A total of 5329 ticks were collected from 85 dogs in three different municipalities of Benin in West Africa. Among the species of Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected in Abomey-Calavi, the presence of a specimen with double monstrosities was revealed. The abnormal tick is a male with four pairs of legs, but the body is double lobed at the back. It has four spiracular plates, two of which are at the base at the level of the festoons and two others at the level of the fourth coxae. The specimen also has two symmetrical anal orifices, each surrounded by two adanal plates and two accessory plates, leading up to a single genital orifice. This specimen contributes to the growing database of teratological ticks.
e gut microbiota of mosquitoes is composed of a range of microorganisms. Among its microorganisms, some aect the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes. e aim of this study was to characterize some bacteria of the intestinal microbiota in Anopheles gambiae (An. gambiae) females, a major vector of malaria transmission in Benin. e symbiote bacteria of the microbiota of female laboratory An. gambiae and female wild An. gambiae were identied by the culture method. e count was done on media plate count agar (PCA), and subsequently, the bacterial load was calculated. Comparison of batches bacterial load was carried out with the variance analysis test (ANOVA). Finally, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to investigate the presence of a few bacterial genera inuencing the vector capacity of An. gambiae. e study found that the microbiota of female An. gambiae is home to the bacteria belonging to the Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, and other unidentied bacterial gene regardless of its nature and condition. Similarly, there was no statistically signicant dierence between the bacterial load of the laboratory and wild mosquitoes depending on the parous and gorged states; on the other hand, there was a signicant dierence between the bacterial loads of the laboratory and wild mosquitoes according to the nulliparous and nongorged states. e search for a few bacterial genera inuencing the vector capacity of female An. gambiae has been negative for Spiroplasma bacteria regardless of its nature and condition. PCR revealed the presence of Wolbachia bacteria for only gorged Kisumu sensitive An. gambiae. Wol�bachia’s presence at An. gambiae suggests that this type of bacteria could be used to develop new eective and sustainableapproaches in the vector control.
Fusarium wilt (FW) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis is the main disease of oil palm in Africa and is a latent threat to other producing regions. A long-term work based on a genetic survey of FW resistance using field observations and pre-nursery screening tests with inoculation resulted in FW resistant planting material whose resistance has not been overcome in 40 years. The genetic determinism of FW resistance has never been studied. Such information would eventually enable marker assisted selection (MAS) to ensure continuous improvement of planting material, through multi-trait selection (yield and disease or multiple diseases) and diversification of the genetic base. In this study, we used a pedigree-based QTL mapping approach that took advantage of the extensive pre-nursery FW resistance data recorded in the framework of a reciprocal recurrent selection program in Benin Republic. Eight QTL regions were mapped in two major genetic backgrounds and favorable QTL alleles were identified in the current breeding populations. The QTL pattern was specific to the population studied in terms of number, location and genetic variance explained, highlighting the different genetic architecture of FW resistance depending on the genetic background. To investigate a putative trade-off between FW resistance and yield, FW resistance QTL genotypes were predicted in a population that was formerly evaluated for yield in the field. The effects on yield of a FW QTL were offset in the commercial planting material thanks to different effects on different yield components in both heterotic groups. These results shed light on FW resistance in oil palm and provide valuable information for the implementation of MAS in the breeding program. Considering that pre-nursery screening tests are widely used, the approach presented here could be implemented in other breeding programs to provide further insights into FW resistance, especially in the context of wider genetic diversity.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the fertilizing potential of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeraceae and Acaulosporaceae) native to the rhizosphere soils of Benin in a controlled environment (under greenhouse) and in a field environment. For this purpose, corn seeds were coated with Glomeraceae and Acaulosporaceae strains and then deposited in 5 cm deep holes. Different doses of mineral fertilizer were then applied according to the treatments.The experimental design was a split plot of ten treatments with three replicates in both conditions. Sowing was done following two seeds per pot in the greenhouse and in the field and lasted 30 and 80 days respectively. The data collected were related to growth, yield and mycorrhizal infection of the roots. The results in controlled environment (under greenhouse), show that the plants treated with Acaulosporaceae+25%NPK+Urea significantly improve the height, the diameter at the collar, and the dry subterranean biomass with respective increases of 63.74%, 61.53%, 47.79% except for the leaf area and the dry aerial biomass which were improved by Glomeraceae+25%NPK+Urea with respective increases of 42.66% and 57.2% compared to the control. The results in the field showed that the best maize yields in grain, in dry aerial biomass and dry subterranean biomass were obtained significantly with the Glomeraceae strain 25%NPK+Urea with respective increases of 65.28%, 51.26%, 136.36% compared to the control plants. Also, high values were recorded for the frequency and intensity of mycorrhization with the Glomeraceae strain under greenhouse and field conditions. Mycorrhizal inoculation of maize plants showed a beneficial effect in the field with the Glomeraceae strain in combination with 25% NPK+Urea while the Acaulosporaceae strain with 25% NPK+Urea was more expressed in the greenhouse. These endogenous strains can be used as biostimulants to increase maize productivity while considerably reducing mineral inputs in Benin.
