Economically-oriented forestry aims to sustain timber harvest revenues, while ecologically-oriented management supplies suitable habitat for species using deadwood as primary habitat. As these objectives are conflicting, planning for economic and ecological sustainability involves compromise and trade-offs. We analyze the spatial trade-offs between the economic value from timber harvesting and the volume of deadwood in the boreal forest. We assess these trade-offs from three perspectives: (1) landscape characteristics, affected by conservation strategies; (2) forest management promoting either economic or ecological values; (3) uncertainty in inventory errors undermining the estimate of the two sustainability objectives. To reveal the tradeoffs between the forest economic and ecological values we simulated and optimized a production landscape in Finland 30 years into the future accounting for uncertainty in biomass and deadwood inventories. We found that, with a limited reduction in timber harvesting (7%), (i) the amount of deadwood increased more in non-aggregated (45%) than in aggregated (16%) stands, (ii) constraining stands in adjacent areas further increased deadwood (21%) respect to the matrix and (iii) 7% of connected stand area harbored ≥20 m3/ha deadwood supporting survival of near-threatened species. Our results demonstrate that the structure of the landscape for biodiversity can be improved with limited economic losses. However, improving habitat configuration requires larger economic losses than only increasing habitat amount, but its ecological benefits are larger both for common and red-listed species. We found that management oriented towards stand aggregation not only creates connected areas with high deadwood of high value biodiversity but also improves the value of the whole matrix by decreasing intensive timber harvesting and energy wood collection. Finally, we found that uncertainties alter the estimate of the potential of the forest landscape to supply deadwood, and this can affect the choice of management actions to allocate over the landscape. To conclude, our results demonstrate the trade-offs between economic forest use and conservation are affected differently by landscape characteristics, forest management and uncertainty in inventory errors. As such these drivers should be considered when optimizing the forest for multiple uses.
The modern food system is characterized with high environmental impact, which is in many cases associated with increased rates of animal production and overconsumption. The adoption of alternatives to meat proteins (insects, plants, mycoprotein, microalgae, cultured meat, etc.) might potentially influence the environmental impact and human health in a positive or negative way but could also trigger indirect impacts with higher consumption rates. Current review provides a condensed analysis on potential environmental impacts, resource consumption rates and unintended trade-offs associated with integration of alternative proteins in complex global food system in the form of meat substitutes. We focus on emissions of greenhouse gases, land use, non-renewable energy use and water footprint highlighted for both ingredients used for meat substitutes and ready products. The benefits and limitations of meat substitution are highlighted in relation to a weight and protein content. The analysis of the recent research literature allowed us to define issues, that require the attention of future studies.
Freshwaters of the boreal and temperate regions have experienced increased browning during the last decades. Browning, or brownification, is mostly driven by increased organic carbon (OC) and iron concentrations. It can cause detrimental changes in aquatic ecosystems through effects on chemistry, physics and ecology. Additionally, browning can impact aquatic greenhouse gas emissions, increase the costs of drinking water treatment and weaken the recreational value of water bodies. All these impacts call for means to mitigate the excess export of humic matter to aquatic ecosystems. Browning has often been associated with decreased atmospheric sulphur deposition and climate change-induced alterations in temperature, vegetation and the hydrological regime of catchments. Lately, it has been attributed to changes in land use, especially drainage of peatlands for forestry purposes and afforestation. In this review, we evaluate the impacts of peatland forestry operations on OC leaching and assess possible mitigation measures. We reveal that traditional, even-aged forest management with clear felling, site preparation and ditch cleaning creates hot spots for OC leaching and hot moments for carbon-rich runoff due to fluctuations in hydrology, peat decomposition and peat exposure. Simultaneously, most of the current water protection measures are either ineffective or ambiguous in retaining OC, especially in a dissolved form. Hence, management practices that prevent future peat decomposition and reduce hydrological connectivity are essential to reduce negative water quality impacts. We conclude that a systemic change would be needed to prevent formation of loading and excess OC leaching. More research is needed, but it seems that a transition towards more natural and diverse peatland forest management with abundantly applied continuous cover forestry, mixed forest cover and improved catchment retention by peatland restoration could result in fewer undesirable water quality impacts. Protecting biodiversity and counteracting negative climate impacts requires the integration of updated management practices into future forest policies and guidelines, as the green shift towards a bioeconomy will create an increasing demand for the sustainable use of peatland forests.
