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ABSTRACT: Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager.
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ABSTRACT: Cultivation of Bt+ genotypes has dispensed with insecticidal sprays and thereby corn and cotton farmers have hugely benefited worldwide. Recent recordings of genetically diverse Cry-resistance in insect pests of Bt+ corn and cotton fields have raised grave concern. Curiously, bulk of Cry-resistant pink bollworms found in certain Bt+ cotton fields in India proved homozygous for multiple linked mutations. Besides, dominantly inheritable Cry-resistance and cross resistance between different Cry-proteins have also been noted. To stem evolution of resistance against antiinsect protein-toxins, new nematology research on IPM procedures, complementary to refuge and Cry stacking technologies is imminently needed.
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