nebrija Universidad
  • Madrid, Spain
Recent publications
We explore whether emoji were associatively linked to emotion concepts represented in emotion-laden words, in line with the Associative-Propositional Evaluation model. Specifically, we tested these principles by exploring whether emotionally-congruent emoji could enhance word processing (Study 1 & 2) and recall (Study 3). In Study 1, participants completed a lexical decision task where word valence was manipulated. Emoji were appended to words which were either congruent, incongruent, or controls. No effects were found for emoji valence on response accuracy or latency. Study 2 presented words which varied in valence alongside congruent or control emoji where self-report valence evaluations were obtained. No effects were observed for emoji valence on word valence evaluations. Study 3 included emoji as primes to test the effect on word recall. No effects were found on word recall accuracy. Overall, the current findings suggest that emoji do not support word processing and may not be associatively linked to emotion concepts.
Increased trait impulsivity is a core element in several mental disorders. Given the durable and consistent nature of trait impulsivity, studies have explored its relation to stable biological measures. Variation in catecholaminergic neurotransmission by genetic variants could be one of these biological substrates. Here, 905 participants of European-ancestry completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale–11 and were genotyped in three single nucleotide polymorphisms related to catecholaminergic neurotransmission: the DRD2/ANKK Taq1A, the C957T DRD2 and the Val158Met of the COMT gene. We found significant main effects of Val158Met and C957T on BIS-11 score. Also, interactions with gender were significant in both SNPs with a tendency to slightly different genotype and allele associations with the BIS-total score between male and female participants. Whereas in females, higher impulsivity scores were obtained by participants with the Val158Met heterozygous genotype (Met/Val), data indicate a trend towards a higher impulsivity score in male Val-allele carriers. In the case of C957T, only a tentative association between male T-allele carriers and higher impulsivity scores in comparison to CC genotype carriers could be established. No significant associations were found between BIS-11 and Taq1A. We provide further evidence for a gender-specific implication of Val158Met and C957T in trait impulsivity.
The new public plans and the economic injection from international production companies have converted Spain into an important center of audiovisual creation. Taking advantage of this new scenario, an analysis is made which focuses on the current situation of this industry with respect to gender. Most of the research studies that associate gender and audiovisual production focus on the representation of women in plots and characters, but not their professional work in this sector. The present study seeks to address this matter with a triple methodology: first, a descriptive study is presented to contextualize the object of study; then, the European and Spanish sectoral studies are compared, and a catalogue of profiles is extracted which will be utilized in the third phase, which is based on the focus group technique. Twelve professionals participated in the third phase, representing the following categories: director, screenwriter, producer, composer, actress, cinematographer, sound engineer, editor, make-up artist-hairdresser, special effects, art director, and wardrobe. We observed that the gender gap is still present; most of the professions are still male-oriented, and only wardrobe, make-up, and hairdressing, escape from this discrimination. The least female representation was detected in music composition, cinematography, sound, and direction. Also, a vertical segregation was observed which removes women from decision making processes. The female experts demand opportunities and gender education, to promote the inclusion of women into the audiovisual sphere. The privileged situation that Spain is experiencing favors the women’s incorporation into new projects, and therefore this country could become an example of change.
Background Reverse periodization is commonly touted as a salient planning strategy to improve sport performance in athletes, but benefits have not been clearly described. Objectives We sought to identify the main characteristics of reverse periodization, and the influence of training volume and periodization models on enhancing physiological measures and sports performance. Design Systematic review. Methods The electronic databases Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science were searched using a comprehensive list of relevant terms. Results A total of 925 studies were identified, and after removal of duplicates and studies based on title and abstract screening, 17 studies remained, and 11 finally included in the systematic review. There was a total of 200 athletes in the included studies. Reverse periodization does not provide superior performance improvements in swimming, running, muscular endurance, maximum strength, or maximal oxygen uptake, compared to traditional or block periodization. The quality of evidence levels for the reverse periodization studies was 1b (individual randomized controlled trial) for two investigations, 2b (individual cohort study) for the remaining studies and a mean of 4.9 points in the PEDro scale (range 0–7). Conclusions It appears that reverse periodization is no more effective than other forms of periodization in improving sports performance. More comparative studies on this alternative version of periodization are required to verify its effectiveness and utility across a range of endurance sports.
