Nervous system disease (NSD) is a global health burden with increasing prevalence in the last 30 years. There is evidence that greenness can improve nervous system health through a variety of mechanisms; however, the evidence is inconsistent. In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, we examined the relationship between greenness exposure and NSD outcomes. Studies on the relationship between greenness and NSD health outcomes published till July 2022 were searched in PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science. In addition, we searched the cited literature and updated our search on Jan 20, 2023, to identify any new studies. We included human epidemiological studies that assess the association of greenness exposure with the risk of NSD. Greenness exposure was measured using NDVI (the normalized difference vegetation index) and the outcome was the mortality or morbidity of NSD. The pooled relative risks (RRs) were estimated using a random effects model. Of 2059 identified studies, 15 studies were included in our quantitative evaluation, in which 11 studies found a significant inverse relationship between the risk of NSD mortality or incidence/prevalence and an increase in surrounding greenness. The pooled RRs for cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD), neurodegenerative diseases (ND), and stroke mortality were 0.98 (95 % CI: 0.97, 1.00), 0.98 (95 % CI: 0.98, 0.99), and 0.96 (95 % CI: 0.93, 1.00), respectively. The pooled RRs for PD incidence and stroke prevalence/incidence were 0.89 (95 % CI: 0.78, 1.02) and 0.98 (95 % CI: 0.97, 0.99), respectively. The confidence of evidence for ND mortality, stroke mortality, and stroke prevalence/incidence was downgraded to "low", while CBVD mortality and PD incidence were downgraded to "very low" due to inconsistency. We found no evidence of publication bias and the sensitivity analysis results of all subgroups are robust except for the stroke mortality subgroup. This is the first comprehensive meta-analysis of greenness exposure and NSD outcomes in which an inverse relationship was observed. It is necessary to conduct further research to ascertain the role greenness exposure plays in various NSDs and the management of greenness should be considered a public health strategy.
Objectives: The 2016 ACR-EULAR Response Criteria for juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) was developed as a composite measure with differential weights of six core set measures (CSMs) to calculate a Total Improvement Score (TIS). We assessed the contribution of each CSM, representation of muscle-related and patient-reported CSMs towards improvement, and frequency of CSM worsening across myositis response criteria (MRC) categories in validation of MRC. Methods: Data from JDM patients in the Rituximab in Myositis trial (n = 48), PRINTO JDM trial (n = 139), and consensus patient profiles (n = 273) were included. Observed versus expected CSM contributions were compared using Sign test. Characteristics of MRC categories were compared by Wilcoxon tests with Bonferroni-adjustment. Spearman correlation of changes in TIS and individual CSMs were examined. Agreement between physician-assessed change and MRC categories was evaluated by weighted Cohen's Kappa. Results: Of 457 JDM patients with IMACS CSMs and 380 with PRINTO CSMs, 9-13% had minimal, 19-23% had moderate, and 41-50% had major improvement. The number of improved and absolute percentage change of CSMs increased by MRC improvement level. Patients with minimal improvement by MRC had a median of 0-1 CSM worsened, and those with moderate/major improvement had a median of zero worsening CSMs. Of patients improved by MRC, 94-95% had improvement in muscle strength and 93-95% had improvement in ≥1 patient-reported CSM. IMACS and PRINTO CSMs performed similarly. Physician-rated change and MRC improvement categories had moderate-to-substantial agreement (Kappa 0.5-0.7). Conclusion: The ACR-EULAR MRC perform consistently across multiple studies, supporting its further use as an efficacy end point in JDM trials.
Objective: The ACR-EULAR myositis response criteria (MRC) were developed as a composite measure using absolute percentage change in six core set measures (CSMs). We aimed to further validate the MRC by assessing the contribution of each CSM, frequency of strength versus extramuscular activity improvement, representation of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM), and frequency of CSM worsening. Methods: Data from adult dermatomyositis/polymyositis patients in the rituximab (n = 147), etanercept (n = 14), and abatacept (n = 19) trials, and consensus patient profiles (n = 232) were evaluated. The Total Improvement Score (TIS), number of improving versus worsening CSMs, frequency of improvement with and without muscle-related CSMs, and contribution of PROM were evaluated by MRC category. Regression analysis was performed to assess contribution of each CSM to the MRC. Results: Of 412 adults with dermatomyositis/polymyositis, there were 37%, 24%, 25%, and 14% with no, minimal, moderate, and major MRC improvement, respectively. The number of improving CSMs and absolute percentage change in all CSMs increased by improvement category. In minimal-moderate improvement, only physician-reported disease activity contributed significantly more than expected by MRC. Of patients with at least minimal improvement, 95% had improvement in muscle-related measures and a majority (84%) had improvement in PROM. Patients with minimal improvement had worsening in a median of 1 CSM, and most patients with moderate-major improvement had no worsening CSMs. Physician assessment of change generally agreed with MRC improvement categories. Conclusion: The ACR-EULAR MRC performs consistently across multiple studies, further supporting its use as an efficacy end point in future myositis therapeutic trials.
