National Chung Hsing University
Recent publications
Objective Ictal stage detection in electroencephalography (EEG) is important for epilepsy diagnosis. However, it’s a laborious and time-consuming task for neurologists, especially with lengthy EEG recordings (such as video-EEG). Here we applied the current deep learning techniques to improve ictal stage detection efficiency. Methods We enrolled epileptic patients at video-EEG examination beds of our neurology department between Jan 2016 and Apr 2020. Four stages of EEG (interictal, preictal, ictal and postictal) were labeled and confirmed by neurologists. Labeled EEG signals were transformed into second-order Poincaré difference plots. The whole dataset was divided into ‘Training’, ‘Validation’ and ‘Testing’ datasets with the proportions of 45%, 5% and 50% respectively. We applied 4 Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), namely, AlexNet, GoogLeNet, ResNet50 and DenseNet201, to learn classifying. The top three CNNs were put into an ensemble model for datasets classification. Results 30 epileptic patients were included: Male/Female 16/14, mean age 42.8 ± 15.0 (range 22 ∼ 81) years old. Total recorded ictal duration was 47,444 s. Overall accuracies for each of the 4 CNN models (AlexNet, GoogLeNet, ResNet50 and DenseNet201) were 78.0%, 78.3%, 81.7% and 80.8%. We omitted the AlexNet, the other 3 CNNs were put into the ensemble model. The best performance was under test with 1% of the Testing dataset yielded the overall accuracies of 85.9%. The ictal stage accuracy was 97.7%. Conclusion Our method is a promising computer-aid deep learning approach to detect seizures on video EEG. Significance For testing phase, selected proportion of testing dataset may influence the performances of deep learning models.
Green space helps people improve their physical and psychological health, while the seasonal influence of green space changes the characteristics of forest landscape. This study adopts the attention restoration theory (ART) to assess the psychological benefits for different forest landscape colors in Aowanda National Forest Park, the most known one in Taiwan. The results showed that the attention recovery, landscape preference, and willingness to stay vary with different forest landscape colors. Among them, attention recovery was positively associated with landscape preference, which was further associated with the desired length of stay. Tourists preferred and were willing to stay longer for forest landscapes with red and yellow & red combination (warm tones), showing that relatively low color temperature and high saturation create a warm feeling to tourists. This study recommends that local climate change and environment should be considered in the future environmental planning and landscape design for national forest parks; tree species with leaf colors that change seasonally (e.g., taxodium distichum and liquidambar formosana) should be selected; and the overall color consistency of the landscape should be concerned to improve the effect of restoring the environment. For increasing the attention restoration experience, planning can be implemented according to the features of various national forest parks.
Nowadays, besides bedside intravenous (IV) therapy drip stands, wheeled IV drip stands can be applied for injection. Although the wheeled IV drip stand is more convenient for patient movement, it is not easy to go up and down stairs or through steep ground because of the weight and the length of the IV stand. In this study, the design of carryable IV frame aims to provide patients with safety, convenience in wearing, getting out of the bed, going to eat, and going up and down stairs. Due to bending or movement, the proposed control mechanism of angle compensation can ensure that the potential energy is sufficient to overcome the intravenous pressure for avoiding blood reflux. To dynamically adjust the system parameters, this work develops an adaptive fuzzy-PID controller and a fuzzy-PID neural network controller. Comparing to existing studies, the experimental results show that the fuzzy-PID neural network controller has the best performance characteristics, which improves the accuracy and performance of the system control.
Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases that contribute significantly to global mortality. Effective glucose-sensing platforms might allow for an improved monitoring of disease progression, leading to a better health management. Optical sensors based on smart materials, particularly those that respond to external stimuli, have recently paved the way for diabetes management. Such sensors surpass traditional ones due to their unique label-free, quantitative, continuous measurement capabilities and reusability, and can be paired with equipment-free text or picture display. In the current review, we have thoroughly explored the efficient interaction of the target analyte (glucose) with these smart sensing materials by varying a variety of optical parameters such as wavelength, diffracted and diffused light pattern, signal strength, and refractive index. We also highlight the obstacles and opportunities of using smart materials in biosensing research.