Background Neurotypical individuals categorize items even during ultra-rapid presentations (20 ms; see Thorpe et al. Nature 381: 520, 1996). In cognitively able autistic adults, these semantic categorization processes may be impaired and/or may require additional time, specifically for the categorization of atypical compared to typical items. Here, we investigated how typicality structures influence ultra-rapid categorization in cognitively able autistic and neurotypical male adults. Methods Images representing typical or atypical exemplars of two different categories (food/animals) were presented for 23.5 vs. 82.3 ms (short/long). We analyzed detection rates, reaction times, and the event-related potential components dN150, N1, P2, N2, and P3 for each group. Results Behavioral results suggest slower and less correct responses to atypical compared to typical images. This typicality effect was larger for the category with less distinct boundaries (food) and observed in both groups. However, electrophysiological data indicate a different time course of typicality effects, suggesting that neurotypical adults categorize atypical images based on simple features (P2), whereas cognitively able autistic adults categorize later, based on arbitrary features of atypical images (P3). Conclusions We found evidence that all three factors under investigation — category, typicality, and presentation time — modulated specific aspects of semantic categorization. Additionally, we observed a qualitatively different pattern in the autistic adults, which suggests that they relied on different cognitive processes to complete the task.
This article focuses on the concept idea of 'human rights city' and explores its practice. It starts from the concepts of human rights cities and subsidiarity to explain what a human rights city is and delves into the existing literature identifying the challenges to guarantee human rights in local contexts, such as the legal framework, education and training, the institutional structure, and the resources. Our article is based on an empirical-based study of Madrid Human Rights Plan (2017-2019). We carried out semi-structured interviews, focus group, and participant observation to grasp the obstacles that civil servants encounter in the implementation of the Plan. We identify five types of obstacles that we classify as conceptual, ideological, legal, organisational, and budgetary. Our study questions the idea that the local context, just because of its proximity to the citizenry, is the best equipped level of government to guarantee human rights. Without proper training and resources human rights can be lost in translation. Through the identification of such obstacles in a specific case study, we contribute to the academic debate on human rights in practice with the aim of fostering its guarantee in local contexts.
Aims and objectives: To analyse the dimensions of quality of palliative nursing care and to explore the perceptions of professionals for the development and validation of the Palliative Nursing Care Quality Scale. Background: The study of palliative nursing care quality has been approached from analysis of the competencies of palliative care nurses, based on various theoretical models. However, there are fewer qualitative empirical studies that have evaluated what good palliative nursing care is and what its dimensions are. Design: Mixed-method, Delphi approach and exploratory qualitative study. Methods: Consensus by a panel of experts using the Delphi technique and semi-structured interviews. The study was reported in a comprehensive manner following COREQ criteria. Data collection took place between January and June 2018. Results: The eight-person expert panel reached consensus on the following dimensions of the Palliative Nursing Care Quality Scale: control and relief of symptoms, family and/or primary caregiver, therapeutic relationship, spiritual support and continuity of care. Thematic analysis of ten interviews identified four emergent themes related to good nursing care: (1) the patient and family as a whole; (2) finding meaning; (3) responsible communication; and (4) caring for the human element. Conclusions: The quality of palliative nursing care goes beyond providing comprehensive care; it means meticulously looking after every detail of what is important to the patient. The expectations of professionals are not as important. Instead, care should be based primarily on the needs and respect for the wishes of the patient and their family. Relevance to clinical practice: Specifying the quality of nursing care in routine practice and reaching a consensus on its dimensions means moving towards excellence in care, as well as improving the professional profile of advanced practice palliative care nurses. Patient or public contribution: Two primary caregivers participated in the panel of experts and the semi-structured interview.
Letter-similarity effects are elusive with common words in lexical decision experiments: viotin and viocin (base word: violin) produce similar error rates and rejection latencies. However, they are robust for stimuli often presented with the same appearance (e.g., misspelled logotypes such as anazon [base word: amazon] produce more errors and longer latencies than atazon). Here, we examine whether letter-similarity effects occur in reading braille. The rationale is that braille is a writing system in which the sensory information is processed in qualitatively different ways than in visual reading: the form of the word's letters is highly stable due to the standardization of braille and the sensing of characters is transient and somewhat serial. Hence, we hypothesized that the letter similarity effect would be sizeable with misspelled common words in braille, unlike the visual modality. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with blind adult braille readers. Pseudowords were created by replacing one letter of a word with a tactually-similar or dissimilar letter in braille following a tactile similarity matrix (Baciero et al., 2021a; e.g., [ausor] vs. [aucor]; baseword: [autor]). Bayesian linear mixed-effects models showed that the responses to tactually-similar pseudowords were less accurate than to tactually-dissimilar pseudowords—the RTs showed a parallel trend. This finding supports the idea that, when reading braille, the mapping of input information onto abstract letter representations is done through a noisy channel (Norris & Kinoshita, 2012).