In most eukaryotes, biparentally inherited nuclear genomes and maternally inherited cytoplasmic genomes have different evolutionary interests. Strongly female-biased sex ratios that are repeatedly observed in various arthropods often result from the male-specific lethality (male-killing) induced by maternally inherited symbiotic bacteria such as Spiroplasma and Wolbachia. However, despite some plausible case reports wherein viruses are raised as male-killers, it is not well understood how viruses, having much smaller genomes than bacteria, are capable of inducing male-killing. Here we show that a maternally inherited double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus belonging to the family Partitiviridae (designated DbMKPV1) induces male-killing in Drosophila. DbMKPV1 localizes in the cytoplasm and possesses only four genes, i.e., one gene in each of the four genomic segments (dsRNA1−dsRNA4), in contrast to ca. 1000 or more genes possessed by Spiroplasma or Wolbachia. We also show that a protein (designated PVMKp1; 330 amino acids in size), encoded by a gene on the dsRNA4 segment, is necessary and sufficient for inducing male-killing. Our results imply that male-killing genes can be easily acquired by symbiotic viruses through reassortment and that symbiotic viruses are hidden players in arthropod evolution. We anticipate that host-manipulating genes possessed by symbiotic viruses can be utilized for controlling arthropods.
Maleic acid polymer scale inhibitor is a new domestic seawater desalination scale inhibitor. This study tested the acute oral toxicity, sub-chronic toxicity and genotoxicity of this new inhibitor. The LD50 obtained from the acute oral toxicity test was 6810 and 9260 mg/kg·BW for male and female rats, as well as 1/5, 1/10 and 1/20 LD50 were as the dose for sub-chronic toxicity test. It showed the weight of male rats with high dose was significantly lower than the control group during the exposure period (p < 0.05), and the food consumption in the first 4 weeks was lower than the control group (p_week1 = 0.0261, p_week4 = 0.00222). The blood biochemical results showed the UREA in the medium- and high-dose groups were significantly higher than the control group (p_ female medium = 0.0047, p_high = 0.0037; p_male medium = 0.0026, p_high < 0.001), and increased as a dose dependence. Based on UREA results, the NOAEL and LOAEL were 1/20 LD50 and 1/10 LD50, respectively (males: 340.5 and 681 mg/kg·BW, females: 436 and 926 mg/kg·BW). Comet assay in vitro and Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test were jointly to judge genotoxicity. This inhibitor did not cause chromosome aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells. However, the tail moment of CHO cell in all groups (p < 0.01) and the DNA% in tail in the 1/4 IC50 and IC50 groups were higher than the negative control (p < 0.001) in comet assay, suggesting the potential DNA damage in CHO cell. The oral LD50 and the NOAEL and LOAEL obtained in this study provides a theoretical basis for further toxicity research and risk assessment. Graphical Abstract
Background Prescribed agricultural burning is a common land management practice, but little is known about the health effects from the resulting smoke exposure. Objective To examine the association between smoke from prescribed burning and cardiorespiratory outcomes in the U.S. state of Kansas. Methods We analyzed a zip code-level, daily time series of primary cardiorespiratory emergency department (ED) visits for February–May (months when prescribed burning is common in Kansas) in the years 2009–2011 (n = 109,220). Given limited monitoring data, we formulated a measure of smoke exposure using non-traditional datasets, including fire radiative power and locational attributes from remote sensing data sources. We then assigned a population-weighted potential smoke impact factor (PSIF) to each zip code, based on fire intensity, smoke transport, and fire proximity. We used Poisson generalized linear models to estimate the association between PSIF on the same day and in the past 3 days and asthma, respiratory including asthma, and cardiovascular ED visits. Results During the study period, prescribed burning took place on approximately 8 million acres in Kansas. Same-day PSIF was associated with a 7% increase in the rate of asthma ED visits when adjusting for month, year, zip code, meteorology, day of week, holidays, and correlation within zip codes (rate ratio [RR]: 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.13). Same-day PSIF was not associated with a combined outcome of respiratory ED visits (RR [95% CI]: 0.99 [0.97, 1.02]), or cardiovascular ED visits (RR [95% CI]: 1.01 [0.98, 1.04]). There was no consistent association between PSIF during the past 3 days and any of the outcomes. Significance These results suggest an association between smoke exposure and asthma ED visits on the same day. Elucidating these associations will help guide public health programs that address population-level exposure to smoke from prescribed burning.
