National Defence University of Malaysia
Recent publications
Insulin resistance increases the risk of developing diabetes, and the degree of resistance influences the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. Numerous researchers have focused on improving insulin sensitivity in order to prevent diabetes-related complications and other chronic diseases. Several studies have also linked vitamin D levels to insulin secretion and resistance, given that both vitamin D and its receptor complex play important roles in regulating pancreatic β-cells. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation improves vitamin D levels, but further research is needed to confirm this as neither insulin function nor glycemic control improves when vitamin D levels increase. Magnesium is a cofactor for many enzymes. Although the role of magnesium in the management of diabetes has long been evaluated, it has not yet been determined whether magnesium supplements improve insulin function. However, several researchers have found that patients with good glycemic control have high magnesium levels. Magnesium is closely related to vitamin D and is necessary for the transport and activation of vitamin D in humans. Combined supplementation with vitamin D and magnesium improves glycemic control in patients with diabetes.
Training is a vital segment in developing the quality of human capital to achieve the organizational goals. In military, the design of training program is focus on the process in developing knowledge, skills and attitude to prepare personnel for the contemporary security situation. A training framework must be well designed to ensure the training effectiveness and the level of expected performance of the military personnel will achieve. The training program must be triangulate within theoretical and practical aspects to produce a high performance of military personnel. Training management literature emphasized the designing of training program consist of three important elements: (1) training syllabus; (2) instructors' roles; and (3) superiors' support, which may lead to a high impact of training transfer in organizations. However, the role of training motivation as a mediator is given less explanation in the training program. Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate and quantify the effect of training motivation in the military training through the Islamic views. In Islamic perspective, training of the military is compulsory regarding to the word of Allah in Surah al-Anfal verses 60: "And prepare against them (enemies of Islam) whatever you are able of power and of steeds of war by which you may terrify the enemy of Allah and your enemy and others besides them whom you do not know (but) whom Allah knows." As a Muslim soldier, as well as a duty to defend the country's sovereignty, they are also serves to introduce Islam. Therefore, this role requires the competency, physical strength, mental and spiritual to ensure the excellence, and do not be misled by temptations of lust and enemy tactics. Keywords: Training program, training motivation, training transfer, Islamic perspective
Background The cardinal area of managing fire wounds is guided by adequately evaluating the burn-induced lesion's profundity and size. Superficial second-degree burns are often treated through daily reinstating with fresh sterile bandaging with appropriate topical antimicrobials to allow rapid spontaneous epithelialization. Around the world, a wide variety of substances are used to treat these wounds, from honey to synthetic biological dressings. Objective This study intended to determine honey's therapeutic potential compared with 1% silver sulfadiazine (Ag-SD) in arsenal-caused contusion medicament fulfillment. Methods A total of 70 cases were evaluated in this research work after fulfilling the required selection criteria during the study period of January 2014 to December 2014 and January 2017 to December 2017. Purposive selection criteria were adopted in the study to select research patients. The patients in Group-1 (n = 35) relied on honey as medication, while patients in Group-2 (n = 35) relied on 1% Ag-SD. Results In Group-1, exudation (68.4%) and sloughing (82.9%) were substantially reduced by Days 3 and 5 of therapeutic intervention, respectively. However, in Group-2, a reduction of exudation (17.1%) and sloughing (22.9%) occurred after Days 3 and 5 of treatment, respectively. Completion of the epithelialization process was observed among Group-1 and Group-2 cases. It was detected after Days 7 and 10 of treatment at 36.3% and 77% (Group-1) and 27% and 67% (Group-2), respectively. Around 3 ml of 1% honey was required per body surface area per dressing in Group-1. On the other hand, in Group-2, 2 gm Ag-SD was needed per body surface area per dressing. Conclusion Patients treated with honey found better clinical outcomes in managing superficial partial-thickness burns.
