In this paper we introduce weak ascent sequences, a class of number sequences that properly contains ascent sequences. We show how these sequences uniquely encode each of the following objects: permutations avoiding a particular length-4 bivincular pattern; upper-triangular binary matrices that satisfy a column-adjacency rule; factorial posets that are weakly (3+1)-free. We also show how weak ascent sequences are related to a class of pattern avoiding inversion sequences that has been a topic of recent research by Auli and Elizalde. Finally, we consider the problem of enumerating these new sequences and give a closed form expression for the number of weak ascent sequences having a prescribed length and number of weak ascents.
Rao algorithms that include three algorithms are very simple and parameter-less algorithms with effective and desirable performance. This paper modifies these three algorithms, merges them, and establishes a powerful group algorithm. In the first optimization step, the suggested algorithm is tested on 30 standard CEC2014 functions with 50 dimensions to compare it with main algorithms, several well-known algorithms, and modified versions of RAO algorithm. It becomes evident in the first test that the suggested optimizer is effective, and reliable for optimization of real-parameter functions, and it has shown its superiority to original RAO algorithm and several modern and modified versions of RAO algorithms for most of the test functions and achieved more acceptable results than them. Moreover, the suggested algorithm benefits a faster convergence characteristic than original RAO algorithms. The proposed Colonial Competitive RAO (CCRAO) has been applied on five popular engineering problems and its results have been compared with those of recent papers. According to the results, CCRAO is an effective, robust, and reliable optimizer for engineering design problems and can contain all useful features of RAO algorithms altogether. CCRAO has succeeded to converge to the best solution for these engineering problems and surpasses most of the other algorithms.
Liquidity has an impact on short-term yields, which makes it a key determinant of monetary transmission. The aim of the research was to examine how the increase in the banking system’s liquidity and its distribution within the banking system affects yields. To better understand this relationship, this analysis gives an econometric estimate of the interbank liquidity demand function. The research covers Hungary being a representative of small, open, emerging market economies. The analysis is based on segmented regressions, the study covers the period 2016–2020 regarding overnight interest rates. The slope of the demand function is negative, the coefficients decrease with the increase in excess reserves. The most significant breakpoints of the demand curve are detected around 0.83% and 1.53% of M2 in excess liquidity. There is a correlation between the level of excess reserves and its distribution and concentration. The distribution of liquidity became more balanced along with the increase in excess liquidity. The saturation of the banking system depends on the concentration of liquidity among banks. The results can be useful for other small and open emerging market economies with abundant liquidity, especially in the coming tightening cycle.
Climate change and human-induced habitat degradations result in loss of species diversity in natural ecosystems. While the extinction of macroscopic organisms has been well documented in both the scientific literature and the public media, we have only limited knowledge on the loss of microscopic elements of the ecosystems. Since rarity coincides with the increased risk of extinction, we investigated the commonness and rarity of microalgae in the Pannonian ecoregion. We reviewed the published literature of microalgal research in Hungary over the last 140 years and created a species-by-site matrix containing 2489 algae species and 1145 localities. Analysing this dataset, we found that although the core-satellite hypothesis suggests a bimodal site occupancy distribution, microalgae displayed a unimodal pattern with high number of rarely occurring species. We also demonstrated that the well-known negative relationship between the body size of organisms and the number of occupied habitats also holds for microalgae. Rarity values of taxa have a phylogenetic signal indicating that in terms of rarity, closely related species (desmids, dinoflagellates, euglenophytes) show considerable similarities. The various habitat types showed differences in the number of rare taxa. Small and medium-sized habitats (bog lakes, streams, oxbows) hosted the majority of rare species. These results highlight the conservation importance of small habitats in preserving microbial diversity.
Accurate estimation of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient (LDC) is essential for modeling the pollution status in rivers. This research investigates the capabilities of machine-learning methods such as multi-layer perceptron (MLP), multi-layer perceptron trained with particle swarm optimization (MLP-PSO), multi-layer perceptron trained with Stochastic gradient descent deep learning (MLP-SGD) and different regressions including linear and non-linear regressions (LR and NLR) methods for determining the LDC of pollution in natural rivers and evaluates the accuracy of these methods in comparison with real measured data. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (CC), root mean squared error (RMSE) and Willmott’s Index (WI) were implemented to evaluate the accuracies of the mentioned methods. Comparison of the results showed the superiority of the MLP-SGD model with CC of 0.923, RMSE of 281.4 and WI of 0.954, which indicates the undeniable accuracy and quality of the deep-learning model that can be used as a powerful model for LDC simulation. Also due to the acceptable performance of the PSO algorithm in the hybridization of the MLP model, the use of PSO algorithms is recommended to train machine-learning techniques for LDC estimation.