2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-6-dodecyl-4-methylphenol (BTMLP, CAS No. 125304-04-3) is widely used as a liquid ultraviolet absorber that prevents deterioration of synthetic resins and so on. To investigate its toxicological properties and determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), a 90-day repeated oral toxicological study of BTMLP was conducted in Crl:CD (SD) rats at doses of 0 (vehicle control, corn oil), 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg/day. There was no observed mortality or abnormal clinical signs related to the treatment of any group. Body weight and food consumption were not affected by BTMLP treatment. In males, significant prolongations of prothrombin time and activated partial thrombin time were observed in the BTMLP-treated groups. Histopathological examination revealed a slight increase of the eosinophilic bodies and hyaline droplets in the renal cortical tubules in the 1000 mg/kg group in males. As mentioned above, the toxic effect of the BTMLP was noted in the blood coagulation system and kidneys only in males. Based on these findings, the NOAEL was judged to be less than 100 mg/kg/day in males and 1000 mg/kg/day in females under this study’s condition.
2-Butylbenzo[d]isothiazol-3(2H)-one (BBIT, CAS No. 4299-07-4) is widely used as an industrial antiseptic and antifungal agent. To investigate its toxicological properties and determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), a 90-day repeated oral toxicological study of BBIT was conducted in Crl:CD (SD) rats at doses of 0 (vehicle control, corn oil), 30, 90, or 270 mg/kg/day. There was no mortality or abnormal clinical signs related to treatment in any group. Slightly decreased body weight and food consumption were observed in the 270 mg/kg group in females. Increased urine volume and kidney weight, increased liver weight, and thickening of the forestomach mucosa in autopsy were observed in both sexes in the 270 mg/kg group. Histopathological examination revealed that hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium of the forestomach with parakeratosis and/or hyperkeratosis was observed in both sexes in all the BBIT-treated groups. Moreover, centrilobular hypertrophy of hepatocytes was observed in both sexes of the 270 mg/kg group. Similarly, increased depositions of eosinophilic bodies and/or hyaline droplets in the proximal tubules of the kidney were observed among the male in the 270 mg/kg group. Based on the forestomach changes, NOAEL was judged to be less than 30 mg/kg/day in both sexes under this study’s conditions.
Prohibitins (PHB1 and PHB2) are ubiquitously expressed proteins which play critical roles in multiple biological processes, and together form the ring-like PHB complex found in phospholipid-rich cellular compartments including lipid rafts. Recent studies have implicated PHB1 as a mediator of fatty acid transport as well as a membrane scaffold mediating B lymphocyte and mast cell signal transduction. However, the specific role of PHBs in the macrophage have not been characterized, including their role in fatty acid uptake and lipid raft-mediated inflammatory signaling. Therefore, we hypothesize that the PHB complex regulates macrophage inflammatory signaling through the formation of lipid rafts. To evaluate our hypothesis, RAW 264.7 macrophages were transduced with shRNA against PHB1, PHB2, or scrambled control (Scr), and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), which activate lipid raft-dependent receptor signaling (CD14/TLR4 and TNFR1, respectively). PHB1 knockdown was lethal, whereas PHB2 knockdown (PHB2kd), which also resulted in decreased PHB1 expression, led to attenuated nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and subsequent cytokine and chemokine production. PHB2kd macrophages also had decreased cell surface TNFR1, CD14, TLR4, and lipid raft marker ganglioside GM1 at baseline and post-stimuli. Post-LPS, PHB2kd macrophages did not increase the concentration of cellular saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. This was accompanied by decreased lipid raft formation and modified plasma membrane molecular packing, further supporting the PHB complex's importance in lipid raft formation. Taken together, these data suggest a critical role for PHBs in regulating macrophage inflammatory signaling via maintenance of fatty acid composition and lipid raft structure. SUMMARY: Prohibitins are proteins found in phospholipid-rich cellular compartments, including lipid rafts, that play important roles in signaling, transcription, and multiple other cell functions. Macrophages are key cells in the innate immune response and the presence of membrane lipid rafts is integral to signal transduction, but the role of prohibitins in macrophage lipid rafts and associated signaling is unknown. To address this question, prohibitin knockdown macrophages were generated and responses to lipopolysaccharides and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which act through lipid raft-dependent receptors, were analyzed. Prohibitin knockdown macrophages had significantly decreased cytokine and chemokine production, transcription factor activation, receptor expression, lipid raft assembly and membrane packing, and altered fatty acid remodeling. These data indicate a novel role for prohibitins in macrophage inflammatory signaling through regulation of fatty acid composition and lipid raft formation.