Physical activity (PA) in the form of structured or unstructured exercise is beneficial for health. This paper aims to study PA levels across four domains according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and its associated factors. A total of 7479 Malaysian adult participants between 18 to 90 years old from the REDISCOVER study who completed the IPAQ were analyzed. PA was calculated as MET-min per week and were categorized according to insufficiently active, sufficiently active and very active. Multinomial regression was used to determine the association between sociodemographic, clinical factors and the level of PA. The mean age of the participants was 51.68 (±9.5 SD). The total reported physical activity in median (IQR) was 1584.0 (0–5637.3) MET-min per week. The highest total for PA was in the domestic domain which is 490 (0–2400) MET-min per week. Factors associated with sufficiently active or very active PA include Malay ethnicity, no formal education, elementary occupation, current smokers and high HDL. Whereas low income, male and normal BMI are less likely to participate in sufficiently active or very active PA. Intervention to encourage higher PA levels in all domains is important to achieve recommended PA targets.
Thalassemias are a group of congenital hemoglobin (Hb) disorders distinguished by dwindling or total curtailment of production of one or more globin chains of hemoglobin tetramers, ensuing in unrestrained destruction of red blood cells (RBC) that causes severe anemia. The severity of the disease often remains immensely variable. Children with thalassemia suffer from the disease's consequences and treatment complications. The disease also causes a negative impact on family members, who suffer mentally, socially, financially, and even physically. In this review, we highlight the challenges experienced by the family and caregivers; for instance, repeated blood transfusion as the dominant origin of tissue casualty, morbidity, and fatal clinical outcomes. Treatment modalities regarding thalassemias were not successful until the inception of bone marrow transplantation and gene therapy
Heavy metal ion is one of the most serious environmental problems that endanger the sustainability of the world's water supply. The development of practical sensors for ambient heavy metal monitoring has thus been the subject of various efforts. The sensitivity, selectivity, multiplexed detection capability, and portability of the colorimetric detector are all enhanced by the use of nanomaterials. This study discusses advances in biological and chemical-based colorimetric sensors for detecting heavy metal ions in drinkable water. Biological micromolecular dye-based and polymer dye-based detectors are also mentioned. In addition, chemical-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), quantum dots, and MOFs colorimetric detectors are discussed.
Malathion is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide primarily used in agriculture and domestic settings for the eradication and control of pests. Even at low toxicity for humans, the exposure of malathion has deterioration effects towards the respiratory tracts, nervous system, and may also lead to death. The standard identification methods for malathion have its own drawbacks due to the complexity, limited portability, and high cost in operation. Hence, recent development of electrochemical analysis as an alternative approach is advantageous to be more rapid, flexible, and simpler in automation. Furthermore, the electrochemical techniques with modification and immobilization on the electrode surface have shown beyond doubt to enhance the analytical abilities of malathion sensing. One of the supplementary modifications is the implementation of biological recognition elements such as enzymes, nucleic acids, and antibodies to increase sensing quality of interest. This manuscript focused on evaluating the functional materials in surface modification for detection of malathion, especially ones that include electrochemical techniques and biological receptors. The reviewed discussions concluded the analytical performances of electrochemical sensors for malathion, specifically in different modification strategies of surface matrix and type of probes used. These reviews aim to contribute general comprehension for the various combinations of electrochemical analysis, modified surfaces, and biological receptors that are administered in studies toward detection of malathion.
Nanocellulose, which is cellulose in the form of nanostructures, has emerged as one of the most significant green materials of our time in recent years because of their appealing and exceptional characteristics such as abundance, high aspect ratio, improved mechanical capabilities, renewability, and biocom-patibility. The present review mainly covers the effect of different properties of nanocellulose on the mechanical properties of nanocellulose-based multiscale composites. Our review article covers the classification of nanocellulose structures , extraction of Nanocellulose, and mechanical properties of cellulose-based multiscale composites such as tensile, flexural and impact, followed by the applications of nanocellulose-based multiscale fiber reinforced polymer composites. There is a demand in the industry for an efficient alternate material to man-made synthetic materials with superior mechanical properties. Nano cellulose-based multiscale composites can be an efficient alternative to meet sustainability goals without compromising performance.