Studies investigating how children acquire emotional vocabularies have mainly focused on words that describe feelings or affective states (emotion-label words, e.g., joy) trough subjective assessments of the children’s lexicon reported by their parents or teachers. In the current cross-sectional study, we objectively examined the age of acquisition of words that relate to emotions without explicitly referring to affective states (emotion-laden words, e.g., cake, tomb, rainbow) using a picture naming task. Three hundred and sixty participants belonging to 18 age groups from preschool to adolescence overtly named line drawings corresponding to positive, negative, and neutral concrete nouns. The results of regression and mixed model analyses indicated that positive emotion-laden words are learnt earlier in life. This effect was independent of the contribution of other lexical and semantic factors (familiarity, word frequency, concreteness, word length). It is proposed that the prioritized acquisition of positive emotion-laden words might be the consequence of the communicative style and contextual factors associated with the interaction between children and caregivers. We also discuss the implications of our findings for proposals that highlight the role of language in emotion perception and understanding.
Aim Previous evidence suggests that language influences bilinguals’ moral judgements. One explanation for this phenomenon is that using a second language (L2) attenuates emotional arousal, thus leading to more rational decisions. This study examined whether bilinguals’ moral arguments and emotional vocabulary are influenced by the language – first language (L1) or L2 – in which a moral dilemma is presented. Methodology and data analysis A mixed-methods design was employed. We analysed the emotional vocabulary used by 204 Spanish-English bilinguals when making moral judgements and expressing their emotions in response to a highly emotional moral dilemma, as well as the type of arguments they employed to justify their moral decisions in L1 and L2. Findings The participants were more emotional in their L1, as reflected in the arguments they used to justify their decisions. This finding was supported by a significantly lower number of emotional words in their L2. Moreover, the effect of language on moral judgements was mediated by the participants’ emotions. Originality This study is the first to qualitatively examine the types of arguments underlying bilinguals’ moral decision-making in their L1 and in their L2. Moreover, the analysis of verbal emotional expressions in relation to moral decisions adds to the findings of previous research that was based almost exclusively on forced-choice measures and further supports the hypothesis that the reduction of emotional arousal in an L2 modulates individuals’ moral judgements. Implications The results have implications for L2 teaching and pedagogy. The L2 curriculum should include instruction in emotional vocabulary and should engage learners in discussions that require argumentation and critical thinking about strong emotional content. This may assist bilinguals not only to express their internal affective states more efficiently, but also to experience the intensity of L2 emotionally charged words in a similar way as they do in their L1.
This paper studies the impact of different types of job-to-job transitions (from salaried employment to self-employment, from self-employment to salaried employment, and within salaried employment) on job satisfaction. Considering the three types of job transition, allows us to separate the pure mobility effect from the type of employment effect. We design an identification strategy based on the diff-in-diff approach. This is possible because our panel data allow us to compare the same individuals before and after job-to-job transitions occur. Our findings indicate that individuals who move from salaried employment to self-employment increase their overall job satisfaction more than workers who carry out other types of job transitions, while the impact of job changes on satisfaction in other job domains is mixed. We also find heterogeneous interactive effects of previous unemployment spells and self-perceived skill mismatch with job transitions depending on the type of transition. While skill mismatch is more important in the transition from salaried employment to self-employment, previous unemployment is more important for job changes within salaried employment.
Zusammenfassung. Hintergrund: In Deutschland zeigen etwa 18 Prozent aller Grundschulkinder Defizite im Schriftspracherwerb. Ein möglichst früher Förderbeginn kann negativen Folgen für den Bildungsverlauf und die psychische Gesundheit der Kinder entgegenwirken. Mit Lautarium steht ein computerbasiertes, schriftsprachliches Förderprogramm zur Verfügung, das ein Training der Phonemwahrnehmung, phonologischen Bewusstheit und Graphem-Phonem-Zuordnung mit einem schriftsprachlichen Training kombiniert. Die Wirksamkeit konnte bereits in nicht-randomisierten Studien belegt werden. Methoden: In der randomisierten Studie wurde Lautarium zu Beginn der zweiten Klasse bei Kindern mit Lese-Rechtschreibschwierigkeiten eingesetzt. Die Trainingsgruppe ( N = 43) trainierte zehn Wochen im schulischen Unterricht (5 x pro Woche für ca. 30 Minuten), während die Kontrollgruppe ( N = 43) am regulären Unterricht teilnahm. Ergebnisse: Im Posttest zeigten sich signifikante Trainingserfolge in geringer bis mittlerer Effektstärke für die phonologische Bewusstheit sowie die Lese- und Rechtschreibleistungen. Die Trainingseffekte lassen sich damit in einem randomisierten Design replizieren. Befragte Lehrkräfte berichteten eine motivierte und selbstständige Durchführung und schätzten das Anforderungsniveau der Übungsspiele als adäquat ein. Diskussion: Die Ergebnisse belegen die Wirksamkeit einer grapho-phonologischen Förderung für Kinder, die bereits zu Beginn der schriftsprachlichen Entwicklung Minderleistungen zeigen.
