The increasing displacement of synchronous generators with renewable resources such as wind and solar via power electronic interfaces causes a reduction in short-circuit strength and weak grid issues. The variation and uncertainty of renewable energy increase challenges for identifying weak grid conditions. This paper proposes an efficient method to analyze the impact of uncertain renewable energy on grid strength. The proposed method uses the probabilistic collocation method (PCM) to approximate the results of grid strength assessment under uncertain renewable generation, in order to reduce computational burden without compromising result accuracy when compared with traditional Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). To improve the accuracy of the approximation results, the proposed method integrates the K-means clustering technique with PCM to select the approximation samples of input variables. The efficacy of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparison with MCS on the modified IEEE 9-bus system and modified IEEE 39-bus system with multiple renewable generators.
Most contemporary device models predict that an acceptor concentration of at least 10¹⁶ cm⁻³ is required to reach an open circuit voltage of 1 V in polycrystalline CdTe-based solar cells. While copper has traditionally been used as the de facto p-type dopant in polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium selenide telluride (CdSeTe), reaching high acceptor concentrations has proved to be challenging in such devices due to significant dopant compensation. The acceptor concentration in copper-doped CdTe and CdSeTe typically ranges from 10¹³ to 10¹⁵ cm⁻³ and routinely exhibit low external radiative efficiencies below 0.01%, limiting their implied voltage (i.e., quasi-Fermi level splitting) to approximately 900 mV. As an alternative to copper, this work explores the use of arsenic as a p-type dopant for CdTe and CdSeTe. Using a novel technique in which a thin layer of arsenic-containing material is deposited and used as a reservoir for arsenic to diffuse into a front layer of previously undoped material, this contribution demonstrates that high external radiative efficiencies are achievable, a direct result of combined high acceptor concentrations and long minority-carrier lifetimes in the absorber. This leads to improved implied voltages, and indicates that As-doping represents a promising pathway towards improving the external voltage of CdSeTe/CdTe solar cells.
The U.S. petroleum refining sector is undergoing a period of historic transformation, catalyzed by the decarbonization of the U.S. economy. Diesel-boiling-range bioblendstocks have gained traction, owing to their superior fuel properties and environmental performance as compared to traditional petroleum fuels. This work couples refinery linear programming models with life cycle assessment to quantify the potential economic and environmental benefits, and trade-offs, of blending diesel-boiling-range bioblendstocks at petroleum refineries. Linear programming models were developed in Aspen Process Industry Modeling Systems (PIMS) for three representative petroleum refinery configurations of differing complexity. Seven diesel-boiling-range bioblendstocks: 4-butoxyheptane, 5-ethyl-4-propylnonane, soy biodiesel, sludge hydrothermal liquefaction diesel, polyoxymethylene ethers, renewable diesel, and hexyl hexanoate, were investigated to identify key fuel properties that influence refineries’ economics and to track the effect of adding bioblendstocks on refinery-wide cradle-to-gate greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. These analyses considered blending levels from 10 to 30 vol% and fuel demand projections over the period 2040 to 2050. This analysis determines that bioblendstock sulfur content and cetane number are the primary fuel attributes with the potential to provide value to refiners. Life cycle assessment results indicate that the use of diesel-boiling-range bioblendstocks can reduce cradle-to-gate refinery GHG emissions by up to ∼ 40 % relative to conventional refinery operations when considering carbon uptake in the supply chain of the bioblendstock. Refinery-wide marginal GHG abatement costs range from 120 to 3,600 USD2016/metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent avoided across the scenarios evaluated. Reducing the price of bioblendstocks is identified as a key to their adoption.