Multi-heteroatom doping is a promising approach to increase the affinity of biochar for catalysis. Herein, a series of N, S-codoped biochar (BSN) were synthesized at different temperatures using a one-pot calcination protocol. Investigation on the physiochemical characteristics of these BSNs revealed that g-C3N4 was first formed from the precursors at lower temperature, engulfing the biochar. At higher synthesis temperature, the g-C3N4 decomposed and coalesce with the biochar to form BSN. The performance of BSN as peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activator for gatifloxacin (GAT) removal was evaluated. The results indicated that BSN prepared at 800°C (BSN-800) exhibited the greatest performance due to its relatively high specific surface area and synergism between heteroatoms. A kinetic model based on the second-order PMS consumption and first-order GAT removal was developed to describe GAT removal and PMS consumption simultaneously at various operating conditions including BSN-800 loading, PMS dosage and pH. The proposed kinetic model has better fit compared to the conventional pseudo first-order kinetics. The major PMS activation mechanism was identified using chemical scavenger and electrochemical studies indicating that the nonradical pathway involving ¹O2 generation and electron mediator mechanisms are dominant with graphitic N and thiophenic S acting as the active sites. Despite its restricted reusability, BSN-800 can be used effectively to remove GAT in various water matrixes including river water, secondary water and tap water. The GAT degradation intermediates were identified, and the degradation pathway was also proposed. Overall, this study provides a better understanding on the development of multi-heteroatom-doped biochar as promising catalyst for antibiotics removal.
Microbial surfactants, also known as biosurfactants, have been applied as additives in food processing industry to improve product quality, texture, and shelf life. The addition of biosurfactants, to a certain extent, into starch-containing foods can enhance the textural properties, such as hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness, adhesion, and springiness. As an amphipathic biomolecule, biosurfactant can stabilize and reduce the surface tension between two immiscible phases, such as oil and water, thus allowing their intimate mixing. The emulsifying capability of biosurfactants can contribute to the stabilization of the emulsion. In addition, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of biosurfactants play a crucial role in improving storage time and ensuring safety and quality food products to consumers. Furthermore, biosurfactants are also biodegradable and exhibit low- or non-toxicity, making them a safe replacement of synthetic surfactants in the formulation and of based and other food products. This chapter discusses the effect of the addition of biosurfactants on the textural properties and shelf life of starch-containing foods. A discussion of the textural properties of some food products before and after the addition of biosurfactants is also given to give a better insight.
In Taiwan, the early harvesting of young ginger is a cultivation technique for domestic ginger, which can be harvested early by forced sprouting. At present, ethylene is used as the sprouting agent. Despite its favorable sprouting effect, the technique can still be improved. Experimental results revealed that 1% citric acid, 300-ppm and 450-ppm ethephon treatments effectively facilitated the formation of 2.4, 2.4, and 2.6 large buds (diameter of ≥ 1 cm), respectively, in the rhizome. The stems and leaves of the ginger seed rhizomes that were subjected to forced sprouting emerged from the soil one month after planting, and emergence rates of 46.7% and 83.3% were achieved using citric acid and ethephon, respectively. Although the fresh weight of semi-matured ginger rhizomes obtained by forced sprouting treatment was lower, the results can still provide a reference for the early harvest of young ginger in Taiwan. Among the examined gingers, semi-matured ginger that was subjected to 50-ppm GA3 forced sprouting treatment exhibited the most favorable growth, and the average weight of its rhizomes reached 1,567 g, which was not significantly different from the weight obtained by conventional cultivation, but significantly greater than that obtained by other treatments. The GA3 forced sprouting treatment was not very effective, but it had an excellent effect on improving the yield of semi-matured ginger rhizomes. In the future, this treatment will be conducive for the production of semi-matured or matured ginger.
Background /Objective: In Taiwan, physical inactivity is highly prevalent among children and adolescents. Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) joined the Global Matrix 3.0 in 2018 to share local data on childhood physical activity and related factors with the international community. This study reports the grades for 10 indicators endorsed by the Global Matrix 4.0 and 1 additional indicator. Methods Local data for school-aged children and adolescents (approximately 5–17 years old) from 2017 to 2022 were used to determine the grades. The data were obtained from online academic databases and websites of government agencies. The highest priority was given to national surveys, followed by studies using nationally representative samples. Results The data revealed very poor Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport Participation, and Active Play (F, D−, and F, respectively). Active Transportation, Sedentary Behavior, and Family and Peers were also below average (C−, D+, and D−, respectively). Taiwan's central and local governments have recognized the importance of physical activity by implementing related policy and improving public sports facilities. Accordingly, School and Community and the Built Environment both received a grade of A−, and Government Strategies and Investments received a B+. Physical Fitness received an INC for lack of data. An additional indicator, body mass index, received a grade of B−. Conclusions Despite great effort by governments and schools, physical activity levels are low and sedentary behavior is prevalent among Taiwanese children and adolescents.