Oil palm fertilizer requirements are based on leaflet mineral concentrations. Four oil palm progenies representing a wide genetic diversity of Elaeis guineensis species and with contrasting K and Mg leaflet concentrations were tested in Indonesia and Nigeria, environments which differ predominantly in climate. During 5 years, we compared oil palm progenies’ leaflet mineral concentrations between both countries under abundant fertilizer applications to investigate the extent to which they depend on the environment. In the two studied environments, leaflet concentrations significantly differed between progenies for K, Mg and Ca, but the country effect was not found significant (p = 0.352) for any leaflet mineral’s concentration. In both countries, progenies ranked similarly in their mineral categories (lowest and highest cation concentrations within the 4 progenies population), indicating that leaflet mineral concentrations in the tested oil palm progenies are mainly determined by their genetic background. For each progeny, with abundant fertilization, K, Mg and Ca proportions to total leaf cation charge (TLCC) were similar, irrespective of the environments in which the palms were cultivated. We have strong indications that foliar concentrations of K, Mg and Ca are determined by genetic factors which dominate the environmental effect. However, it remains uncertain whether differences in oil palm foliar concentrations between different oil palm progenies imply that they require specific fertilizer amounts to attain an optimal production.
Escherichia coli is a commensal bacterium and one of the rst bacteria to colonize the digestive tract of newborns after birth. It is characterized by great versatility and metabolic exibility that allows its survival in di erent niches. e present study aims at analyzing the diversity of E. coli strains isolated from the intestinal microbiota of children aged from 0 to 5 years in the commune of Abomey-Calavi in Benin. For this purpose, a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 135 stool samples were collected from the pediatric clinic of Abomey-Calavi. Microbiological analyses were performed according to standard microbiology analytical techniques. e molecular characterization of E. coli was performed by investigating eight genes (dinB, icdA, pabB, polB, putP, trpA, trpB, and uidA) using the PCR technique. e results showed that the average loading rate on stool samples was 3.74 × 10 7 CFU/g for TAMF. A total of 7 species of bacteria were identi ed at di erent proportions: Staphylococcus spp (55.36%), E. coli (14.29%), Klebsiella ornithinolytica (12.5%), Serratia odorifera (5.36%), and Enterobacter aerogenes (5.36%). Interestingly, isolated E. coli presented a resistance of 100% to cefotaxime and aztreonam. In addition, resistances of 95.24% and 50% were observed against erythromycin and nalidixic acid, respectively. e molecular characterization of the isolated E. coli strains allowed us to discover another molecular variation within the isolated strains. Genes encoding the enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase (icd) and DNA polymerase II (polB) were detected at 96.30% in the isolated E. coli strains. Moreover, the genes encoding the enzymes beta-D-glucuronidase (uidA) and DNA polymerase (dinB) were detected at 88.89% in the isolated E. coli strains. Interestingly, 81.48%, 85.19, 92.59%, and 100% of isolated E. coli strains expressed the genes encoding the enzymes tryptophan synthase subunit A (trpA), proline permease (putP), p-aminobenzoate synthase, and tryptophan synthase subunit B (trpB), respectively. e diversity of E. coli strains re ects the importance of regulatory mechanisms in the adaptation of bacteria to the gut microbiota.