With the increasing demand for sustainable supplies of aviation fuel and need to address climate change, new conversion technologies are needed to efficiently process biomass, produce high quality jet fuel blendstock, and meet carbon emission targets. This study demonstrates the synthesis, conditioning, and catalytic upgrading of 2,3-butanediol (BDO) fermentation broth into a jet fuel blendstock candidate. A high-titer 2,3-BDO fermentation broth (i.e., ∼90 g/L) was produced at a 100-L scale and pretreated via nanofiltration to decrease the impurities level in the broth from 4.6 to 0.6 wt%. A novel process for catalytic upgrading of aqueous 2,3-BDO into a jet fuel blendstock candidate was developed, and each step was efficiently demonstrated. The catalytic steps include 1) 2,3-BDO dehydration into methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) over AlPO4, 2) MEK conversion into olefins over Zn1Zr10Ox, 3) oligomerization of olefins over a zeolite beta, and 4) hydrogenation over platinum/carbon. Both the model feed and real 2,3-BDO fermentation broth were tested for upgrading 2,3-BDO to MEK. With the real feed, a continuous loss of conversion (i.e., >50 % loss over ∼140 h time-on-stream [TOS]) was partly attributed to reversible deactivation from coking species. However, the conversion remained stable with the model feed, which demonstrates the efficiency of the first step for converting aqueous 2,3-BDO (10 wt% in water). For upgrading MEK to olefins, high selectivity to olefins (i.e., 82.5 %) was obtained at high conversion levels (i.e., 93–98 %) with stable conditions being achieved for > 70–hours TOS. Oligomerization of light olefins, which was demonstrated for > 270 h TOS, mainly led to the formation of dimers (C8-10) and trimers (C13–14). The oligomerized product was hydrogenated and distilled to recover the jet fraction (35 mass% or 40.9 % carbon based yield), which consists mostly of desired isoalkanes (31.7 wt%), n-alkanes (24.5 wt%), and cycloalkanes (29.6 wt%). While some improvement is still needed to meet ASTM D7566 specifications for viscosity and final boiling point temperature, freezing point, density, aromatics content, and sulfur content of the jet blendstock candidate were within acceptable ranges, thus highlighting the potential of this process for production of jet fuel blendstock.
We present a methodology for modeling multi-step reaction rates in porous catalyst particles for use in CFD–DEM and two fluid models. Single-step effectiveness factors based on a Thiele modulus, while useful, cannot accurately capture the cascading reaction systems common in high temperature vapor-phase chemical reactors like fluidized catalytic cracking units and catalytic biomass fast pyrolysis systems. Instead, multi-step effectiveness vectors derived from steady-state solutions to the governing reaction–diffusion equations are needed. Solutions for various catalyst shapes are presented, including spheres, cylinders, and prisms. Computational challenges inherent in repeated evaluation of reaction rates with diffusion limitations are discussed, and an efficient implementation based on pre-computed lookup tables is proposed and demonstrated on a simulation of a fluidized bed reactor. Open-source code is provided for the compilation of reaction rate tables for use in ODE, DEM, and two-fluid models.
A refinery modeling framework is developed to estimate the benefits of blending high-quality biofuels directly with refinery gasoline components to produce premium grade fuels. The results offer a change in paradigm - instead of biofuels being competitors to fossil fuels, biofuels can add value to refineries’ product slates, because of their favorable properties. This potential value can be characterized by calculating the breakeven value (BEV), as defined below. The proposed modeling framework incorporates extensive data from (1) projected product demands over the next few decades, (2) crude oil and refinery products pricing, and (3) fuel specifications. The complete refinery models serve as a basis for assessing the value of biofuels, assuming profitability remains the same for representative petroleum refinery configurations. Resulting valuations varied widely with BEVs observed between $10-$120/bbl given the considered blending levels and crude prices. Further, BEV was correlated with the fuel octane ratings such as octane numbers (research, RON and motor octane numbers, MON) and both antiknock index (AKI, average of RON and MON) and sensitivity (S, difference between RON and MON), with a slightly higher correlation with the sensitivity. However, the expected decrease in gasoline demand for the upcoming years could negatively impact biofuels demand and value, in a business-as-usual scenario. The analysis also showed high valuations in smaller refineries since they can enhance the capabilities for producing specialty, high-value fuels/products, and introduce high octane-barrels into otherwise constrained blending operations. Additional implications towards refiners include opportunities to rebalance operations, access to high-value fuel markets, and synchronization with broader transportation industry trends. Furthermore, results indicate the value of Co-Optima boosted spark ignition (BSI) efficiency gains can extend to refiners to incentivize decarbonization and diversified feedstock production.
