Natural History Museum Bern
Recent publications
Pollinators play a crucial role in ecosystems globally, ensuring the seed production of most flowering plants. They are threatened by global changes and knowledge of their distribution at the national and continental levels is needed to implement efficient conservation actions, but this knowledge is still fragmented and/or difficult to access. As a step forward, we provide an updated list of around 3000 European bee and hoverfly species, reflecting their current distributional status at the national level (in the form of present, absent, regionally extinct, possibly extinct or non-native). This work was attainable by incorporating both published and unpublished data, as well as knowledge from a large set of taxonomists and ecologists in both groups. After providing the first National species lists for bees and hoverflies for many countries, we examine the current distributional patterns of these species and designate the countries with highest levels of species richness. We also show that many species are recorded in a single European country, highlighting the importance of articulating European and national conservation strategies. Finally, we discuss how the data provided here can be combined with future trait and Red List data to implement research that will further advance pollinator conservation.
The Adriatic brook lamprey, Lampetra zanandreai Vladykov 1955, was described from northeastern Italy. Its distribution is thought to include left tributaries of the River Po and the river basins of the Adriatic Sea from the River Po to the River Isonzo/Soča in Italy, Switzerland and Slovenia. It also shows a geographically isolated distribution in the Potenza River on the Adriatic slope in Central Italy. Lampetra from the Neretva River system in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Morača River system in Montenegro that were previously identified as L. zanandreai were recently described as a new species Lampetra soljani Tutman, Freyhof, Dulčić, Glamuzina & Geiger 2017 based on morphological data and a genetic distance between the two species of roughly 2.5% in the DNA barcoding gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Since DNA barcodes for L. zanandreai are only available for one population from the upper Po River in northwestern Italy, we generated additional COI nucleotide sequence data of this species from Switzerland, northeastern and central Italy comprising near topotypic material and obtained GenBank sequences of the species from Slovenia to better assess the evolutionary history of the two brook lamprey species in the river basins of the Adriatic Sea. Our data show a low sequence divergence of <1% between L. zanandreai from Switzerland, northeastern and central Italy and Slovenia and the Balkan species L. soljani . However, members of the population previously identified as ‘ L. zanandreai ’ from northwest Italy are genetically highly divergent from those of L. zanandreai and likely belong to an undescribed species, L . sp. ‘upper Po’. The presence of a unique and highly divergent brook lamprey lineage in the upper Po River suggests that L. zanandreai and Lampetra sp. ‘upper Po’ may have evolved in separate paleo drainages during the formation of the modern Po Valley subsequent to marine inundations in the Pliocene.
Hoplitis astragali sp. nov., a member of the H. monstrabilis species group, and H. dagestanica sp. nov., a member of the H. adunca species group, are described. The former species is known from Dagestan in Russia, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan, the latter only from Dagestan. Nests of H. astragali are described. Females of this species excavated burrows in a vertical clay cliff, but sometimes chose a horizontal surface for nest excavation, particularly at the entrance of old burrows of Xylocopa olivieri (Apidae). The nest burrows of H. astragali were either sub-vertical or sub-horizontal. The nests were composed of one to three brood cells, an empty vestibule in front of the outermost cell, and a closing plug at the nest entrance made of moistened mud. The inner surface of the cells was covered with a thin wall composed of compact soil, most probably built by the female bee after cell excavation. The pollen loaf was very liquid and had a spherical shape. The egg was deposited on its top. The cocoon consisted of a single thin layer, which uniformly covered the whole inner surface of the cell. There was one generation per year. The prepupae hibernated. Sapyga caucasica (Sapygidae) was recorded in the nests as a kleptoparasite. Both females and males of H. astragali exclusively visited flowers of two species of the genus Astragalus (Fabaceae).