This study compares the share of male/female as first authors, the growth of authors per paper, and the differences in publication productivity in the last decade of the most cited authors versus the field of communication (i.e., a representative sample of papers published in the field of communication). Results indicate that there are significantly more female first authors in the field than a decade ago, but their proportion among the most cited authors has not grown at a similar pace. Likewise, the number of authors per paper has significantly increased in the field, but not among the most cited authors, who, in turn, publish significantly more papers than the field, both in 2009 and 2019. And not only that, the productivity gap between the most cited authors and the field has substantially increased between the span of this decade. Theoretical implications of these findings and suggestions for future studies are also discussed.
This paper aims to summarise and analyse the development of the public administration system in Ethiopia under three different regimes: those of Emperor Haile Selassie, the Derg, and the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Public service and public administration in modern terms date back only to the 20th century in Ethiopia. Initially, the government was unitary and centralised; later, the EPRDF introduced a federal state structure. These structural changes brought the nationality question to the forefront. The different government and administrative systems are characterized by weak and strong political, economic, and social achievements. Among these is a lack of good governance, human rights violations, weak institutional capacities, a low level of citizen participation, and an (in)appropriate public administration system. Therefore, to mitigate these problems, institutional reforms, effective and efficient use of modern technologies, and inter-institutional cooperation play essential roles in improving the public administration system.
Összefoglalás. Az egyes országok államigazgatásában sajátos funkcióval rendelkező nemzetbiztonsági szolgálatok fontos szerepet töltenek be a biztonság fenntartásában, a politikai színtéren megszülető döntések információkkal történő támogatásában. Mindez képzett, a biztonságpolitikai és technológiai környezet dinamikus változásait értelmezni és értékelni tudó, a nemzetbiztonsági területen is korszerű ismeretekkel és megfelelő kompetenciákkal rendelkező állományt igényel, amely képzési folyamatában egyre fontosabb szerep hárul a felsőoktatási környezetre. Jelen tanulmány, nemzetközi példák alapján, modelleket felállítva, az egyre inkább felértékelődő nemzetbiztonsági képzési kapcsolatok felsőoktatásban való sajátosságait vizsgálja. Módszerként a témakörben elérhető egyes nemzetközi intézményi és képzési rangsorok, valamint az intézményekről elérhető szakirodalmi források vizsgálata jelent meg. Summary. National security services, which have a specific role in the administration of the countries, play important role in providing security and supporting decisions in the political arena by information. This requires trained personnel with up-to-date knowledge and competencies in the field of national security, capable of understanding and assessing the dynamic changes in the security and technological environment. In this process, the higher education environment has increasingly important role. Concerning the security-oriented higher education courses, it is difficult to determine whether these can be considered as a form of “national security” higher education or merely as an educational field of defense sphere. Apart from the sectoral specificities, the main difficulty in making a comparison are the extreme diversity in the interpretation of security and its interdisciplinary links. In addition to trainings in the fields of intelligence studies and national security studies, international security, security policy, the military elements of security, and even the technical and cyberspace-related elements of intelligence training, all provide valuable knowledge for the sector. However, the international institutional examples of higher education in the field of national security may be worth examining, as they essentially create a link between the innovative knowledge of the academic world, which is the center of knowledge, and the closed security sector, which is open to relevant knowledge. In line with these ideas, the present paper explores the specificities of the increasingly valorized national security training links in higher education by setting up models based on selected international examples. The used methodology is the examination of the international rankings of training programs available on the subject, as well as of the literature available on institutions.
Bicameral parliaments are especially apt to demonstrate how different environments and audiences affect political performance. During the Bourbon Restoration in France, the Chamber of Deputies and the Chamber of Peers both had among their members such influential speakers as Louis Gabriel Ambroise de Bonald or François-René de Chateaubriand, who belonged to the same conservative camp, but their character and style were highly different. Bonald is usually described as a man of abstract theories, for whom parliamentary politics has always remained alien, while Chateaubriand as a forerunner of Romantic literature is thought to have been more at home in political debates as an orator as well. The truth is, however, the exact opposite: Bonald seems to have been more successful in the lower house than Chateaubriand in the upper, which may be explained by their – however reluctant – adaptation to the different circumstances in which they were compelled to act. The first part of the paper describes the context: the chambers with their specific rules and practices as prescribed by the Constitutional Charter of 1814; the second part outlines the personal background of the speakers and their different attitudes towards the idea of parliamentarism based on their biographies and literary works; while the third part analyses their performance, using the transcriptions of their speeches in contemporary sources. The last part offers a brief overview of their later careers to show how their different attitudes towards parliamentary politics led to a more profound estrangement (especially on issues of freedom of speech and censorship), which, in their own judgement as well as in the eyes of the public, would ultimately separate them from each other.