Increasing shares of inverter-based resources (IBRs) in generation mixes around the world are raising concerns about the requisite modelling complexity of IBRs. This paper presents a full order electro-magnetic transient 15th order grid-following inverter model with a novel order reduction scheme to 7th or 5th order models. These models were employed in a validated model of the Maui power system with a 97% IBR penetration. Transient simulations yield substantially different responses between the 15th order and reduced order models during periods of low system strength, highlighting the necessity for high-order IBR models in dynamic studies. Homogeneously applied parameter sweeps for stable regions of varied current controller gains were executed and dominant frequency response oscillatory modes identified. The results indicate a system stability dependence on current controller gains, system size, and complexity. Heterogeneous distributions of current controller gains were simulated, revealing a minimal difference for minor deviations.
The growing recognition of the value of hydrogen as an energy intermediate in supporting future power systems with high shares of variable renewable energy has prompted many studies to quantify the economic potential of multi-output hybrid systems, which are one type of integrated energy systems (IES). Because of the complexity of modeling multiple sectors, these studies typically use simplified modeling approaches to capture the interactions between sectors. In this study, we explore the implications of alternative modeling approaches for nuclear-hydrogen IES focusing on a power system in the Midwest United States. We combine highly resolved capacity expansion and production cost modeling tools of the power system with a detailed hydrogen system optimization tool to determine the optimal electrolyzer and storage sizing and optimal operations of the nuclear-hydrogen hybrid resource across three future study years. We compare economic and operational outcomes across a spectrum of modeling approaches, including a non-hybridized base approach; a traditional price-taker approach that does not include the impact of hydrogen production on the electricity system; a power-system-focused price-maker approach that does not account for temporal hydrogen constraints; and two improved price-taker and price-maker approaches that each address the impact of revenue-optimal levels of electricity production on the resulting power system and temporal hydrogen constraints on the overall feasible solution. Results show how a traditional price-taker approach can overestimate the economic benefits of multi-output nuclear-hydrogen IES compared to our two improved approaches that estimate both hydrogen system constraints and power system interaction. We find that hydrogen output requirements and storage size limits are key drivers to overall operations and some economic outcomes. Under our assumed constant hydrogen output requirement, storage costs, test system, and modeling approaches, our results indicate that hybridization can provide a net benefit, but results are sensitive to the treatment of hydrogen revenues and electricity prices as impacted by the power system evolution.
Evaluating competition between electricity technologies is challenging because it depends on both their costs and their values. While technology costs can typically be estimated from projections of the cost components—capital, fuel, and O&M—estimating a technology’s value is more complex due to its dependence on its contributions to multiple different grid services, each with prices that can vary substantially over space and time. In this work, using an electricity model of the contiguous United States, we develop relationships between relative value and share of total generation for major electricity generation technologies which, when paired with projections of technology costs, can be used to estimate technology competitiveness. We identify significant differences in the relationship between relative value and generation share for variable renewable energy (VRE) and non-VRE sources, but we demonstrate that all technologies require consideration of their dynamic values (in addition to cost) when evaluating competitiveness. In addition, we demonstrate that relative value of a technology is substantially impacted by not only its own generation share but also other aspects of the system state, in particular the mix of other technologies present in the system. Finally, we use the developed relative value relationships in combination with projections of future technology costs in a coarse resolution model that competes technologies based on a comprehensive competitiveness metric: profitability-adjusted LCOE (PLCOE). We show that this simple representation of technology competition approximately recovers the generation mix from a detailed model, which is not possible using LCOE alone. Such an approach can be used to improve the representation of technology competition in coarse-resolution models such as integrated assessment models, for which simplified metrics are often needed.