Basidiomycota brown rot fungus (Fomitopsis pinicola) and two white rot fungi (Phlebia radiata, Trichaptum abietinum) were cultivated on thin slices of spruce wood individually and in interspecies combinations. Within 12 months, F. pinicola substantially decomposed spruce wood observed as mass loss, also in three-species combinations. However, white rot fungi through hyphal interactions negatively affected the brown-rot indicative iron reduction capacity of F. pinicola. Decay-signature gene expression in mycelial interaction zones indicated suppression of brown rot mechanism but stimulation of enzymatic white-rot lignin attack by P. radiata. Wood ultrastructure imaging showed white-rot dominance in the fungal combinations, whereas destructive brown-rot was evident with F. pinicola alone. Our results confirm the dynamic pattern of enzyme production in fungal combinations, and transition from brown to white rot decomposition metabolism during the late stage of wood decay after one year of interspecific interactions.
The mapping of ecosystem service (ES) provisioning often lacks decision-makers’ preferences on the ESs provided. Analyzing the related uncertainties can be computationally demanding for a landscape tessellated to a large number of spatial units such as pixels. We propose stochastic multicriteria acceptability analyses to incorporate (unknown or only partially known) decision-makers’ preferences into the spatial forest management prioritization in a Scandinavian boreal forest landscape. The potential of the landscape for the management alternatives was quantified by airborne laser scanning based proxies. A nearest-neighbor imputation method was applied to provide each pixel with stochastic acceptabilities on the alternatives based on decision-makers’ preferences sampled from a probability distribution. We showed that this workflow could be used to derive two types of maps for forest use prioritization: one showing the alternative that a decision-maker with given preferences should choose and another showing areas where the suitability of the forest structure suggested different alternative than the preferences. We discuss the potential of the latter approach for mapping management hotspots. The stochastic approach allows estimating the strength of the decision with respect to the uncertainty in both the proxy values and preferences. The nearest neighbor imputation of stochastic acceptabilities is a computationally feasible way to improve decisions based on ES proxy maps by accounting for uncertainties, although the need for such detailed information at the pixel level should be separately assessed.
The global forest carbon (C) stock is estimated at 662 Gt of which 45% is in soil organic matter. Thus, comprehensive understanding of the effects of forest management practices on forest soil C stock and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes is needed for the development of effective forest-based climate change mitigation strategies. To improve this understanding, we synthesized peer-reviewed literature on forest management practices that can mitigate climate change by increasing soil C stocks and reducing GHG emissions. We further identified soil processes that affect soil GHG balance and discussed how models represent forest management effects on soil in GHG inventories and scenario analyses to address forest climate change mitigation potential. Forest management effects depend strongly on the specific practice and land type. Intensive timber harvesting with removal of harvest residues/stumps results in a reduction in soil C stock, while high stocking density and enhanced productivity by fertilization or dominance of coniferous species increase soil C stock. Nitrogen fertilization increases the soil C stock and N2O emissions while decreasing the CH4 sink. Peatland hydrology management is a major driver of the GHG emissions of the peatland forests, with lower water level corresponding to higher CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the global warming potential of all GHG emissions (CO2, CH4 and N2O) together can be ten-fold higher after clear-cutting than in peatlands with standing trees. The climate change mitigation potential of forest soils, as estimated by modelling approaches, accounts for stand biomass driven effects and climate factors that affect the decomposition rate. A future challenge is to account for the effects of soil preparation and other management that affects soil processes by changing soil temperature, soil moisture, soil nutrient balance, microbial community structure and processes, hydrology and soil oxygen concentration in the models. We recommend that soil monitoring and modelling focus on linking processes of soil C stabilization with the functioning of soil microbiota.