In spite of the Persian Gulf having been a dividing line between Iranians and Arabs for centuries, Iranian communities have been present on the Arab side of the Gulf throughout most of modern history and have contributed to a cosmopolitan Khaliji identity and way of life developing there. Since the Islamic Revolution in 1979, nonetheless, the Iranian presence in the Arab Gulf states has become problematic. Partly as a result of this, little information is available about the numbers and present circumstances of these communities. The aim of this paper is to define the place and identity of the Iranian communities on the Arab side of the Persian Gulf in general, and their presence in three Arab states—Iraq, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates—in particular. The study will use a two-level framework of analysis, covering the regional and national levels. Using a deductive logic, the position of ‘Iranians’ in the social context of the Gulf region will first be analysed. This will be followed by the three national case studies (Iraq, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates), which will be presented and compared based on the following aspects: religious contacts (pilgrimage, education), political events, and cultural/social institutions.
This paper sets out to study loyalty as identity formation through the cases of three Muslim leaders in France (T. Ramadan, A. Mamoun and M. Zenati). First, I will discuss the state of research on “Muslim loyalties” in the West. Afterwards, Ramadan’s concept of critical loyalties, Mamoun’s loyalty as gratitude, and Zenati’s human brotherhood as the basis of loyalty will be thoroughly examined. The main goal of the current study is to determine how the three Muslim leaders incorporate loyalty as an element of shaping the identity of French Muslim citizens while attempting to resolve the current tensions between the French state and Islam.
The mud weight window (MW) determination is one of the most important parameters in drilling oil and gas wells, where accurate design can secure the drilled well and deliver a stable borehole. In this paper, novel algorithms based on the most influential set of input features are developed to predict pore pressure, including rate of penetration (ROP), deep resistivity (ILD), density (RHOB), photoelectric index (PEF), corrected gamma ray (CGR), compression-wave velocity (Vp), weight on bit (WOB), shear-wave velocity (Vs) and pore compressibility (Cp). The algorithms used in this study are as follows: 1) machine learning algorithms (ML), these are the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm, weighted K-Nearest Neighbor (WKKNN), and distance weighted KNN (DWKNN); 2) hybrid machine learning algorithms (HML), which include the combination of three ML with particle swarm optimization (PSO) (KNN-PSO, WKNN-PSO and DWKNN-PSO). The 2875-record dataset used in this study was collected from three wells (S1, S2 and S3) in one of the gas reservoirs (Tabnak field) in Iran. After comparing the performance accuracy of all algorithms, DWKNN-PSO has the best performance accuracy compared to other algorithms presented in this paper (for the total dataset of wells S1 and S2: R2=0.9656 and RMSE = 12.6773 psi). Finally, the generalizability of the best predictive algorithm for PP, DWKNN-PSO, is evaluated by testing the proposed algorithm on an unseen dataset from another well (S3) in the field under study, where the DWKNN-PSO algorithm provides PP predictions in well S3 with high accuracy, R2 = 0.9765 and RMSE = 9.7545 psi, confirming its ability to be used in PP prediction in the studied field.
Purpose The aim of our paper is to investigate the role of a mentor leading a research team in the overall scientific performance of an academic institution and the possible risks of their departure with a special attention to their publication output. Design/methodology/approach By using SciVal subject area data, we composed a formula describing the level of vulnerability of any given university in the case of losing any of its leading mentors, identifying other risk factors by dividing their careers into separate stages. Findings It turns out that the higher field-weighed citation impact is, the better position universities reach in the rankings by subject and the vulnerability of institutions highly depends on the mentors, especially in view of their contribution to the topic clusters. Research limitations The analysis covers the publication output of leading researchers working at four Hungarian universities, the scope of the analysis is worth being extended. Practical implications Our analysis has the potential to give an applicable systemic approach as well as a data collection scheme to university managements so as to formulate an inclusive and comprehensive research strategy involving the introduction of a reward system aimed at publications and further encouraging national and international research cooperation. Originality/value The methodology and the principles of risk assessment laid down in our paper are not restricted to measuring the vulnerability level of a limited group of academic institutions, they can be appropriately used for investigating the role of mentors or leading researchers at every university across the globe.
The use of environmentally friendly materials such as bio-sourced plastics is being driven by increased awareness of environmental issues caused by synthetic plastics. However, bio-sourced plastics have poor fire behaviour that limits their application. The addition of a flame retardant to these plastics is one effective way to increase the fire resistance property; however, the flame retardant should not interfere with the mechanical performance of the plastic. Most flame retardants act as stress concentration points, reducing tensile strength. Hence, to create a balance between tensile strength and fire resistance, biochar (to conserve strength) and lanosol (to improve fire resistance) were added to wheat gluten bioplastic in various ratios and the optimal ratio was identified. Wheat gluten composites were fabricated using compression moulding at four different concentrations of lanosol (2, 4, 6, and 8 wt.%) and biochar (2, 4, 6, and 8 wt.%). From the test results, the composite with 4 wt.% lanosol and 6 wt.% biochar exhibited a good balance between the mechanical and fire properties; it conserved the strength and improved the fire properties (39 % reduction in peak heat release rate).