Emotion Dysregulation (ED) and Problematic Smartphone Use (PSU) are two rising global issues requiring further understanding on how they are linked. This paper aims to summarize the evidence pertaining to this relationship. Five databases were systematically searched for published literature from inception until 29 March 2021 using appropriate search strategies. Each study was screened for eligibility based on the set criteria, assessed for its quality and its level of evidence was determined. The Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software program (CMA) was employed to run further analyses of the data. Twenty-one studies were included in the systematic review. Nine studies with extractable data for meta-analysis had high across-studies heterogeneity, hence subgroup analyses were performed that confirmed a significant moderate positive correlation between ED and PSU (pooled correlation coefficient, r = 0.416 (four studies, n = 1462) and r = 0.42 (three studies, n = 899), respectively) and a weak positive correlation between “expressive suppression” and PSU (pooled correlation coefficient, r = 0.14 (two studies, n = 608)). Meta-regression analysis showed a stronger correlation between ED and PSU (R2 = 1.0, p = 0.0006) in the younger age group. Further studies to establish and explore the mechanisms that contribute towards the positive link between ED and PSU are required to guide in the planning of targeted interventions in addressing both issues.
The growing prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) needs to be carefully managed to relieve the symptoms and prevent complications. Complications of GERD can include erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are typically first-line treatment for GERD alongside lifestyle changes in view of their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. However, there are concerns with adherence to dosing regimens and recommended lifestyle changes reducing their effectiveness. There are also concerns about potential complications from chronic high-dose PPIs. These include an increased risk of chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular events and infections. Recommendations to physicians include prescribing or dispensing the lowest dose of PPI for the shortest time, with ongoing patient monitoring. Activities among community pharmacists and others have resulted in increased dispensing of PPIs without a prescription, which can be a challenge. PPIs are among the most prescribed and dispensed medicines in view of their effectiveness in managing GERD. However, there are concerns with the doses prescribed and dispensed as well as adherence to lifestyle advice. These issues and challenges need to be addressed by health authorities to maximize the role and value of PPIs
Malaysian National Cancer Registry Report reported that colorectal cancer (CRC) cases are increasing at an alarming rate annually and became the second most common cancer among Malaysians. The survival rate for CRC is high if diagnosed at an early stage. Previous studies state the prediction of an individual to develop CRC will help to identify individuals at risk, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counselling of behavioural changes to decrease risk. However, predicting an individual risk in developing CRC is very complex due to various existing risk factors that need to be considered during the early diagnostic steps. The complexity creates a gap in developing a model that could contribute to the early detection of CRC. Thus, this study proposes that the integration of Meta-Analysis and Machine Learning Technique could contribute to the hybrid model in predicting an individual risk in developing CRC. In this paper, we perform a preliminary study on current parameters to predict the individual risk in developing CRC. Based on the preliminary study, we propose a conceptual model for the Prediction of Individual Risk in Developing Colorectal Cancer (CRC) using Hybrid Meta-Analysis and Machine Learning Techniques. The outcome of this research shall contribute to a new basis of an artificial intelligence system that will enable early prediction of CRC and enable the use of limited resources of CRC specialist medical practitioner to attend individuals most at risk.
With the current trend of Internet of Things (IoT), it normally related to the concept of the Smart Home system. Eventually, the Smart Home systems and devices are often operating together where the users’ data are shared among the Smart Home ecosystem including the devices in order to automatically perform certain action based on the users’ setting. For example, Home Automation system such as Smart Lock can help the users monitor their home remotely while avoiding the door left unlocked. However, as the Home Automation system devices are able to capture data via sensors and transmit data via the internet, this intrusive activity is possible to be attacked by the hackers. Hence, the hackers are granted a free access from any place and any time to attack the Home Automation system. Based on the analysis and observation from previous research on Penetration Testing and Security Assessment Framework, those study had offered a guideline for the proposed Vulnerability Detection Framework for IoT components and devices. The proposed framework can be implemented as a practice and exercise in performing security vulnerabilities assessment for the IoT devices particularly the Smart Lock system. The proposed framework is adapted from OWASP Firmware Security Testing Methodology and OCTAVE.