CONTEXT The El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), one of the most well-known climate modes, can lead to large-scale climate variability and subsequent crop loss, posing a severe risk to global food security. OBJECTIVE The study's main goal was to examine the synchronous impacts of ENSO and the probability of simultaneous ENSO–related crop loss on the global yields of major crops and investigate the predictability of finer-scale variation in crop yields based on ENSO-related large-scale climate precursors. METHODS Here, using updated crop census data for ∼12,000 political units, the study first investigated the synchronous impact of ENSO on yield variability of major crops (i.e., maize, rice, wheat, and soybean) using Synthetic Analysis and bootstrap method, and then estimated the probability of simultaneous crop loss in the top five crop-producing countries by copula approach. Finally, multiple regression was developed to identify the best forecast model, the corresponding ENSO indices, and the lead time for each political unit based on pre-occurred ENSO indices. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The results show that 12.8% (2.1%), 13.4% (6.4%), 11.8% (10.2%), and 8.4% (18.3%) of wheat, rice, maize, and soybean harvest areas were significantly negatively (positively) associated with El Niño, respectively; and 7% (11.7%), 20.2% (3.4%), 5.8% (5.6%), and 14% (6.4%) with La Niña. El Niño reduced global-mean crop yield by 1.32%, 1.33%, and 0.37% for wheat, rice, and maize, respectively, but increased it for soybean by 1.9%. La Niña reduced the global mean yield for rice (2.1%), maize (1.5%), and soybean (1.3%) but increased it for wheat (1.0%). Rice (6.6%) had the highest probability of simultaneous loss during the El Niño phase, whereas La Niña is soybean (5.9%). Based on the early ENSO signals, crop yield could be reliably forecasted for ∼32.05%, ∼42.2%, ∼21%, and ∼ 26.37% of global harvest areas, with R² being 0.24, 0.26, 0.24, and 0.23 and a lead time of 1–12 months, for wheat, rice, maize, and soybean, respectively. The results suggest that although the reliable yield prediction based on ENSO indexes alone can be developed in a limited proportion of harvest areas, it is skillful in the ENSO-sensitive regions. SIGNIFICANCE The findings improved the understanding of ENSO-induced crop yield variability and developed novel approaches to forecast global crop yields based on early ENSO signals.
The EU's Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade Action Plan (FLEGT) adopted in 2003 includes bilateral trade agreements known as Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) signed between the EU and timber-supplying countries. The EU has invested more than 1.5 billion euros in VPAs; however, only one of the seven concerned countries has managed to complete all the necessary requirements to expire FLEGT licences. Since there is no research that comprehensively integrates the scientific evidence regarding the effects of this policy, this study systematically reviews all empirical scientific studies on the effects of VPAs. We found that almost all relevant studies are case reports that use qualitative data and focus on only one country at a time, mainly Ghana, Cameroon, or Indonesia. The evidence suggests that while VPAs have contributed to the establishment of governance structures, tools, and procedures they have not been able to solve social problems (i.e., inequality and injustice) and have potentially harmed the economies of EU timber suppliers. Evidence on the effects of VPAs on illegal logging and trade and the environment remains limited. Thus, future research should focus on more countries; use a greater range of methods, including comparative experimental designs; explore possible intended effects on under-researched categories; and systematically investigate unintended effects on other categories within and outside the forestry sector.
Producing food in an environmentally sustainable way for the growing human population is a challenge to the global food system. Vertical farm (VF) as a part of the solution portfolio is attracting interest since it uses less water, pesticides, and land which are scarce in many parts of the globe. Despite these positive factors, the energy demand for vertical farms is high, and farms often remain separate and excluded from cities where most of the population lives. City-level energy system solutions exist to empower energy efficiency and increase the share of variable renewable energy sources, but their potential has not yet been estimated for an urban energy system that includes large vertical farms. Accordingly, in this study, we simulate an urban energy system that practices vertical farming with large-scale variable renewable energies and flexibility measures. For the first part of the study, we modelled a vertical farm's energy system with demand response control to maximize electricity cost savings. To evaluate the potential of demand response, the analysis is carried out for different crops (lettuce, wheat, and soybean), and different electricity price profiles. The result of demand response control can be a reduction of 5% to 30% in electricity consumption costs. Further, sensitivity analyses highlight the effect of electricity price variations and photoperiod on demand response outcomes. In the second part, the operation of an urban energy system (Helsinki, Finland) with vertical farms was analysed through two different scenarios. These scenarios represent the emission-free Helsinki energy system in 2050 with large-scale wind power implementation. As VFs can use electricity outside the peak demand hours, the inclusion of VF with the right energy system configuration can improve the power consumption within the system by up to 19%. Further, we show that connection to the exogenous power market is important to support vertical farming in the future energy systems. In this study, key points in the integration of VF in urban energy systems are highlighted, including the role of exogenous power markets, the potential for increasing local energy consumption with large wind power, and the importance of crop selection in reducing VF's energy costs through demand response. In a city-level solution with a high wind power share, we thus recommend including a vertical farm side by strong sectoral coupling as part of the future design to maximise local consumption.
Barley is one of the most important cereals for animal and human consumption. Barley heading and grain filling are especially vulnerable to heat and drought stress, which are projected to increase in the future. Therefore, site-specific adaptation options, like cultivar choice or shifting sowing dates, will be necessary. Using a global climate model ensemble and a phenology model we projected spring barley heading and maturity dates for 2031-50 for climatically contrasting sites: Helsinki (Finland), Dundee (Scotland) and Zaragoza (Spain). We compared the projected future heading and maturity dates with the baseline period (1981-2010) and described corresponding heat and drought stress conditions and how they were affected by adaptation options, i.e. shifting the sowing date by + /-10-20 days, choosing early or late heading cultivars or combining both adaptation options, with agroclimatic indicators. At all sites and sowing dates, heading and maturity in 2031-50 occurred earlier (up to three weeks with earliest sowing) than in the baseline period. Along the European transect, the projected heading and grain filling periods were hotter than under baseline conditions but advancing heading alleviated heat stress notably. Different indicators signaled more severe drought conditions for 2031-50. At Helsinki, delayed heading periods were exposed to less drought stress, likely because the typical early summer droughts were avoided. At Zaragoza, fewer, yet more intense, rainfall events occurred during grain filling of the early cultivars. Only under scenario RCP4.5, heading and grain filling periods at Dundee were slightly wetter for the early cultivars. Our study provides a unique overview of agroclimatic conditions for heading and grain filling periods projected for 2031-50 along a climatic transect and quantifies the effects of different adaptations for spring barley. The approach can be extended by coupling the agroclimatic indicators with crop modelling.
The challenges of applying process-based models to uneven-aged forests are the difficulties in simulating the interactions between trees and resource allocation between size classes. In this study, we focused on a process-based forest growth model PREBAS which is a mean tree model with Reineke self-thinning mortality and was originally developed for even-aged forests. The primary aim was to test the application of PREBAS model to uneven-aged forests by introducing different diameter at breast height (DBH) size classes to better represent the forest structure. Additionally, we introduced a new mortality model MORnew to PREBAS which is developed for uneven-aged stands and compared with the current PREBAS version in which a modification Reineke rule is used. The tests were conducted in 26 old Norway spruce dominated stands in southern and central Finland with three consecutive measurements (on average a 25-year study period). To evaluate the model performance, we compared the estimations of stand averaged diameter at breast height (D), stand averaged tree height (H), stand averaged crown base height (Hc), stand basal area (B) and density (N) with measurements. Moreover, biomass estimations of each tree component (foliage, branch and stem) were compared to estimations from empirical models. Results showed that introducing size distributions can represent better stand structure and improve the model predictions compared with data. Moreover, the new mortality model MORnew showed promise with qualitatively more realistic results especially among the largest tree size classes. However, model bias still existed in the simulation although the predictions were improved. It revealed that further calibration of the PREBAS model with size classes should be done to better extend the model applicability to uneven-aged forests.