Archaeological excavations and inscriptions discovered on site point towards the existence of an Early Imperial Period urban settlement under the area of the present-day village Környe (Komárom-Esztergom County), established in the civitas Azaliorum region, most probably on the territory of the Mogiones tribe. On some of the inscriptions possibly related to the name of the Early Imperial Era settlement, unearthed on site and in the immediate neighbourhood, a striking abbreviation, MOG appears. According to the Inotapuszta (Bakonycsernye) diploma and a Roman urban laterculus, there stood in Pannonia an urban settlement known by the name of Mogionibus as well. The results of the excavations conducted in Környe in the period 1939–2016, local inscriptions and a newly published milestone discovered in Tata (Komárom-Esztergom County) are all witnesses to the existence of a municipium named rather Mogionibus such as Mogionensium on the territory of the present village of Környe. The municipium existed between the reigns of Hadrian and Gallienus. Before 214, it belonged to the urban network of Pannonia Superior, while after 214, to that of Pannonia Inferior.
Following academic globalization, successful integration into the international research community is a fundamental interest for all participating countries. The success of these internationalization processes, however, are often under scrutiny, and the results are rarely unequivocal. This holds true for Central and Eastern Europe, which usually is described as a semi-peripheral region of global knowledge production. Analysing the publication and citation indices of 365 Hungarian social scientists in one national (Hungarian Scientific Bibliography) and two global (Scopus, Google Scholar) databases, we explicate the current international impact of Hungarian academic research whilst exploring pivotal factors behind the major differences between databases. Our results indicate that Hungarian scholars lag behind their peers in neighbouring countries, necessitating effective policy measures. To this end, the analysis recommends the use of standardized global publication databases instead of national datasets, whilst still acknowledging the shortcomings of the latter in research assessment protocols.
This paper explores the characteristics and interrelationships of tax systems in the OECD countries over the period 2014-2020, i.e., from a relatively consolidated economic period until the end of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. A predictable tax system is essential for the proper functioning of the economy. One of our two main research objectives was to develop a composite indicator for taxation, consisting of tax rates and tax administration time. This composite indicator was then tested using multivariate statistical methods. Our second research objective was to explore the correlation between tax rates, tax burden indicators and macroeconomic indicators over the period 2014-2020, focusing on three years, 2014, 2019 and 2020. An important criterion for the choice of the study years was that 2014 was considered the first overall year of recovery from the crisis, 2019 the last year before the COVID-19 pandemic, and 2020 the first year affected by the pandemic. We investigated the significant differences between the composite indicator categories and the tax burden macroeconomic indicators, and examined and tested correlations between the variables under study (tax rates, tax burden and macroeconomic variables). We found that the amount of working time spent on tax administration is decreasing, presumably due to the increasingly digitalised environment, but this trend has been slightly interrupted by the pandemic. Furthermore, we found that countries with more complex tax systems with a high tax burden perform worse on certain macroeconomic indicators, mainly in southern Europe from a geographical perspective; however, these potentially more burdensome, higher-rate tax systems of more developed countries do not put these countries at a competitive disadvantage. This reflects on the fact that these countries rely on the monetarist school rather than the Keynesian school, a fact which was also compared and considered in our paper.
Universities have undergone a profound transformation to increase their competitiveness and research performance; evaluating their research output and scientific impact is therefore of great importance. This article aims to suggest an approach to analyze how the JIF quartile share of research articles differs among European universities in medical science, and how the byline positions of affiliated and non-affiliated authors can influence an article’s scientific impact. We examined the research output of universities in the Top 5 European and Visegrad Group Countries based on the Times Higher Education (THE) World University Ranking 2022 (University of Oxford, ETH Zurich, Karolinska Institute, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, KU Leuven, Semmelweis University, Jagiellonian University, Charles University Prague, and Comenius University Bratislava). We found that the share of Q1 and the less prestigious Q3 and Q4 papers are inversely proportional when plotted against the ranks of universities. Whilst the proportion of Q1 papers is higher for the Top 5 universities, this ratio decreases with a less prominent place in the ranking. The presence of non-affiliated authors in the first, last, and corresponding author byline positions has a significantly positive effect on the Category Normalized Citation Impact, correlating with the position of the university in the ranking. Moreover, the difference in the Category Normalized Citation Impact between papers with affiliated and non-affiliated authors is also specific to university rank.
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