Web Application Development has shown progressive and rapid growth using various techniques. Nonetheless, web application security is a major component in web development that is often overlooked or not properly focused on. Due to ad hoc existence and poor code written, most available web applications are vulnerable and desirable target for the attackers. To alleviate this issue, the use of defensive programming basic technique allows the developers to develop secure applications. Defensive programming includes validate output and correctly manages error messages. This avoids the misuse of snippets and builds the program in a consistent way despite unpredictable inputs. The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, this paper discussed the development of a web application program using PHP as server-side scripting exploiting defensive programming techniques to overwhelm web application vulnerabilities. Secondly, this paper examined common vulnerabilities of web application risks refer to Open Web Application Security Project to validate the effectiveness of defensive programming technique. The work presented in this paper shall be a fundamental guideline for the development of secure web-based applications.
Floods in Malaysia are described as flash floods and monsoon floods by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID). Forecasting is a specialized form of predictive analysis used to predict future trends or behavior from existing data. Weather forecasting predicts the weather in the future from current data circumstances. As flood forecasting models become more accurate, however, their capacity to accurately predict flooding decreased as the forecast continues. Therefore, to understand the different techniques used to forecast flood levels, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. This paper’s main objective is to examine the most common variable used to forecast floods, utilizing the systematic review technique. From the main focus, we can identify the research questions, such as the most commonly used prediction method and its accuracy. In the end, two of the most common variables used for flood forecasting are rainfall and water level. This study’s data can help others forecast floods using standard variables that yield the best accuracy possible.
When an organisation is attacked by an external party, such as a virus, the organisation takes a long time to recover. This is due to the fact that only technical employees of the organisation perform recovery procedures on each infected host or computer. Therefore, this paper proposes that basic information security tasks be included in each employee's job description. By proposing this, it can aid in prevention by ensuring that each host is closely monitored by each employee by performing basic security tasks as part of their job routine. This will shift employees' perceptions from "they are responsible" to "all of us are responsible" in order to protect each host from insider or even outsider incidents. By altering this perception, it is possible to accelerate the process of inspection, protection, detection, reaction, and reflection in terms of maintaining the host's confidentiality, integrity, and availability.
The present study reported the synthesis of SnS2 nanoparticles by using a thermal decomposition approach using tin chloride and thioacetamide in diphenyl ether at 200 °C over 60 min. SnS2 nanoparticles with novel morphologies were prepared by the use of different alkylamines (namely, octylamine (OCA), dodecylamine (DDA), and oleylamine (OLA)), and their role during the synthesis was explored in detail. The synthesized SnS2 nanostructures were characterized using an array of analytical techniques. The XRD results confirmed the formation of hexagonal SnS2, and the crystallite size varied from 6.1 nm to 19.0 nm and from 2.5 to 8.8 nm for (100) and (011) reflections, respectively. The functional group and thermal analysis confirmed the presence of organics on the surface of nanoparticles. The FE-SEM results revealed nanoparticles, nanoplates, and flakes assembled into flower-like morphologies when dodecylamine, octylamine, and oleylamine were used as capping agents, respectively. The analysis of optical properties showed the variation in the bandgap and the concentration of surface defects on the SnS2 nanoparticles. The role of alkylamine as a capping agent was explored and discussed in detail in this paper and the mechanism for the evolution of different morphologies of SnS2 nanoparticles was also proposed.
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Aye Aye Mon
  • Facuty of Medicine and Defence Health
Hj. Hasan Al-Banna Mohamed
  • Program in Defence Human Resource Management
Sungai Besi Camp, 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia