Durham, NC, United States
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- SourceAvailable from: Marian Joels[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as ways to prevent and treat these disturbances. An illustrative case vignette is presented describing a patient's experience of cycles of manic-like behavior and depression while on high-dosage prednisone, with long-term cognitive disorganization, vulnerability to stress, and personality changes. Severe neuropsychiatric consequences (including suicide, suicide attempt, psychosis, mania, depression, panic disorder, and delirium, confusion, or disorientation) have been reported to occur in 15.7 per 100 person-years at risk for all glucocorticoid courses, and 22.2 per 100 person-years at risk for first courses. The majority of patients experience less severe but distressing and possibly persistent changes in mood, cognition, memory, or behavior during glucocorticoid treatment or withdrawal. Although prediction of such effects is difficult, risks vary with age, gender, dosage, prior psychiatric history, and several biological markers. Key mechanisms thought to underlie these risk factors are briefly described. Recommendations are given for identifying individual risk factors and for monitoring and managing adverse neuropsychiatric effects of glucocorticoids.
Article: Calcium Signaling in Lacrimal Glands[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lacrimal glands provide the important function of lubricating and protecting the ocular surface. Failure of proper lacrimal gland function results in a number of debilitating dry eye diseases. Lacrimal glands secrete lipids, mucins, proteins, salts and water and these secretions are at least partially regulated by neurotransmitter-mediated cell signaling. The predominant signaling mechanism for lacrimal secretion involves activation of phospholipase C, generation of the Ca2+-mobilizing messenger, IP3, and release of Ca2+ stored in the endoplasmic reticulum. The loss of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum then triggers a process known as store-operated Ca2+ entry, involving a Ca2+ sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, STIM1, which activates plasma membrane store-operated channels comprised of Orai subunits. Recent studies with deletions of the channel subunit, Orai1, confirm the important role of SOCE in both fluid and protein secretion in lacrimal glands, both in vivo and in vitro.
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ABSTRACT: The NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important regulatory role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. NSAID activated gene-1 (NAG-1) is a divergent member of the TGF-β superfamily. NAG-1 Tg mice are resistant to dietary- and genetic-induced obesity and have improved insulin sensitivity. Our objective was to examine whether NLRP3 inflammasome activity is associated with this observed phenotype in NAG-1 Tg mice. Key components of the NLRP3 inflammasome were examined in NAG-1 Tg mice on both regular and high fat diet (HFD) conditions. The expression of caspase-1 and ASC, key components of the NLRP3 inflammasome, is significantly reduced at mRNA and protein levels in white adipose tissue (WAT) of NAG-1 Tg mice. HFD increases the expression of caspase-1 and ASC in WT mice, but their expression is reduced in NAG-1 Tg mice. Furthermore, there is reduced IL-18, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression in the WAT of NAG-1 Tg mice. NAG-1 Tg mice have significantly lower serum leptin and insulin levels and reduced expression of macrophage infiltration markers (F4/80, CD11b, and CD11c) in WAT. Our study suggests the lower NLRP3 inflammasome activity may play a role in the resistance of NAG-1 Tg mice to diet-induced obesity and improved insulin sensitivity.
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