We investigate transport properties of ballistic magnetic Josephson junctions and establish that suppression of supercurrent is an intrinsic property of the junctions, even in absence of disorder. By studying the role of ferromagnet thickness, magnetization, and crystal orientation we show how the supercurrent decays exponentially with thickness and identify two mechanisms responsible for the effect: (i) large exchange splitting may gap out minority or majority carriers leading to the suppression of Andreev reflection in the junction, (ii) loss of synchronization between different modes due to the significant dispersion of the quasiparticle velocity with the transverse momentum. Our results for Nb/Ni/Nb junctions are in good agreement with recent experimental studies. Our approach combines density functional theory and the Bogoliubov-de Gennes model and opens a path for material composition optimization in magnetic Josephson junctions and superconducting magnetic spin valves.
We demonstrate an all optical approach that can surprisingly offer the possibility of yielding much more information than one would expect, pertinent to the carrier recombination dynamics via both radiative and nonradiative processes when only one dominant deep defect level is present in a semiconductor material. By applying a band-defect state coupling model that explicitly treats the inter-band radiative recombination and Shockley–Read–Hall (SRH) recombination via the deep defect states on an equal footing for any defect center occupation fraction, and analyzing photoluminescence (PL) as a function of excitation density over a wide range of the excitation density (e.g., 5–6 orders in magnitude), in conjunction with Raman measurements of the LO-phonon plasmon (LOPP) coupled mode, nearly all of the key parameters relevant to the recombination processes can be obtained. They include internal quantum efficiency (IQE), minority and majority carrier density, inter-band radiative recombination rate ( W r ), minority carrier nonradiative recombination rate ( W nr ), defect center occupation fraction ( f ), defect center density ( N t ), and minority and majority carrier capture cross-sections ( σ t and σ tM ). While some of this information is thought to be obtainable optically, such as IQE and the W r / W nr ratio, most of the other parameters are generally considered to be attainable only through electrical techniques, such as current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Following a procedure developed herein, this approach has been successfully applied to three GaAs double-heterostructures that exhibit two distinctly different nonradiative recombination characteristics. The method greatly enhances the usefulness of the simple PL technique to an unprecedented level, facilitating comprehensive material and device characterization without the need for any device processing.
Interfacing low voltage dc to medium voltage three-phase ac grid is often based on series-stackable modular converter architectures. To minimize energy storage requirements, it is advantageous to employ a quadruple active bridge (QAB) stage operating as a “dc transformer” in each stackable module. The QAB stage offers three isolated dc link voltages, which then allow for flexible stacking of three single-phase dc-to-ac inverter stages. Each of the module phases processes a pulsating power having a component at twice the line frequency. This presents a challenge in maintaining zero voltage switching (ZVS) on the secondary sides of the QAB during low-power portions of the line cycle. This article is focused on the design of the QAB stage. A detailed analysis of ZVS switching waveforms is presented, including effects of nonlinear device capacitances. It is shown how ZVS can be achieved at all times using a relatively small circulating current provided by the magnetizing inductance of the high-frequency transformer. Analytical expressions are given for the optimal values of the magnetizing inductance and the dead times of the QAB primary and secondary bridges. The approach is verified by experimental results on a 1 kV, 10-kW SiC-based prototype, demonstrating a relatively flat efficiency curve with a peak efficiency of 97.1% at 75% load.
Distribution network operation is becoming more challenging because of the growing integration of intermittent and volatile distributed energy resources (DERs). This motivates the development of new distribution system state estimation (DSSE) paradigms that can operate at fast timescale based on real-time data stream of asynchronous measurements enabled by modern information and communications technology. To solve the real-time DSSE with asynchronous measurements effectively and accurately, this paper formulates a weighted least squares DSSE problem and proposes an online stochastic gradient algorithm to solve it. The performance of the proposed scheme is analytically guaranteed and is numerically corroborated with realistic data on IEEE 123-bus feeder.