Competition for land use between forestry and reindeer husbandry has been debated in northern Finland, particularly due to the possible adverse effects of forestry on the availability of forage resources for reindeer. In an attempt to achieve a better reconciliation of these land uses, as well as to promote multiple forest use, we studied the effects of 37 stand-, plot-, and tree-level variables on pendulous lichens (Alectoria sp., Bryoria sp. and Usnea sp.), and compared two methods of continuous cover forestry (CCF) on pendulous lichen occurrence in Finnish Lapland. The main findings of the study indicate that the number of years after cutting, and the trunk diameter increase the probability of pendulous lichen occurrence. The highest probability of pendulous lichen occurrence by tree species was achieved in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst), and by area, in the southern and western parts of the study area. Of the two CCF methods studied – small gap cutting and selection cutting – the former was slightly more successful in maintaining pendulous lichens, especially in southern and western Lapland. In addition, the ground lichen coverage indicating the degree of xeric features of the stand reduced the probability of pendulous lichen occurrence. Furthermore, we compared our data with reference material, and found that the CCF stands of the present study maintained more pendulous lichens than managed young thinning stands, but less than managed mature even-aged forests. This study shows that in order to better reconcile forestry and reindeer husbandry in a reindeer herding area, the larger trees should be saved, and the cutting cycle should be kept as long as possible. In addition, lichen-rich areas should be excluded from logging, and the access of reindeer to those areas should be secured. Of the two CCF methods studied, small gap cutting could be a viable method in reconciling forestry and reindeer husbandry, as well as the multiple use of forests, in that it allows to keep at least parts of the forest intact for a longer period of time, which advances the growth of pendulous lichens. Selection cutting, in turn, affects the whole area, and removes the large trees, which are advantageous for pendulous lichens.
Interest in mixed forests is increasing since they could provide higher benefits and positive externalities compared to monocultures, although their management is more complex and silvicultural prescriptions for them are still scarce. Growth simulations are a powerful tool for developing useful guidelines for mixed stands. Heureka and Motti are two decision support systems commonly used for forest management in Sweden and Finland respectively. They were developed mostly with data from pure stands, so how they would perform in mixed stands is currently uncertain. We compiled a large and updated common database of well-replicated experimental research sites and monitoring networks composed by 218 and 1,160 plot-level observations of mixed stands from Sweden and Finland, respectively. We aimed to evaluated the accuracy of Heureka and Motti basal area growth models in those mixed-species stands and to detect any bias in their short-term predictions. Basal area growth simulations (excluding mortality models) were compared to observed stand-level values in a period-wise process with update of the start values in each period. The residual plots were visually examined for different stand mixtures: Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.)-birch (Betula spp), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)-birch and Scots pine-Norway spruce. We observed that the basal area growth models in both decision support systems performed quite well for all mixtures regardless of the proportion of species. Motti simulations overestimated growth in Scots pine-Norway spruce mixtures by 0.063 m²·ha⁻¹·year⁻¹ which may be acceptable for practical use. Therefore, we corroborated that both decision support systems can be currently utilized for short-term forest growth simulation of mixed boreal forests.