Mutation is a phenomenon inescapable for all life-forms, including bacteria. While bacterial mutation rates are generally low due to the operation of error-avoidance systems, sometimes they are elevated by many orders of magnitude. Such a state, known as a hypermutable state, can result from exposure to stress or to harmful environments. Studies of bacterial mutation frequencies and analysis of the precise types of mutations can provide insights into the mechanisms by which mutations occur and the possible involvement of error-avoidance pathways. Several approaches have been used for this, like reporter assays involving non-essential genes or mutation accumulation over multiple generations. However, these approaches give an indirect estimation, and a more direct approach for determining mutations is desirable. With the recent development of a DNA sequencing technique known as Duplex Sequencing, it is possible to detect rare variants in a population at a frequency of 1 in 107 base pairs or less. Here, we have applied Duplex Sequencing to study spontaneous mutations in E. coli. We also investigated the production of replication errors by using a mismatch-repair defective (mutL) strain as well as oxidative-stress associated mutations using a mutT-defective strain. For DNA from a wild-type strain we obtained mutant frequencies in the range of 10-7 to 10-8 depending on the specific base-pair substitution, but we argue that these mutants merely represent a background of the system, rather than mutations that occurred in vivo. In contrast, bona-fide in vivo mutations were identified for DNA from both the mutL and mutT strains, as indicated by specific increases in base substitutions that are fully consistent with their established in vivo roles. Notably, the data reproduce the specific context effects of in vivo mutations as well as the leading vs. lagging strand bias among DNA replication errors.
Pharmacogenetics (PGx) enhances personalized care, often reducing medical costs, and improving patients’ QOL. Unlike single variant analysis, multiplex PGx panel tests can result in applying comprehensive PGx-guided medication to maximize drug efficacy and minimize adverse reactions. Among PGx genes, drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters have significant roles in the efficacy and safety of various pharmacotherapies. In this study, a genotyping panel has been developed for the Japanese population called PGx_JPN panel comprising 36 variants in 14 genes for drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters using a mass spectrometry-based genotyping method, in which all the variants could be analyzed in two wells for multiplex analysis. The verification test exhibited good concordance with the results analyzed using the other standard genotyping methods (microarray, TaqMan assay, or another mass spectrometry-based commercial kit). However, copy number variations such as CYP2D6*5 could not apply to this system. In this study, we demonstrated that the mass spectrometry-based multiplex method could be useful for in the simultaneous genotyping of more than 30 variants, which are essential among the Japanese population in two wells, except for copy number variations. Further study is needed to assess our panel to demonstrate the clinical use of pharmacogenomics for precision medicine in the Japanese population. Fullsize Image
Pesticides are widely used in most agricultural areas to protect food crops but adversely affect ecosystems and human beings. Pesticides have attracted great public concern due to their toxic properties and ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. China is one of the largest users and producers of pesticides globally. However, limited data are available on pesticide exposure in humans, which warrants a method for quantification of pesticides in human samples. In the present study, we validated and developed a comprehensive and sensitive method for the quantification of two phenoxyacetic herbicides, two metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides and four metabolites of pyrethroid pesticides in human urine using 96-well plate solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). For this purpose, a systematic optimization of the chromatographic separation conditions and MS/MS parameters was conducted. Six solvents were optimized for the extraction and clean-up of human urine samples. The targeted compounds in the human urine samples were well separated within 16 min in one analytical run. A 1 mL aliquot of human urine sample was mixed with 0.5 mL sodium acetate buffer (0.2 mol/L) and hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase enzyme at 37 ℃ overnight. The eight targeted analytes were extracted and cleaned using an Oasis HLB 96-well solid phase plate and eluted with methanol. The separation of the eight target