The ~ 10 km 2 strewn field of the Twannberg type IIG iron meteorite is located in the Swiss Jura Mountains, 30 km northwest of Bern. The strewn field has been mapped by a group of citizen scientists since 2006, yielding more than 2000 meteorite fragments with a total mass of 152.7 kg until the end of 2022. With a terrestrial age of 176 ± 19 ka and a minimum pre-atmospheric mass of ~ 250 t, the Twannberg meteorite is a local time marker in an area with a poorly-known paleoenvironmental history. The Twannberg strewn field is located just outside of the maximum extent of ice during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). On the Mont Sujet, meteorites are size-sorted in a 6-km long section of the primary strewn field (altitude 945-1370 m a.s.l.), indicating a fall direction from east-northeast to west-southwest (azimuth approximately 250°). On the Twannberg plateau and in the Twannbach gorge, meteorites are not size-sorted and occur in a ~ 5.7-km long area associated with till and recent stream sediments (altitude 430-1075 m a.s.l.). The mass distribution of meteorites on the Twannberg plateau demonstrate that these meteorites were not found where they fell but that they must have been transported up to several km by glacier ice flow after the fall. The distribution of meteorites and of glacially transported Alpine clasts on the Mont Sujet and on the Chasseral chain indicates the presence of local ice caps and of an approximately 200-m higher Alpine ice surface with respect to the LGM at the time of fall. This high ice level during MIS 6 (Marine Isotopic Stage 6, 191-130 ka) indicated by the meteorite distribution is consistent with surface exposure ages of 50-144 ka from nearby resting erratic boulders at altitudes of up to 1290 m a.s.l., including the newly dated Jobert boulder (63 ka). These boulders indicate an ice level ~ 400 m higher than during LGM at a time not later than MIS 6. Post-LGM luminescence ages of loess-containing meteorites on the Mont Sujet and 14 C ages of materials associated with meteorite finds indicate relatively young pedoturbation and increased oxidation of meteorites since ~ 7300 cal BP, possibly correlated with deforestation and enhanced erosion resulting from increased human activities since the Neolithic. This study shows that Twannberg meteorites in their palaeoenvironmental context provide valuable information about ice levels and transport directions during MIS 6 and about their interaction with the post-LGM environmental conditions. The unique Twannberg strewn field has the potential to reveal more valuable information.
Nach Analyse des Typusmaterials können im Vergleich mit weiterem Material aus den Sammlungen des Naturhistorischen Museums Basel und dem Naturhistorischen Museum Bern folgende zwei Synonymien aufgezeigt werden: Histopona litoralis Wunderlich, 2021 = Textrix caudata L. Koch, 1872 syn. nov. und Textrix intermedia Wunderlich, 2008 = Textrix rubrofoliata Pesarini, 1990 syn. nov. After analysis of the type material and further material of the collections of the Naturhistorisches Museum Basel and the Naturhistorisches Museum Bern the two following synonymies are established: Histopona litoralis Wunderlich, 2021 = Textrix caudata L. Koch, 1872 syn. nov. and Textrix intermedia Wunderlich, 2008 = Textrix rubrofoliata Pesarini, 1990 syn. nov.
Loaches of the genus Lepidocephalich-thys are ubiquitous in Peninsular India and the nearby continental-shelf island of Sri Lanka. Four valid species are reported from this region: L. thermalis, a species reported from across this region; L. jonk-laasi, confined to rainforests in southern Sri Lanka; L. coromandelensis, from the Eastern Ghats and L. guntea, from the northern Western Ghats of the Indian peninsula. Here, based on collections from 25 locations in 13 river basins in Sri Lanka and 20 locations across India, including a dataset downloaded from GenBank, we present a molecular phylogeny constructed from the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequences. We show that ancestral Lepidocephalich-thys colonized Sri Lanka in the late Miocene. Multiple back-migrations to India, as well as colonizations from the mainland, took place in the Plio-Pleisto-cene. The persistence on the island of L. jonklaasi, an obligatory rainforest associate, suggests that per-humid refugia existed in Sri Lanka throughout this Handling editor: Louise Chavarie Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. time. Lepidocephalichthys thermalis appears to have colonized the Sri Lankan highlands as recently as the Pleistocene. The data suggest that Lepidocephalich-thys thermalis is a species complex in which multiple species remain to be investigated and described, both in India and Sri Lanka.