To mitigate climate change, several European countries have launched policies to promote the development of a renewable resource-based bioeconomy. These bioeconomy strategies plan to use renewable biological resources, which will increase timber and biomass demands and will potentially conflict with multiple other ecosystem services provided by forests. In addition, these forest ecosystem services (FES) are also influenced by other, different, policy strategies, causing a potential mismatch in proposed management solutions for achieving the different policy goals. We evaluated how Norwegian forests can meet the projected wood and biomass demands from the international market for achieving mitigation targets and at the same time meet nationally determined targets for other FES. Using data from the Norwegian national forest inventory (NFI) we simulated the development of Norwegian forests under different management regimes and defined different forest policy scenarios, according to the most relevant forest policies in Norway: national forest policy (NFS), biodiversity policy (BIOS), and bioeconomy policy (BIES). Finally, through multi-objective optimization, we identified the combination of management regimes matching best with each policy scenario. The results for all scenarios indicated that Norway will be able to satisfy wood demands of up to 17 million m³ in 2093. However, the policy objectives for FES under each scenario caused substantial differences in terms of the management regimes selected. We observed that BIES and NFS resulted in very similar forest management programs in Norway, with a dominance of extensive management regimes. In BIOS there was an increase of set aside areas and continuous cover forestry, which made it more compatible with biodiversity indicators. We also found multiple synergies and trade-offs between the FES, likely influenced by the definition of the policy targets at the national scale.
Modern forestry practices are based on the idea of ‘big is beautiful’. Especially in the regeneration phase, the operations are often excessive in relation to the profit that one can expect to gain in decades to come. Excessive operations also constrain the use of ecosystem services. Lean forestry is a novel philosophy of forestry practise that aims to direct the idea of “big is beautiful” in modern silviculture more into “do cost effectively only what is needed to fulfil the goals”. To succeed Lean forestry requires exact spatial information to be able to carry out forestry measures very precisely only where they are really needed to fulfil goals. This kind of a paradigm shift requires systems with new kinds of abilities to remotely sense the surrounding environment and to make better and faster decisions based on sensed data. Automated unmanned offroad vehicle that is able to sense the environment and to make lean decisions is presented as an example of initiatives that can make forestry more cost-effective and simultaneously improve utilisation of wide range of ecosystem services in forests.
Continuous cover forestry (CCF) has been promoted as an environmentally sustainable option for drained peatlands. The CCF management has been challenged due to potentially lower tree growth compared to traditional even-aged management, especially with suppressed trees that are released during a selection harvesting under CCF management. Our objective was to quantify the time lag of stem diameter growth response of suppressed Norway spruce trees (Picea abies Karst.) after a selection harvesting compared to that of dominant trees. We also tested if the carbon assimilation of the trees increased immediately after selection harvesting. We used radial increment cores from suppressed Norway spruce trees to estimate the impact of selection harvesting on the diameter growth and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE). We measured carbon isotope composition (δ¹³C) of wood, to quantify how the reduced competition between trees altered iWUE and its components, the photosynthetic rate (A) and stomatal conductance (g). The study was conducted in the Lettosuo experimental site on fertile forestry drained peatland area in southern Finland. Approximately 70 % of the initial stand area (18.5 ha) was harvested according to CCF principles by applying selection harvesting, and the rest of the area was divided to intact control area and to clear-cut area. In the study site, by selection harvest, trees were removed from multiple age classes, but especially mature trees individually or in a small groups were taken away to maintain uneven-aged structure of the forest. All the target trees grew in the similar competitive position before selection harvesting. Our results show that there was a delay with the diameter growth of the suppressed trees to selection harvesting, whereas the most significant growth-enhancing effect occurred three-four years after selection harvesting. In contrast to the delay in the increment, the photosynthetic rate relative to stomatal conductance increased immediately after selection harvesting, as shown by the instant 2.5‰ increase in δ¹³C to a post-harvest level. Our results show that carbon uptake increased immediately for suppressed Norway spruce trees after selection harvesting, but the harvest did not induce a clear increase in stem diameter growth during the first years after the harvest.