Nowadays, a large number of inverter-based resources (IBRs) are integrated into the grid at a single connection point as an IBR plant. In this article, a virtual dynamic grid impedance concept is introduced to evaluate the harmonics and stability for grid integration of an IBR plant containing multiple IBRs. First, a detailed theoretical study is conducted to build a foundation of the virtual grid impedance concept, which is a dynamic impedance that changes with the number of IBRs added into an IBR plant. Then, based on the new virtual dynamic grid impedance concept, frequency spectrum analysis is performed to explore harmonic impact at the interconnection point for an IBR plant with IBRs having L, LC, and LCL filters, respectively. An electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulation model of a grid-connected IBR plant is developed to explore the harmonics and stability of the IBR plant connected to the grid as well as the reliable operation of IBRs within the plant from the novel virtual equivalent dynamic grid impedance point of view. Hardware experiments are conducted to validate the EMT simulation evaluation. The results show that the number of IBRs added into an IBR plant influences the grid impedance, i.e., grid strength, and the grid impedance variation has multiple impacts on the IBR plant and IBRs within the plant depending on the grid-connected filters of the IBRs.
This paper presents a systematic thermal management analysis for a new lithium-titanate-oxide battery pack to be installed in a SuperTruck II, Class 8 hybrid truck. The authors investigate the feasibility of mounting the battery pack inside the vehicle and air-cooling it with fans supplying conditioned air from the cabin. Moreover, the cells within each module are to be immersed in a heat-transfer fluid to improve temperature homogeneity. A multi-stage thermal analysis is performed to ensure adequate thermal regulation of the battery under the proposed design, considering installation and operational constraints. The authors perform thermal and electrical characterization tests on a single cell. Results inform the development of computational fluid dynamics models of the cells, modules, and pack. Module-level analysis shows that the cell temperatures can be maintained below their upper operational limit of 55 °C with module wall-to-air heat transfer coefficients between 10 and 20 Wm⁻²K⁻¹. Pack-level analysis of distinct configurations determines effective airflow paths for adequate heat transfer and delivers a final battery pack design that achieves sufficient cooling and temperature uniformity. A reduced-order electrothermal model is developed to rapidly predict the transient battery performance and to develop a temperature control strategy.
Assessing and maintaining resource adequacy (RA) is a core pillar of power systems. However, recent changes in the physical makeup of these systems and the conditions under which these systems must operate have yielded a renewed interest in the methods, metrics, and assumptions that underpin RA assessments. In this paper, we systematically explore a wide range of RA modeling dimensions, including: the objective function and level of operational detail in the underlying model formulation; the quantity (look-ahead) and quality (accuracy) of data that is available for making operational decisions within those models; and the physical configuration of solar photovoltaics (PV) with battery storage hybrid resources. We apply a set of probabilistic RA tools and production cost modeling tools to a realistic test system based loosely on a future Electric Reliability Council of Texas power system dominated by solar PV resources. Under the assumptions of our system and models, we find that multi-stage probabilistic assessments may provide a more robust evaluation of RA by capturing a wider range of operational and system interactions, but this comes at a computational cost of 1–2 orders of magnitude longer run time depending on the specific configuration. In addition, the information on thermal generator availability impacts RA performance by an order of magnitude more than solar resource forecasts, which is driven by the comparatively larger magnitude of thermal outages than solar forecast errors within our test system. Lastly, the flexibility provided by hybrid and other resources can help reduce system load-shedding event frequencies and enable the system to be more robust to inaccurate forecast information, and alternative hybrid inverter sizes can impact RA levels by 1–2 orders of magnitude. Our results point to the importance of a broader flexibility framework to describe the interaction between (1) flexibility “supply” from both physical resource capabilities and operational constraints considered in the modeling, and (2) flexibility “demand” from forecast errors, thermal generator outages, and other sources of uncertainty, as well as their RA impacts. Results are likely sensitive to the system buildout explored; future work could consider additional system configurations and conditions.