Background and aims In oil palm, similar fertilization treatments can result in leaflet potassium and magnesium concentrations that vary significantly from one progeny to another. This hinders the development of standardized fertilizer recommendations for this crop, as they are usually calculated based on optimum leaflet nutrient concentrations. Methods Four high-yielding oil palm progenies with contrasting leaflet K and Mg concentrations (C1, C2, and C3 of Deli x La Mé origin and C4 of Deli x Yangambi origin) were treated with combinations of three levels of KCl and MgSO4, in a completely randomized split-plot factorial design with six replicates, where progenies were a sub-factor. Results For a given level of KCl or MgSO4, different leaflet K and Mg concentrations were found between progenies (p < 0.0001). Leaflet K concentration and yield response to KCl applications revealed that the four oil palm progenies have different optimum leaflet K concentrations. In our study period (5–8 YAP), progenies C1 and C3 showed their highest fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yields (13.62 and 16.54 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹, respectively) at K2, whereas progenies C2 and C4 showed their highest yields (14.62 and 12.39 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹, respectively) at K1. Conclusion Our study highlighted specific optimum leaflet K and Mg concentrations for different oil palm progenies in a given environment. It paves the way for adopting K and Mg fertilizer application rates adapted to specific requirements of each type of oil palm planting material.
This paper provides information on the adoption and disadoption of the improved clay granary for maize storage in the northern and central regions of Benin. The sample is 243 producers out of the 346 farmers who had been in contact with the improved clay granary in 2003. The data covered panel data of two periods (2003 and 2015). The descriptive statistics highlighted changes in the adoption status of the farmer from 2003 to 2015. 34.98% of farmers adopted the improved clay granary and 65.02 did not adopt it in 2003. Out of the 34.98% who adopted in 2003, 28.81% dropped out in 2015. However, 6.17 continued to use the improved clay granary in 2015. In contrast, among the 65.02% of producers who had not adopted in 2003, only 6.58% did in 2015. The analysis model used is the semi-parametric bivariate model with sample selection. The results showed that the choice to adopt an improved clay granary is specifically determined by the share of the stock held for sale and the ratio of dependents on the labor available in the household, the experience, the cost and efficiency of improved clay granary, the credit access. Specifically, disadoption of the improved clay granary is determined by the high level of education and experience, the quantity produced and stocked for the sale for the household, the availability of the improved clay granary building materials, the contact with extension agents working with storage innovations, no credit access, the efficiency of chemical protection products, the availability of building materials and the efficiency of improved clay granary. This study suggested that knowledge of disadoption factors is important for the development and dissemination of better technologies by agribusiness firms, institutions and policymakers.
Mechanization, digitalization, and rural youth engagement are central to African agricultural transformation. Each of these topics is associated with debates on opportunities, risks, and appropriate policy actions, which become visible in international research discourses and policy fora. In contrast, little is known about the viewpoints of national stakeholders. This paper explores the viewpoints of 195 respondents from different stakeholders categories in Benin, Kenya, Nigeria, and Mali. The results reveal hitherto neglected aspects, e.g., the role of animal traction, the continued appeal of state-led mechanization, and data sovereignty concerns. Gender, age, and education influence the viewpoints on some topics. Paying attention to local stakeholders can help to choose and design the most promising policies/programs and ensure their implementation on the ground.