Sri Lanka’s biota is derived largely from Southeast Asian lineages which immigrated via India following its early-Eocene contact with Laurasia. The island is now separated from southeastern India by the 30 km wide Palk Strait which, during sea-level low-stands, was bridged by the 140 km-wide Palk Isthmus. Consequently, biotic ingress and egress were mediated largely by the climate of the isthmus. Because of their dependence on perennial aquatic habitats, freshwater fish are useful models for biogeographic studies. Here we investigate the timing and dynamics of the colonization of—and diversification on—Sri Lanka by a group of four closely-related genera of cyprinid fishes ( Puntius sensu lato). We construct a molecular phylogeny based on two mitochondrial and two nuclear gene markers, conduct divergence timing analyses and ancestral-range estimations to infer historical biogeography, and use haplotype networks to infer phylogeographic patterns. The origin of Puntius s.l. is dated to ~20 Ma. The source of diversification of Puntius s.l. is Sri Lanka-Peninsular India. Species confined to perhumid rainforests show strong phylogeographic structure, while habitat generalists show little or no such structure. Ancestral range estimations for Plesiopuntius bimaculatus and Puntius dorsalis support an ‘Out of Sri Lanka’ scenario. Sri Lankan Puntius s.l. derive from multiple migrations across the Palk Isthmus between the early Miocene and the late Pleistocene. Species dependent on an aseasonal climate survived aridification in rainforest refugia in the island’s perhumid southwest and went on to recolonize the island and even southern India when pluvial conditions resumed. Our results support an historical extinction of Sri Lanka’s montane aquatic fauna, followed by a recent partial recolonization of the highlands, showing also that headwater stream capture facilitated dispersal across basin boundaries.
The species of the subgenus Stichoptera occurring in Switzerland are revised, based on a combination of literature data, old museum specimens and recent material. Four species, one with two subspecies, Chrysolina kuesteri (Helliesen, 1912), Ch. latecincta latecincta (Demaison, 1896), Ch. latecincta norica (Holdhaus, 1914), Ch. rossia (Illiger, 1802) and Ch. sanguinolenta (Linnaeus, 1758) are confirmed to occur in Switzerland, while Ch. gypsophilae (Küster, 1845) has to be excluded from the Swiss fauna due to insufficient evidence. Errors and unclarities in the older literature are discussed. Ch. kuesteri was found abundantly in central Valais, allowing some notes on its larval biology. Larvae of the alpine Ch. latecincta are also illustrated, along with notes on its habitat and some past and present distribution records. Illustrations for all Swiss members of the subgenus, as well as distribution maps with all confirmed records, are provided.
During the past decade, the ca 120 species of small, colourful tropical Asian freshwater fishes previously referred to the cyprinid genus Puntius have been shown to consist of multiple morphologically distinct evolutionary lineages that resolve as monophyletic groups in molecular studies. Many of these clades have been allocated to new genera such as Dawkinsia, Desmopuntius, Haludaria, Oliotius, Pethia, Puntigrus, Sahyadria, Striuntius and Waikhomia. Others have been assigned to existing but previously poorly delineated genera such as Barbodes and Systomus, while some 40 species remain in Puntius. The divergent morphology of several species retained in Puntius suggests, however, that the systematics of this group requires further attention. Here, based on a phylogeny incorporating newly generated data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), nuclear recombination activating protein 1 (rag1), and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (irbp) gene markers, we investigate the interrelationships of the species of Puntius in Sri Lanka in the wider context of their Indian and Southeast Asian congeners. We identify three well-supported monophyletic groups that warrant recognition as new genera: Rohanella (type species Puntius titteya), Plesiopuntius (type species Gnathopogon bimaculatus) and Bhava (type species Puntius vittatus). The first of these is endemic to rainforest streams in Sri Lanka's perhumid southwestern wet zone, whereas the latter two are widely distributed in both Sri Lanka and southern India, including the Western Ghats. Our study highlights the presence of distinct evolutionary lineages among several widespread species.