analytes was performed on a UPLC Acquity BEH C18 column (150 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) with gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid in water. The analytes were identified using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode under negative electrospray ionization (ESI-) and quantified by isotope-labelled analogs. Para-nitrophenol (PNP), 3,5,6-tricholor-2-pyridinol (TCPY) and cis-dichlorovinyl-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA) exhibited good linearities ranging from 0.2 to 100 μg/L, and 3-phenoxy benzoic acid (3-PBA), 4-fluoro-3-phenoxy benzoic acid (4F-3PBA), 2,4-dicholorphenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), trans-dichlorovinyl-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (trans-DCCA) and 2,4,5-tricholorphenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) showed linearity ranging from 0.1 to 100 μg/L with correlation coefficients all above 0.9993. Method detection limits (MDLs) and method quantification limits (MQLs) of targeted compounds were in the range of 0.02 to 0.07 μg/L and 0.08 to 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The spiked recoveries of target compounds at three levels of 0.5, 5 and 40 μg/L were 91.1% to 110.5%. The inter- and intra-day precisions of targeted analytes were 2.9% to 7.8% and 6.2% to 10%, respectively. This method was applied to the analysis of 214 human urine samples across China. The results showed that all the targeted analytes, except 2,4,5-T, were detected in human urine. The detection rates of TCPY, PNP, 3-PBA, 4F-3PBA, trans-DCCA, cis-DCCA, and 2,4-D were 98.1%, 99.1%, 94.4%, 2.80%, 99.1%, 63.1% and 94.4%, respectively. The median concentration of targeted analytes in a decreasing order were: 2.0 μg/L (TCPY), 1.8 μg/L (PNP), 0.99 μg/L (trans-DCCA), 0.81 μg/L (3-PBA), 0.44 μg/L (cis-DCCA), 0.35 μg/L (2,4-D) and below MDLs (4F-3PBA ). For the first time, we developed a method to extract and purify specific biomarkers of pesticides from human samples based on offline 96-well SPE. This method has the advantages of simple operation, high sensitivity, and high accuracy. Moreover, up to 96 human urine samples were analyzed in one batch. It is suitable for the determination of eight specific pesticides and their metabolites in large sample sizes.
Strong evidence indicates critical roles of NADPH oxidase (a key superoxide-producing enzyme complex during inflammation) in activated microglia for mediating neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. However, little is known about roles of neuronal NADPH oxidase in neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to investigate expression patterns, regulatory mechanisms and pathological roles of neuronal NADPH oxidase in inflammation-associated neurodegeneration. The results showed persistent upregulation of NOX2 (gp91phox; the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase) in both microglia and neurons in a chronic mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD) with intraperitoneal LPS injection and LPS-treated midbrain neuron-glia cultures (a cellular model of PD). Notably, NOX2 was found for the first time to exhibit a progressive and persistent upregulation in neurons during chronic neuroinflammation. While primary neurons and N27 neuronal cells displayed basal expression of NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4, significant upregulation only occurred in NOX2 but not NOX1 or NOX4 under inflammatory conditions. Persistent NOX2 upregulation was associated with functional outcomes of oxidative stress including increased ROS production and lipid peroxidation. Neuronal NOX2 activation displayed membrane translocation of cytosolic p47phox subunit and was inhibited by apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride (two widely-used NADPH oxidase inhibitors). Importantly, neuronal ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction and degeneration induced by inflammatory mediators in microglia-derived conditional medium were blocked by pharmacological inhibition of neuronal NOX2. Furthermore, specific deletion of neuronal NOX2 prevented LPS-elicited dopaminergic neurodegeneration in neuron-microglia co-cultures separately grown in the transwell system. The attenuation of inflammation-elicited upregulation of NOX2 in neuron-enriched and neuron-glia cultures by ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine indicated a positive feedback mechanism between excessive ROS production and NOX2 upregulation. Collectively, our findings uncovered crucial contribution of neuronal NOX2 upregulation and activation to chronic neuroinflammation and inflammation-related neurodegeneration. This study reinforced the importance of developing NADPH oxidase-targeting therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases.
Household dust is an important source of premature exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), especially for children. In this onsite study, 246 dust samples were collected from 224 households in nine Chinese cities during 2018-2019. Questionnaires were administered to explore the association between household-related information and PBDEs in household dust. The median concentration of Σ12PBDEs in household dust from 9 cities was 138 ng/g (94-227 ng/g), with the arithmetic mean of 240 ± 401 ng/g. Among the nine cities, the highest median concentration of Σ12PBDEs in household dust was found in Mianyang (295.57 ng/g), while the lowest was found in Wuxi (23.15 ng/g). BDE-71 was the most dominant congener, ranging from 42.08 % to 98.15 % of the 12 PBDE congeners among 9 cities. Three potential sources for the indoor environment were Penta-BDE, Octa-BDE commercial products, and photolytic bromine from Deca-BDEs based on the largest contribution (81.24 %). Under the moderate exposure scenario, the exposure levels through ingestion and dermal absorption for children were 7.30 × 10-1 ng/kg BW/day and 3.26 × 10-2 ng/kg BW/day, respectively. Temperature, CO2, years of residence, income, family size, household size, use of computers, heating, use of insecticide, and use of humidifiers were influential factors for PBDE concentrations in household dust. Based on the evidence of the correlation between PBDEs and these household parameters, it can be applied to reduce PBDE concentrations in household dust, which is a basis for controlling PBDEs pollution in Chinese households and protecting population health.
Background: Genetic factors play an important role in prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility. Objective: To discover common genetic variants contributing to the risk of PCa in men of African ancestry. Design, setting, and participants: We conducted a meta-analysis of ten genome-wide association studies consisting of 19378 cases and 61620 controls of African ancestry. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Common genotyped and imputed variants were tested for their association with PCa risk. Novel susceptibility loci were identified and incorporated into a multiancestry polygenic risk score (PRS). The PRS was evaluated for associations with PCa risk and disease aggressiveness. Results and limitations: Nine novel susceptibility loci for PCa were identified, of which seven were only found or substantially more common in men of African ancestry, including an African-specific stop-gain variant in the prostate-specific gene anoctamin 7 (ANO7). A multiancestry PRS of 278 risk variants conferred strong associations with PCa risk in African ancestry studies (odds ratios [ORs] >3 and >5 for men in the top PRS decile and percentile, respectively). More importantly, compared with men in the 40-60% PRS category, men in the top PRS decile had a significantly higher risk of aggressive PCa (OR = 1.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.10-1.38, p = 4.4 × 10-4). Conclusions: This study demonstrates the importance of large-scale genetic studies in men of African ancestry for a better understanding of PCa susceptibility in this high-risk population and suggests a potential clinical utility of PRS in differentiating between the risks of developing aggressive and nonaggressive disease in men of African ancestry. Patient summary: In this large genetic study in men of African ancestry, we discovered nine novel prostate cancer (PCa) risk variants. We also showed that a multiancestry polygenic risk score was effective in stratifying PCa risk, and was able to differentiate risk of aggressive and nonaggressive disease.
IntroductionPet lipocalins are respiratory allergens with a central hydrophobic ligand-binding cavity called a calyx. Molecules carried in the calyx by allergens are suggested to influence allergenicity, but little is known about the native ligands.Methods To provide more information on prospective ligands, we report crystal structures, NMR, molecular dynamics, and florescence studies of a dog lipocalin allergen Can f 1 and its closely related (and cross-reactive) cat allergen Fel d 7.ResultsStructural comparisons with reported lipocalins revealed that Can f 1 and Fel d 7 calyxes are open and positively charged while other dog lipocalin allergens are closed and negatively charged. We screened fatty acids as surrogate ligands, and found that Can f 1 and Fel d 7 bind multiple ligands with preferences for palmitic acid (16:0) among saturated fatty acids and oleic acid (18:1 cis-9) among unsaturated ones. NMR analysis of methyl probes reveals that conformational changes occur upon binding of pinolenic acid inside the calyx. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that the carboxylic group of fatty acids shuttles between two positively charged amino acids inside the Can f 1 and Fel d 7 calyx. Consistent with simulations, the stoichiometry of oleic acid-binding is 2:1 (fatty acid: protein) for Can f 1 and Fel d 7.DiscussionThe results provide valuable insights into the determinants of selectivity and candidate ligands for pet lipocalin allergens Can f 1 and Fel d 7.
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