The present study is aimed at assessing the impact of different tillage practices and mulch input rates on soil erosion and soil properties in Central Benin. The experiment was carried out at two sites (Dan and Za-zounmè) using a randomized complete block design. The effect of three tillage practices: contour ridging (CR); slope ridging (SR) and no-tillage (NT) and four mulch input rates (0 t.ha-1; 3 t.ha-1; 5 t.ha-1, 7 t.ha-1) were investigated. The runoff, the soil and nutrients losses were measured during the major rainy seasons of 2018 and 2019. Bulk density, gravimetric moisture and water infiltration were collected in 2019. The effect of the interaction between tillage practices and mulch input rates were significant on runoff amount, runoff coefficient, soil loss, N, P, K losses and soil moisture. Over the investigated seasons, CR+7M decreased runoff amount, runoff coefficient, soil loss, N, P and K losses by 100% compared to the treatments. NT was found to be effective in runoff and soil erosion controlling when combined with a mulch quantity greater than 3 t.ha-1, NT+5M and NT+7M reduced the soil loss respectively by more than 30% compared to the farmer’s practice (SR+0M) at both sites. Contour ridge treatments yielded more soil moisture than no-tillage and slope ridge treatments. Whatever the tillage practice, the greatest gravimetric moisture were recorded on 5 t.ha-1 and 7 t.ha-1 plots (i.e. CR+7M, NT+7M and SR+7M). This study provides decision-makers with requisite information for effective soil erosion management in Benin where mechanization aids are limited.
Agriculture in Benin represents a strategic asset for the country's socio-economic progress, however, there is low productivity and competitiveness within the sector. This is owing to the difficulties in accessing new technologies such as agricultural machinery. This study investigated the mechanisms of access and management of agricultural machinery in Benin. The study was conducted in 13 villages across the seven Agricultural Development Poles (PDA). It used a mixed-method approach involving semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Respondents were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. A sample size of 129 farmers and 66 food processors were interviewed in the entire study area. Moreover, 26 focus group discussions were conducted; two discussions with men and women in each village. Content analysis method was adopted to analyse the data obtained from the focus group discussions while the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 was used to analyse the primary data collected through semi-structured interviews espousing descriptive statistics, Kendall W test, and Chi-square test. The findings indicate that the access strategies to agricultural machinery were based on social integration, farm management, and social loyalty whereas the enabling perceived factors for accessing agricultural machinery includes the donation of agricultural machinery to farmers’ organisations, the subsidisation of agricultural machinery, and the promotional offer of equipment. However, the respondents preferred the provision of services by farmers’ organisations and individual ownership as the main management mechanisms. Therefore, the study recommends the government motivate farmers through the provision of incentives, subsidies in hiring agricultural machinery, promote service centres to facilitate access to repair and maintenance of machine parts, and support extension programs to educate farmers on the benefit of using agricultural machinery in their farming activities.
Trait diversity is crucial in undertaking the domestication of useful species such as Vitellaria paradoxa which makes a significant contribution to the rural household economy in Africa. This study aims to document the criteria farmers use to distinguish shea trees; how they vary according to age, education level and sociolinguistic group; and their perception of trees’ abundance and production. We surveyed 405 respondents across shea parklands in Benin using a semi-structured questionnaire. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic attributes on relative criteria citation frequency and principal components analysis to characterize farmers’ perception on morphotypes’ abundance, fruits, and butter yields. The five most cited criteria were fruit size (55.5%), tree fertility (15.40%), bark colour (10.51%), timing of production (5.38%), and pulp taste (3.42%). The citation frequency of criteria varied significantly depending on the sociodemographic factors considered. Trees having small fruit (‘Yanki’) were reported to be widespread and high fruit/nuts and butter producers. Farmers perceived five important traits with variable importance depending on the sociocultural factors studied. This finding is a key step toward the development of a shea improvement program that could focus on the morphotype Yanki reported to potentially be a high fruit and butter producer.