Während einer Saison im Jahr 2020 wurden in den östlichen Zentralalpen der Schweiz im Gebiet Sur, Alp Flix, bodenlebende Makroarthropoden mittels Barberfallen erfasst. Hauptziel war es, entlang eines ausgewählten Höhentransekts von 2100 bis 2500 m ü. M. die vorhandene Biodiversität zu erfassen. Entlang des Bergbaches Ava dallas Tigias wurden von Juni – November 2020 an sieben Standorten je drei Barberfallen aufgestellt und durchgehend betrieben. Vorliegend werden die Carabidae vorgestellt. Durch Berechnungen von Ähnlichkeitindices wurden deren Habitate innerhalb des untersuchten Höhentransekts abgegrenzt. Es konnten 393 Laufkäferindividuen aus 21 Arten erfasst und bestimmt werden. Sieben Arten wurden erstmals für die Alp Flix nachgewiesen. Davon sind die seltene Amara nigricornis und Leistus montanus rhaeticus besonders hervorzuheben. Aus den Berechnungen konnten drei Habitate der Laufkäfer im Transekt unterschieden werden: subalpines Grünerlengebüsch mit halbschattiger und mäßig feucht-frischer Ausprägung; alpines Habitat mit starker Krautschicht und frischer bis trockener Ausprägung und ein kurzrasiger hochalpiner Lebensraum mit xerothermer Ausprägung.
Recent fossil shell mining for a new rail line in the Orlando area of Orange County, Florida has uncovered two species of the ellobioid genus Carychium O. F. Müller, 1773 in a bed of freshwater marl from the Lower Pleistocene Nashua Formation. To taxonomically interpret these finds, the well-preserved shells were imaged via high-resolution X-ray tomography (micro-CT) to view significant internal diagnostic characters such as the columellar configuration and the degree of lamellar sinuosity and their relationship in context to the entire shell. The image data are compared to that of type material and extant and fossil Carychium species inhabiting the SE USA, Mexico, Central America, and Jamaica. Based on these results, the species Carychium floridanum G. H. Clapp, 1918 and Carychium nashuaense sp. nov. are identified from fossil shells dating from the Early Pleistocene. This work documents the first fossil members of C. floridanum and the first fossil Carychium from the SE USA.
Macroevolutionary changes such as variation in habitat use or diet are often associated with convergent, adaptive changes in morphology. However, it is still unclear how small-scale morphological variation at the population level can drive shifts in ecology such as observed at a macroevolutionary scale. Here, we address this question by investigating how variation in cranial form and feeding mechanics relate to rapid changes in diet in an insular lizard (Podarcis siculus) after experimental introduction into a new environment. We first quantified differences in the skull shape and jaw muscle architecture between the source and introduced population using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and dissections. Next, we tested the impact of the observed variation in morphology on the mechanical performance of the masticatory system using computer-based biomechanical simulation techniques. Our results show that small differences in shape, combined with variation in muscle architecture, can result in significant differences in performance allowing access to novel trophic resources. The confrontation of these data with the already described macroevolutionary relationships between cranial form and function in these insular lizards provides insights into how selection can, over relatively short time scales, drive major changes in ecology through its impact on mechanical performance.
Available information on the typification of the name Ranunculus rionii in the literature is scarce and misleading. Previously claimed type collections indicate Lagger as the collector, but the protologue discusses only the specimens collected by Rion. Original material for the name is identified, the locality of the type collection is specified, Lagger's way of writing herbarium labels for his type specimens is described, the history of the discovery of R. rionii is reviewed, and the name is lectotypified.
Identifying, analyzing, and explaining trends in the development of material culture is one of the major concerns in prehistoric archaeology. The traditional recording of data in typologies, however, is not optimal for answering the question of diachronic change because typological data capture variability poorly and are often incompatible with multivariate statistics. To overcome these problems, we present PyREnArA (Python-R-Environment for Artifact Analysis), a trait-based tool that allows for a systematic recording of diversity and variability in a way that is applicable to quantitative analysis and multivariate statistics. Using Gravettian assemblages from Lower Austria and Moravia as a case study, we analyze changes in the morphology as well as the design of lithic projectiles and statistically determine the amount of variation that correlates with the progression of time. We identify a slow trend towards slenderer and more pointed projectiles and a shift from laterally to latero-frontally hafted implements. Most of the analyzed traits, however, appear not to experience selective pressure and seem to be unrelated to the passage of time. We discuss these results with regard to different scales of selection, in particular individual choice vs. macroevolutionary group selection over longer periods of time and thus beyond the realm of individual intend, and we raise questions for future research.
The placental skull has evolved into myriad forms, from longirostrine whales to globular primates, and with a diverse array of appendages from antlers to tusks. This disparity has recently been studied from the perspective of the whole skull, but the skull is composed of numerous elements that have distinct developmental origins and varied functions. Here, we assess the evolution of the skull's major skeletal elements, decomposed into 17 individual regions. Using a high-dimensional morphometric approach for a dataset of 322 living and extinct eutherians (placental mammals and their stem relatives), we quantify patterns of variation and estimate phylogenetic, allometric and ecological signal across the skull. We further compare rates of evolution across ecological categories and ordinal-level clades and reconstruct rates of evolution along lineages and through time to assess whether developmental origin or function discriminate the evolutionary trajectories of individual cranial elements. Our results demonstrate distinct macroevolutionary patterns across cranial elements that reflect the ecological adaptations of major clades. Elements derived from neural crest show the fastest rates of evolution, but ecological signal is equally pronounced in bones derived from neural crest and paraxial mesoderm, suggesting that developmental origin may influence evolutionary tempo, but not capacity for specialisation. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The mammalian skull: development, structure and function’.
Katsarosite, ideally Zn(C2O4)·2H2O, named for Īraklīs Katsaros, is a new mineral found at the Esperanza Mine in the Kaminiza area of the Lavrion Mining District, Greece. Katsarosite usually occurs directly on sphalerite or embedded in jarosite and/or hydrozincite, often intimately intergrown with gypsum and overgrown by goslarite and/or epsomite. Crystal aggregates are mostly fine granular to earthy, with individual crystals being usually rounded with an average diameter of 30 µm, sometimes prismatic along [001] or platy, exhibiting the indistinct forms {100}, {001}, {110}, and {101}. Katsarosite is malleable with a Mohs hardness of 1½ – 2 and exhibits a perfect cleavage on {110}; the fracture is uneven in all other directions. The colour depends on the iron (Fe²⁺) content, ranging from pure white in almost Fe-free samples to yellow in Fe-rich specimens. It has a resinous luster and a white streak; no luminescence has been observed under either short- or long-wave ultraviolet radiation. Katsarosite is optically biaxial (+). Refractive indices measured at a wavelength of 589 nm are nα = 1.488(2), nβ = 1.550(2), nγ = 1.684(2), with 2Vobs = 71(3)°. Chemical analysis gave on average C2O3 38.32 wt%, ZnO 38.99 wt%, FeO 1.92 wt%, and H2O 19.04 wt% (the latter was deduced based on the crystal-structure refinement), with traces of MgO and MnO. The new mineral is readily soluble in dilute acids. Katsarosite is monoclinic, space group C2/c, with unit-cell parameters a = 11.768(3), b = 5.3882(12), c = 9.804(2) Å, β = 127.045(8)°, V = 496.2(2) ų (Z = 4). The strongest lines in the Gandolfi X-ray powder pattern [dobs in Å, Iobs/I100, (hkl)] are: 4.6745, 100, (200); 4.7678, 94, (202¯\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\overline{2 }$$\end{document}); 2.9533, 51, (402¯\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\overline{2 }$$\end{document}); 4.7030, 37, (1 1¯1¯\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\overline{1 }\,\overline{1 }$$\end{document}); 3.9266, 33, (002); 3.5686, 27, (111); 2.6574, 22, (1 1¯3¯\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\overline{1 }\,\overline{3 }$$\end{document}); 3.5992, 8, (1 1¯2¯\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\overline{1 }\,\overline{2 }$$\end{document}); 2.7032, 4, (020). The crystal structure was refined based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data to R(F) = 0.08. The observed mass density of 2.50(2) g cm⁻³ compares well with the calculated value (2.508 g cm⁻³). Katsarosite belongs to the humboldtine group, whose crystal-structure type is well described for both isotypic minerals and synthetic compounds in the literature. The atomic arrangement in Zn(C2O4)·2H2O is characterized by chains consisting of isolated ZnO6 octahedra which are alternately linked along [010] via oxalate anions. These chains are interconnected through hydrogen bonds only, with Ow···O (with Ow denoting the O atom of the H2O molecule) donor–acceptor distances of ~ 2.8 Å.
Agonoscena pistaciae is a serious pest of pistachio in the Middle East and the Eastern Mediterranean. In this paper the presence of the species in Spain and Western Europe is confirmed. It is widespread in the regions of Castilla–La Mancha and Extremadura in Central Spain, where it develops mostly on Pistacia terebinthus, in contrast to the Middle East, where its preferred host is Pistacia vera. In the literature and internet sources, A. pistaciae is often confused with other, morphologically similar species, namely A. succincta and A. targionii. Morphological characters are listed and illustrated for the identification of the species found in the West Mediterranean
Anthropoid vision contributes not only to reaching and grasping but also to the orienting of a food item during the withdraw movement to precisely place it in the mouth for eating. The evolutionary history of this visual control of feeding is not known. It likely evolved from the nonvisual control of the hand that is used with good effect for eating in many non-primate animal species. Strepsirrhines are a relatively large monophyletic group, diverging near the base of the primate cladogram, and described as using vision to reach for food. It is not known whether they use vision to orient food items during the withdraw movement. Video recordings of 7,464 withdraw movements from 22 species of captive strepsirrhines eating their normal food provisions were used to assess whether and how vision contributes to the withdraw movement. The constituent acts of withdraw movements, head orientation, body posture, ground-withdraw and inhand-withdraw, were assessed using frame-by-frame video inspection. Strepsirrhines were versatile in using their hands to get food to the mouth. They displayed variation between and within families that were weakly related to phylogenetic relationships and mainly related to feeding niches. There was no evidence that any species used vision to assist with the withdraw movement. Instead strepsirrhines used mouth reaching to take food from the hand and/or perioral contact to positioning food for biting. Our findings support two hypotheses: that visual mediation of food orienting for placement in the mouth during the withdraw movement is an anthropoid innovation, and that the evolution of the visual control of feeding was not a singular event.
Since molecular data identified hippopotamids as the closest living relatives of cetaceans, a common aquatic/semiaquatic ancestor hypothesis for these modern taxa has naturally been proposed. However, recent molecular studies concluded that most molecular adaptations in extant cetaceans occurred after their split from hippopotamids. If the question of aquatic affinities of the first cetaceans has been investigated at large, it has not been the case for the forebears of hippopotamids. Sensory organs are drastically affected by underwater perception. In this work, we question the aquatic affinities of fossil hippopotamoids through an investigation of the morphology and morphometrics of the petrosal bone and cochlea of 12 extinct hippopotamoid taxa. Petrosal and bony labyrinth morphological characters constitute a source of structured phylogenetic signal, both supporting major hippopotamoid clades and bringing original relationships. The morphometric study of functional measurements of the cochlear canal shows that anthracotheres bridge the morphological gap between terrestrial artiodactyls and modern hippopotamids. The integrated functional signal of the ear region further supports convergent acquisitions of semiaquatic behaviour in hippopotamids and cetaceans and indicates that terrestrial hearing was an ancestral trait among Hippopotamoidea. We highlight multiple convergent acquisitions of semiaquatic traits in the ear region of hippopotamoids and new robust phylogenetic characters.
Hou et al. challenged the giraffoid affinity of Discokeryx and its ecology and behavior. In our response we reiterate that Discokeryx is a giraffoid that, along with Giraffa, shows extreme evolution of head-neck morphologies that were presumably shaped by selective pressure from sexual competition and marginal environments.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.
29 members
Kropf Christian
  • Invertebrates
Manuel Schweizer
  • Vertebrates
Lukas Rüber
  • Department of Vertebrates
Hannes Baur
  • contact:
Bern, Switzerland