Executive functions are the key ingredient for behaviour regulation. Among them, inhibitory control is one of the main exponents of executive functions, and in the last decades, it has received a good amount of attention thanks to the development of chronometric tasks associated with paradigms that allow exploring human behaviour when the inhibitory component is needed. Among the different paradigms typically used, the Simon and flanker tasks are probably the most popular ones. These have been subjected to modifications in order to assess inhibitory control from different perspectives (e.g., in different samples or in combination with different research techniques). However, its use has been relegated to classical presentation modalities within laboratory settings. The accessibility of virtual reality (VR) technology has opened new research avenues to investigate inhibition control with a high ecological validity while retaining tightly controlled lab conditions and good measurement accuracy. We present two cutting-edge modifications of the standard Simon and flanker tasks that have been adapted to real-world settings using VR and human-like avatars as target stimuli. Our findings show that virtual reality is a credible tool for testing inhibitory control with a high degree of transferability and generalizability to the real world.
This paper explores the gender gap in time allocation in European countries, offering a comparison of the 2000s and the 2010s, along with an explanation of the documented gender gaps, based on social norms and institutional factors. The results show that the gender gap in both paid and unpaid work has decreased in most countries, but with a significant level of cross-country heterogeneity in the size of the gender gaps. More traditional social norms are related to greater gender inequalities in paid and unpaid work, while countries with better family-friendly policies and a greater representation of women in politics and in the labour market exhibit smaller gender inequalities. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of gender gaps in Europe, and attempts to monitor the progress towards the elimination of gender inequalities. Despite that some degree of gender convergence in paid and unpaid work has taken place, there remain inequalities in the distribution of labour in European countries, and possible solutions may be related to social norms and family-friendly policies.
A large body of research seeking to explore how form affects lexical processing in bilinguals has suggested that orthographically similar translations (e.g., English-Portuguese "paper-papel") are responded to more quickly and accurately than words with little to no overlap (e.g., English-Portuguese "house-casa"). One of the most prominent algorithms to estimate orthographic similarity, the normalized Levenshtein distance (NLD), returns an index of the proportion of identical characters of two strings, and is an efficient and invaluable tool for the selection, manipulation, and control of verbal stimuli. Notwithstanding its many advantages for second-language research, the absence of a comparable measure for phonology has resulted in the adoption of different strategies to assess the degree of interlanguage phonological similarity across the literature, with profound implications for the interpretation of results on the relative role of orthographic and phonological similarity in bilingual lexical access. In the present work, we introduce PHOR-in-One, a multilingual lexical database with a set of phonological and orthographic NLD estimates for 6160 translation equivalents in American and British English, European Portuguese, German and Spanish in a total of 30,800 words. We also propose a new measure of phonographic NLD, a pooled index of orthographic and phonological similarity, particularly useful for researchers interested in controlling for and/or manipulating both estimates at once. PHOR-in-One includes a comprehensive characterization of its lexical entries, namely Part-of-Speech-dependent and independent frequency counts, number of letters and phonemes, and phonetic transcription. PHOR-in-One is thus a valuable tool to support bilingual and multilingual research.
The study of the brains’ oscillatory activity has been a standard technique to gain insights into human neurocognition for a relatively long time. However, as a complementary analysis to ERPs, only very recently has it been utilized to study bilingualism and its neural underpinnings. Here, we provide a theoretical and methodological starter for scientists in the (psycho)linguistics and neurocognition of bilingualism field(s) to understand the bases and applications of this analytical tool. Towards this goal, we provide a description of the characteristics of the human neural (and its oscillatory) signal, followed by an in-depth description of various types of EEG oscillatory analyses, supplemented by figures and relevant examples. We then utilize the scant, yet emergent, literature on neural oscillations and bilingualism to highlight the potential of how analyzing neural oscillations can advance our understanding of the (psycho)linguistic and neurocognitive understanding of bilingualism.