An analytical and empirical-based 1-D, non-isothermal, steady-state model for anion exchange membrane fuel cell capable of capturing two-phase phenomena is presented in this study. Coupled multi-physics including mass and charge transport, electrochemical reactions, heat transfer, and two-phase water transport are considered in the model and the simulated results are compared to experimental data. To better represent actual material properties and localized conditions, the model applies multilayer discretization in the gas diffusion electrode to enhance prediction accuracy. The model successfully predicts the baseline performance at 70 °C, 131 kPa abs., 92% RH with pure H2/O2 gas as well as the limiting current at 10% H2. The robust simulation approach allows for simplistic and accurate estimation of cell performance without the complications of applying two-phase parameters and expensive computational need for numerical models. In addition, the results from the sensitivity studies of material properties and operating conditions provide valuable insights on water management strategies and optimal component design for advancing anion exchange membrane fuel cell technology.
Aeroelastic parked testing of a unique downwind two‐bladed subscale rotor was completed to characterize the response of an extreme‐scale 13‐MW turbine in high‐wind parked conditions. A 20% geometric scaling was used resulting in scaled 20‐m‐long blades, whose structural and stiffness properties were designed using aeroelastic scaling to replicate the nondimensional structural aeroelastic deflections and dynamics that would occur for a lightweight, downwind 13‐MW rotor. The subscale rotor was mounted and field tested on the two‐bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART2) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Flatiron Campus (NREL FC). The parked testing of these highly flexible blades included both pitch‐to‐run and pitch‐to‐feather configurations with the blades in the horizontal braked orientation. The collected experimental data includes the unsteady flapwise root bending moments and tip deflections as a function of inflow wind conditions. The bending moments are based on strain gauges located in the root section, whereas the tip deflections are captured by a video camera on the hub of the turbine pointed toward the tip of the blade. The experimental results are compared against computational predictions generated by FAST, a wind turbine simulation software, for the subscale and full‐scale models with consistent unsteady wind fields. FAST reasonably predicted the bending moments and deflections of the experimental data in terms of both the mean and standard deviations. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the first such aeroelastically scaled turbine test and demonstrate that a highly flexible lightweight downwind coned rotor can be designed to withstand extreme loads in parked conditions.
In computer simulation and optimal design, sequential batch sampling offers an appealing way to iteratively stipulate optimal sampling points based upon existing selections and efficiently construct surrogate modeling. Nonetheless, the issue of near duplicates poses tremendous quandary for sequential learning. It refers to the situation that selected critical points cluster together in each sampling batch, which are individually but not collectively informative towards the optimal design. Near duplicates severely diminish the computational efficiency as they barely contribute extra information towards update of the surrogate. To address this issue, we impose a dispersion criterion on concurrent selection of sampling points, which essentially forces a sparse distribution of critical points in each batch, and demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in adaptive contour estimation. Specifically, we adopt Gaussian process surrogate to emulate the simulator, acquire variance reduction of the critical region from new sampling points as a dispersion criterion, and combine it with the modified expected improvement (EI) function for critical batch selection. The critical region here is the proximity of the contour of interest. This proposed approach is vindicated in numerical examples of a two‐dimensional four‐branch function, a four‐dimensional function with a disjoint contour of interest and a time‐delay dynamic system.
Dynamic windows based on reversible metal electrodeposition are an attractive way to enhance the energy efficiency of buildings and show great commercial potential. Dynamic windows that rely on liquid electrolytes are at risk of short circuiting when two electrodes contact, especially at larger-scale. Here we developed a poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) with 85% transmittance, that is, sufficiently stiff to act as a separator. The GPE is implemented into windows that exhibit comparable electrochemical and optical properties to windows using a liquid electrolyte. Furthermore, the GPE enables the fabrication of windows with dual-working electrodes (WE) and a metal mesh counter electrode in the center without short-circuiting. Our dual-WE PVA GPE window reaches the 0.1% transmittance state in 101 s, more than twice the speed of liquid windows with one working electrode (207 s). Additionally, each side of the dual-WE GPE window can be tinted individually to demonstrate varied optical effects (i.e., more reflective, or more absorptive), providing users and intelligent building systems with greater control over the appearance and performance of the windows in a single device architecture.
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