Oil palm and its pollinators are native to Africa. Notwithstanding, it has been extensively cultivated outside its native range, so also has its pollinators been acquired and introduced. A concern, however is that most documentation on oil palm and its pollinators are non-indigenous, with little information of African origin commenting on their activities in Africa. Thus, a study on the insect pollinators of oil palm was carried out on two fruit forms: Dura and Tenera , (ages ten and seven, respectively), in Ghana. The aim was to understand how average monthly population density of the pollinators relates to one another, and to two bunch parameters (fruitset and fruit-to-bunch ratio). Nine species (all in the order Coleoptera) were consistently seen on the spikelets of anthesising male inflorescences, and eleven species on receptive female inflorescences. Six were of the Elaeidobius genus: E. kamerunicus , E. plagiatus , E. singularis , E. subvittatus , E. bilineatus , and Elaeidobius sp. 1 (unidentified species); two each were of the Microporum genus: M. congolenses , M. dispar , and the Prosoestus genus: P. scuptilis , P. minor ; while one species was of either Atheta or Forficula . The pollinators were observed to be positively related, and to varying degree of significance. Fruitset level was acceptably high, indicating adequate pollinator population and efficient pollination. There was a positive relationship between population density of the pollinators and fruitset, and a negative relationship between the bunch parameters. A number of other insects were seldom observed around the male and female inflorescences; their role could not be defined.
We compared four oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) progenies’ morphological growth characteristics to reveal genotypic differences in plant growth and assess their adaptability in Nigeria’s environment in response to different levels of potassium chloride (KCl) and kieserite fertilizer applications. The studied progenies (C1, C2 and C3 of Deli × La M é origin and C4 of Deli × Yangambi origin) represent a wide genetic diversity of oil palm and have shown among a population of 116 different progenies, a contrasting K and Mg leaflet concentrations that covered the extreme ranges of leaflet concentrations in these minerals. The trial consisted of a completely randomized split-plot factorial design with six replicates, where progenies, considered as sub-factor were treated with combinations of 3 levels of potassium chloride (0, 1.5, 3.0 kg of KCl palm ⁻¹ year ⁻¹ ) and kieserite (0, 0.75, 1.5 kg of MgSO 4 palm ⁻¹ year ⁻¹ ) fertilizers (main factor), respectively. Growth characteristics differed significantly among progenies, but not in all studied years. In all progenies, KCl treatments significantly increased the average annual collar girth increment and projected canopy area. Adding 3.0 kg palm ⁻¹ year ⁻¹ of KCl significantly increased the total leaf area of progeny C4. Kieserite applications did not have an effect on progenies’ growth characteristics whereas potassium showed to be the main mineral needed for oil palm growth. It was shown that with equal amounts of fertilizers applied, progeny C3 had better morphological traits than the other progenies, suggesting that the effective nutrient requirements should be assessed for each individual progeny and that fertilization should be adapted accordingly.
Background and aims: In oil palm, similar fertilization treatments can result in leaflet potassium and magnesium concentrations that vary significantly from one progeny to another. This hinders the development of standardized fertilizer recommendations for this crop, as they are usually calculated based on optimum leaflet nutrient concentrations. Methods: 4-high-yielding oil palm progenies with contrasting leaflet K and Mg concentrations (C1, C2, and C3 of Deli x La Mé origin and C4 of Deli x Yangambi origin) were treated with combinations of 3-levels of KCl and MgSO4, in a completely randomized split-plot factorial design with 6-replicates, where progenies were a sub-factor. Results: For a given level of KCl or MgSO4, different leaflet K and Mg concentrations were found between progenies (p < 0.0001). Leaflet K concentration and yield response to KCl applications revealed that the four oil palm progenies have different optimum leaflet K concentrations. In our study period (5-8 YAP), progenies C1 and C3 showed their highest fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yields (13.62 and 16.54 t ha-1 year⁻¹, respectively) at K2, whereas progenies C2 and C4 showed their highest yields (14.62 and 12.39 t ha-1 year⁻¹, respectively) at K1. Conclusion: Our study highlighted specific optimum leaflet K and Mg concentrations for different oil palm progenies in a given environment. It paves the way for adopting K and Mg fertilizer application rates adapted to specific requirements of each type of oil palm planting material.