Classic psychedelics refer to substances such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, ayahuasca, and mescaline, which induce altered states of consciousness by acting mainly on 5‐HT2A receptors. Recently, the interest of psychedelics as pharmacological treatment for psychiatric disorders has increased significantly, including their use on problematic use of alcohol. This systematic review is aimed to analyse the last two decades of studies examining the relationship between classic psychedelics and alcohol consumption. We searched PubMed and PsycInfo for human and preclinical studies published between January 2000 to December 2021. The search identified 639 publications. After selection, 27 studies were included. Human studies (n = 20) generally show promising data and seem to indicate that classic psychedelics could help reduce alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, some of these studies present methodological concerns such as low number of participants, lack of control group or difficulty in determining the effect of classic psychedelics in isolation. On the other hand, preclinical studies (n = 7) investigating the effect of these compounds on voluntary alcohol consumption are scarce and show some conflicting data. Among these compounds, psilocybin seems to show the most consistent data indicating that this compound could be a potential candidate to treat alcohol use disorders. In the absence of understanding the biological and/or psychological mechanisms, more studies including methodological quality parameters are needed to finally determine the effects of classic psychedelics on alcohol consumption. Interest of classic psychedelics as potential treatment for alcoholism has grown. Psychedelics could act through the modification of emotional and cognitive states. More studies are needed to analyse the effect of psychedelics on alcoholism.
The preparation of heterogeneous catalysts is decisive to the development of catalytic processes that are environmentally acceptable. Therefore, the methodology used in the preparation of such catalysts is a key factor in the development of high catalytic activity and with concern to environmental value. Herein, we report the design of catalysts by dispersing nanoparticles of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) on micrometric supports of zinc oxide (ZnO) and activated carbon (AC) using a fast and green methodology free of waste and solvents and with a low-energy consumption. In particular, the partial reaction that takes place, at room temperature, between both metal oxides and between these oxides and AC, due to proximity and diffusion effects of the corresponding materials, results in the formation of different interfaces (ZnCo, ZnAC, CoAC Co-Co). Specifically, such interfaces are new reactive surfaces that lead to very interesting and innovative properties. Thus, depending on its application, it is possible to control and modify the catalytic properties (activity / conversion / selectivity) of a solid by tuning surface and interface. This fact is proved in the model reaction of Knoevenagel condensation between aldehydes and malonic esters. Therefore, our results prove that controlling the interfaces is a feasible way to achieve in the Knoevenagel condensation, which is a reaction widely used in the formation of C–C bonds for the organic synthesis of important intermediates and final products.
Delusions are one of the most classical symptoms described in schizophrenia. However, despite delusions are often emotionally charged, they have been investigated using tasks involving non-affective material, such as the Beads task. In this study we compared 30 patients with schizophrenia experiencing delusions with 32 matched controls in their pattern of responses to two versions of the Beads task within a Bayesian framework. The two versions of the Beads task consisted of one emotional and one neutral, both with ratios of beads of 60:40 and 80:20, considered, respectively, as the “difficult” and “easy” variants of the task. Results indicate that patients showed a greater deviation from the normative model, especially in the 60:40 ratio, suggesting that more inaccurate probability estimations are more likely to occur under uncertainty conditions. Additionally, both patients and controls showed a greater deviation in the emotional version of the task, providing evidence of a reasoning bias modulated by the content of the stimuli. Finally, a positive correlation between patients’ deviation and delusional symptomatology was found. Impairments in the 60:40 ratio with emotional content was related to the amount of disruption in life caused by delusions. These results contribute to the understanding of how cognitive mechanisms interact with characteristics of the task (i.e., ambiguity and content) in the context of delusional thinking. These findings might be used to inform improved intervention programs in the domain of inferential reasoning.
Multiphase coexistence has attracted significant interest in recent years because its control has entailed a significant breakthrough for the piezoelectric activity enhancement of lead-free piezoelectric oxides. However, the comprehension of...
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1,863 members
Luis Miguel Pedrero Esteban
  • Department of Communication
Alice Foucart
  • Centro de Investigación Nebrija en Cognición - Facultad de Lenguas y Educación
Alicia Coduras
  • Entrepreneurship Chair, Health Research
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Madrid, Spain