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- SourceAvailable from: Nunzia Voltattorni[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Panarea Island lies few miles south of the active volcano of Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy) in a very active hydrothermal area. On November, 4th, 2002 a huge submarine volcanic- hydrothermal gas burst was detected near the shore line of Bottaro, an islet at around 1,5 miles east of Panarea. The INGV Scientific Diving Team began the underwater surveys of the area from 5 to 40 meters below the sea surface locating a large field of gas vents. In two cases the high-pressure gas rising created sinkholes with the collapse of the seafloor. Scientific divers surveyed the area, took pictures, collected samples of gas, hydrothermal springs water, new-formation minerals. Customised SCUBA techniques were exploited and refined to collect these samples. Free and dissolved gases and water samples were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatographic techniques. The minerals, mainly of neogenic hydrothermal formation, were identified by X ray- diffraction and by SEM. We deployed two data loggers to collect the hot vents temperature in long term period. The data collected suggest a correlation between the gas/water vents location/evolution and the main local and regional fault systems. The main component of the gas mixture is CO2 (up to 98 %) with presence of H2S, H2, CO, CH4 and He.
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ABSTRACT: Volcanic activity is normally characterised by above environment temperatures, and this makes it easy to detect active volcanic features through the use of thermal cam-eras. Thermal imaging has in fact been introduced in volcanology to analyse a num-ber of different processes, and has been extensively used at INGV-CT since 2001 for monitoring the eruptive activity of Etna and Stromboli volcanoes. Thermal mapping allows us to detect magma movements within the summit conduits of volcanoes, and to reveal volcanic activity within the craters even through the thick curtain of gases generally released by Mt. Etna and Stromboli. Thermal mapping is essential during ef-fusive eruptions, because it allows distinguishing between lava flows of different age, even differences of just one or a few days (Andronico et al., 2005). Thermal mapping is also essential in revealing the paths of concealed lava tubes (Burton et al., 2005), thus improving hazard evaluation related to lava flow emplacement. Excellent results have been obtained by researchers at INGV-CT in terms of volcanic prediction during the two recent eruptions of Mt Etna and Stromboli, both occurred in 2002-2003. On Etna, thermal images on the summit of the volcano, recorded monthly by helicopter, revealed the opening of fissure systems several months before the 2002 flank eruption. After the onset of this eruption, daily thermal mapping by helicopter allowed moni-toring a complex lava flow field spreading within a forest, below a thick plume of ash. At Stromboli, helicopter-borne thermal surveys allowed us to follow the emplacement of the complex lava flow field (Calvari et al., 2005; Lodato et al., in print) and, us-ing the system of Harris et al. (2005), to calculate instantaneous effusion rate from helicopter-borne thermal images taken during daily surveys. This in turn can be used to estimate the maximum extension that a lava flow can attain. We believe that a more extensive use of thermal cameras in volcano monitoring, both on the ground and from fixed positions, will significantly improve our understanding of volcanic phenomena and hazard during volcanic crises. L. (2005) -A multi-disciplinary study of the 2002-03 Etna eruption: insights for into a complex plumbing system. L. (2005) – Etna 2004-05: an archetype for geodynamically-controlled effusive erup-tions. Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 32, L09303, doi:10.1029/2005GL022527.
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ABSTRACT: In this paper we present a reconstruction of the stratigraphic setting of the continental sedimentary sequences that were deposited by the Paleo-Tiber River within the greater area of Rome between 0.9 and 0.6 Ma, carried out through analyses of a large number of borehole data. Through palinspastic restoration of several cross sections we depict the original geometry of the sedimentary record that has been dislocated by intense tectonic activity linked to volcanism, and we reconstruct the geologic and paleogeographic evolution of this area. Moreover, we provide a complete review of the chronostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic data reported in previous work, and we extend paleomagnetic analyses to three new clay sections. These geochronological constraints allow us to compare aggradation of the Paleo-Tiber sedimentary successions with the d18O record, evidencing a strict link between sedimentation and sea-level changes in the Rome area. By doing so, we provide a direct test on the timing of the sea-level rise for MIS 19 through MIS 15: a record of data for which no equivalent exists in the literature.
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