Trichloroethylene (TCE) was once a widely applied industrial solvent, but is now an infamous contaminant in groundwater. Although anaerobic reductive dechlorination is considered a greener remediation approach, the accumulation of toxic intermediates, such as vinyl chloride (VC), and a longer remediation period are highly concerning. Biostimulation and bioaugmentation have been developed to solve these problems. The former method may not be effective, and the latter may introduce foreign genes. Here, we propose a new approach by applying environmental stresses to reshape the indigenous microbiome. In this study, by using the Taguchi method, the effects of heating, pH, salinity, and desiccation were systematically examined. The optimum conditions were defined as 50 °C, pH 9, 3.50% salinity (w/v), and 21% volumetric water content (θW). The top performing group, G7, can complete the conversion of 11.81 mg/L TCE into ethene in 3.0 days with a 1.23% abundance of Dehalococcoides mccartyi 195 (Dhc 195). Redundancy analysis confirmed that temperature and salinity were the predominant factors in reorganizing the microbiomes. The microbiome structure and its effectiveness can last for at least 90 d. The repetitive selection conditions and sustainable degradation capability strongly supported that microbiome reengineering is feasible for the rapid bioremediation of TCE-contaminated environmental matrices.
Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient which plays pivotal roles as electron donor and catalyst across organisms. In plants, variable, often insufficient Fe supply necessitates mechanisms that constantly attune Fe uptake rates and recalibrate cellular Fe homoeostasis. Here, we show that short-term (0.5, 6, and 12 h) exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to Fe deficiency triggered massive changes in gene activity governed by transcription and alternative splicing (AS), regulatory layers that were to a large extent mutually exclusive. Such preclusion was not observed for genes that are directly involved in the acquisition of Fe, which appears to be concordantly regulated by both expression and AS. Generally, genes with lower splice site strengths and higher intron numbers were more likely to be regulated by AS, no dependence on gene architecture was observed for transcriptionally controlled genes. Conspicuously, specific processes were associated with particular genomic features and biased towards either regulatory mode, suggesting that genomic hardwiring is functionally biased. Early changes in splicing patterns were, in many cases, congruent with later changes in transcript or protein abundance, thus contributing to the pronounced transcriptome-proteome discordance observed in plants.
This study selected the landslide caused by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, which occurred once in a century, and analysed the spatio-temporal distribution of landslide evolution in the basin through the concavity, slope, and sediment delivery ratio (SDR) index of the landslide site. From the change in the determination coefficient of the relationship between the concavity index and the collapse rate, it can be shown that the strong earthquake and subsequent rainfall affect the basin collapse rate for about 8 years. The spatial distribution of landslide location types can be classified by the characteristics of slope and SDR into three categories, indicating that the evolution of landslide location types is gradually transforming from scattered off-bank landslides to concentrated near-bank collapses. Type 1 refers to the initial slope failure caused by the crustal uplift and Type 2 is the unstable slope caused by the earthquake and the subsequent rainfall-driven collapse. Near-bank landslides caused by the accumulated debris from Types 1 and 2 landslides are Type 3. Based on the huge and complex big data of the landslide evolution map, the focus of this research is to extract key indicators and build models to analyse the evolution mechanism of large-scale landslides caused by the earthquake. • Highlights • Topographic factors can be used as a criterion for judging the stream concavity of watershed. • Concavity, slope, and sediment delivery ratio are key indicators, which can be used to extract sediment-prone areas for slope utilization and disaster prevention management.