In response to the invasion of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) in Africa, farmers rely mainly on synthetic pesticides which are harmful to human health and environment. This study investigated farmers’ preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for attributes of integrated pest management (IPM) methods against S. frugiperda. A survey was conducted among 400 randomly selected maize farmers in eight districts of Benin using a questionnaire. Results showed that the majority of farmers (66.5%) who were interested in the IPM approach preferred a combined use of intercropping and ecological control products in managing S. frugiperda. Farmers who were more likely to pay for IPM strategies against S. frugiperda had less access to extension services, very small farms, and relatively low income. They represented 38.82% of the sample and were willing to pay additional protection costs of 4.53 US$/ha for the combination of several management methods, 86.09 US$/ha for the reduction of human health risks, 22.20 US$/ha for the preservation of environment, and 4.90 US$/ha for a reduction in yield losses. The policy implications of these findings for the extension of IPM technologies were discussed.
Ethnopharmacological relevance In Benin, traditional recipes are used to improve livestock dairy performance, but they are not sufficient documented. The study aimed to inventory the galactogenic recipes used by herders to improve production in cow farming. Aim of the study The study aimed to inventory the galactogenic recipes used by herders to improve production in cow farming. Material and methods We conducted semi-structured interviews among 65 peuls camps, 4 bioclimatic zones, and 565 farmers dialogue partners, including agro-pastoralist, healers and pastoralists from the rainy season April and May 2019. Detailed information about homemade herbal remedies of galactogenic recipes (plant species, plant part, manufacturing process) and the corresponding use reports (dialogue partner, category of use and route of administration) was collected. Then other to classify the various recipes identified into homogeneneous groups according to their effectiveness in stimulating milk, a numerical classification was carried out on the recipes taking into account the milk gain. Results They showed that Peuls and Gandos sociocultural groups have a better knowledge of galactogenic recipes. Of the 295 recipes inventoried, 102 frequently cited recipes were divided into two groups. Group 2, consisting of 16 recipes, had a significantly (p < 0.001) higher milk yield than group 1. Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. and Arachis hypogaea L. were the main ingredients of the recipes (respectively 56 and 31% of incorporation rate). The composition of the recipes varied according to the agro-ecological zones. Herders in Northern Benin used more recipes based on Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Harms) J.H.Kirkbr. & Wiersema, Saba comorensis (Bojer ex A.DC.) Pichon and Euphorbia balsamifera Aiton. Those in Southern Benin mainly used recipes based on Gardenia aqualla associated with Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp or Arachis hypogaea L.. To improve the effectiveness of galactogenic recipes, socio-cultural and magical-religious practices are used when procuring the plant material to be used, preparing the galactogen and administering the recipe to the animals. These include pronounced incantations or recited Koranic verses. The most commonly used route of administration is the oral route with an average treatment duration not exceeding 5 days. Conclusion The study reveals that the majority of breeders (90%) opt for the use of galactogenic plants rather than synthetic products to improve milk production.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetables in Togo. Unfortunately, tomatoes are susceptible to many diseases, among which bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes major yield losses. In this study, incidence of bacterial wilt and its distribution was evaluated in the central region of Togo, the major tomato producing area in the country. Overall, 16 localities were surveyed in four prefectures. In each locality, three fields were visited, and the incidence of the disease was recorded, and diseased samples were collected for laboratory investigation. The results showed that bacterial wilt occurred in all the fields visited, indicating a field incidence of 100%, whereas the plant incidence ranged from 10.00±00% to 43.33±3.33%, with an average of 20.94±1.77%. The antibody based Immunostrip test was positive for R. solanacearum in 100% of the visited fields. From 144 samples collected from fields, 45 R. solanacearum isolates were isolated on Modified SMSA media. This survey results show that tomato bacterial wilt is a real threat to tomato production in the central region of Togo.
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