Disease detection is crucial for timely intervention to increase treatment success and reduce negative impacts on pig welfare. The objective of this study was to monitor changes in feeding behaviour patterns to detect pigs that may need medical treatment or extra management. The data included 794,509 observation days related to the feeding behaviour and health information of 10,261 pigs. Feeding behaviour traits were calculated including the number of visits per day (NVD), time spent in feeding per day (TPD), and daily feed intake (DFI). The health status (sick or healthy) of pigs were predicted based on the features including the original feeding behaviour traits and features derived from those using a machine-learning algorithm (Xgboost). The predictions were based either on the features from the same day (one-day window), from the same day and two previous days (three-day window), or from the same day and six previous days (seven-day window). The model based on the seven-day window gave the most robust results and achieved an 80% AUC, 7% F1-score, 67% sensitivity, 73% specificity, and 4% precision. The analyses indicated that the features related to the deviation of a pig's observed TPD and DFI from the expected TPD and DFI were the most informative, as they gained the highest importance score. In conclusion, the feeding behaviour-based features gave good sensitivity and specificity in predicting sickness. However, the precision of the method was very low, possibly due to low prevalence of the monitored sickness symptoms, limiting the application of the approach in real-life.
Linking local population dynamics and species distributions is crucial to predicting the impacts of climate change. Although many studies focus on the mean fitness of populations, theory shows that species distributions can be shaped by demographic stochasticity or population resilience. Here, we examine how mean fitness (measured by invasion rate), demographic stochasticity and resilience (measured by the ability to recover from disturbance) constrain populations at the edges compared with the climatic centre. Europe: Spain, France, Germany, Finland and Sweden. Forest inventory data used for fitting the models cover the period from 1985 to 2013. Dominant European tree species; angiosperms and gymnosperms. We developed dynamic population models covering the entire life cycle of 25 European tree species with climatically dependent recruitment models fitted to forest inventory data. We then ran simulations using integral projection and individual‐based models to test how invasion rates, risk of stochastic extinction and ability to recover from stochastic disturbances differ between the centre and edges of the climatic niches of species. Results varied among species, but in general, demographic constraints were stronger at warm edges and for species in harsher climates. Conversely, recovery was more limiting at cold edges. In addition, we found that for several species, constraints at the edges were attributable to demographic stochasticity and capacity for recovery rather than mean fitness. Our results highlight that mean fitness is not the only mechanism at play at the edges; demographic stochasticity and population capacity to recover also matter for European tree species. To understand how climate change will drive species range shifts, future studies will need to analyse the interplay between population mean growth rate and stochastic demographic processes in addition to disturbances.
Women represent a growing segment of the family forest owner population in the United States. This article seeks to identify how women in the eastern U.S. navigate forest land management. Inductive coding led to the development of five prominent themes: connections to the land, stewardship ethic, personal challenges, connections to others, and educational/programmatic challenges. Our research suggests that women have a strong connection to their land with diverse interests and objectives. Their stories challenge the current definition of engaged landowners and represent a need for programs and policies that support passive and more holistic active stewardship options.
In the face of ever escalating global socioecological crises, the necessity of radical systemic transformations has gained increasing political and academic traction over the last decade, among others in the context of 'green' and bio-based economies. We draw on the works of political philosophers Ernesto Laclau, Chantal Mouffe and Judith Butler to develop a typology of transformational dynamics. In this typology, the word transformation implies political agendas, processes and outcomes that involve the total structural reordering of a social field, which we juxtapose with 'inclusion', which implies cases in which pre-existing logics are further entrenched or extended. Drawing on the theoretical framework of hegemony, inclusions and transformations, we develop an analytical lens that focuses on the relations between hegemony and transformative dynamics. This analytical lens is developed and exemplified by discussing the transformative potentials of multiple socioecological and political agendas, including those associated with eco-modernism, Marxism, decoloniality, eco-feminism, degrowth and eco-anarchism. Depending on the transformative dynamics in relation to hegemony and the dominant political logics, we distinguish between hegemony-reinforcing, hegemony-replacing, and hegemony-transcending transformations. The provided lens and the typologies of transformations should be useful to those seeking to conceptualize, differentiate, analyse, and tactically strategize the realization of an array of socio-ecological agendas.
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