This study investigated the effect of different Bacillus spp. and Debaryomyces spp., which are screened from Melopsittacus undulates crop milk on growth performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora and antioxidant abilities in broilers. By screening the Bacillus spp. and Debaryomyces spp. from parrot’s crop milk, the properties of these microbial were examined in vitro accordingly. In animal experiments, 480 1-day-old Ross 308 broilers were randomly divided into 6 treatments as control (corn-soybean meal), Bacillus velezensis with 5 × 10⁶ cfu/kg feed (BV), Bacillus subtilis with 5 × 10⁶ cfu/kg feed (BS), Debaryomyces hansenii with 5 × 10⁶ cfu/kg feed (DH), B. velezensis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae with 5 × 10⁶ cfu/kg feed (BV + SC), and B. velezensis + D. hansenii with 5 × 10⁶ cfu/kg feed (BV + DH). The results showed that chickens in BV, BV + SC, and BV + DH groups showed significantly higher body weight and average weight gain than control group at 21 days of age. Biochemistry of triglyceride values in BV and BV + SC had significantly decreased than in control group. Intestinal lactic acid bacteria were significantly higher in BV and BS groups than in the control group in ileum. The villus height of jejunum in BV + SC and BV + DH was significantly higher than in the control group. Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in BV, BS, BV + SC groups than in the control group, but immune assays had no significant differences among the groups. Based on the results of animal growth performance, the number of lactic acids, intestinal morphology, antioxidant activity, and immune system, BV and BV + SC groups possess better feed additives for broiler chickens. • HIGHLIGHTS • Bacillus spp. and Debaryomyces spp. affect on growth performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora and antioxidant abilities in broiler chickens. • Broilers with feed additives of Bacillus velezensis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae have higher body weight and average weight gain • B. velezensis and B. velezensis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae groups possess better feed additives for broiler chickens.
Background Longitudinal data on the association between smoking and glycemic control in men with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the extent of the association between smoking and glycemic control in this population. Methods The retrospective cohort study identified 3044 eligible men with T2DM in a medical centre in Taiwan between 2002 and 2017. Smokers (n = 757) were matched 1:1 with non-smokers using propensity score-matching. All of them were followed for one year. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after enrolment. Generalised estimating equations were used to assess smoking status-by-time interaction to determine the difference in HbA1c reduction between the two cohorts. All analyses were performed in 2020. Results The estimated maximal difference in HbA1c reduction between smokers and non-smokers was 0.33% (95% CI, 0.05–0.62%) at 3 months of follow-up. For patients with body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m², the difference in HbA1c reduction between smokers and non-smokers was much larger (0.74%, 95% CI, 0.35–1.14%) than in those with a higher BMI. Conclusions Our findings show that smoking was independently associated with unfavourable glycemic control among men with newly diagnosed T2DM, and such a detrimental association could be stronger in men with a lower BMI.
Context Protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA) is a natural product that has various benefits for fibrosis. Objective This study evaluated the effects of PCA on renal fibrosis. Materials and methods Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) was induced by 20 ng/mL transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), followed by treatment with 1 and 5 μM PCA, in the rat renal proximal tubular cell line NRK-52E. Cell viability, protein expression, and scratch wound-healing assays were conducted. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats underwent unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery for renal fibrosis indication and were treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg PCA for 14 days. Results The IC50 of PCA was appropriately 13.75 ± 1.91 μM in NRK-52E cells, and no significant difference at concentrations less than 5 μM. PCA ameliorated TGF-β1-induced EMT, such as enhanced E-cadherin and decreased vimentin. Fibrotic markers collagen IV and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) increased in TGF-β1-induced NRK-52E. Moreover, PCA reduced TGF-β1-induced migration in the wound-healing assay. Analysis of rat kidneys indicated that PCA reduced UUO-induced hydronephrosis (control: 15.11 ± 1.00%; UUO: 39.89 ± 1.91%; UUO + PCA50: 18.37 ± 1.61%; UUO + PCA100: 17.67 ± 1.39%). Protein level demonstrated that PCA not only decreased vimentin expression and enhanced E-cadherin expression, but inhibited UUO-induced collagen IV and α-SMA upregulation, indicating that it could mitigate EMT in a rat model of UUO-induced renal fibrosis. Discussion and conclusions This study suggested that PCA decreases TGF-β1-induced fibrosis and EMT in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate pharmacological effects of PCA and might be a potential strategy for the prevention of organ fibrosis in clinics.
Rice blast, one of the most destructive epidemic diseases, annually causes severe losses in grain yield worldwide. To manage blast disease, breeding resistant varieties is considered a more economic and environment-friendly strategy than chemical control. For breeding new resistant varieties, natural germplasms with broad-spectrum resistance are valuable resistant donors, but the number is limited. Therefore, artificially induced mutants are an important resource for identifying new broad-spectrum resistant ( R ) genes/loci. To pursue this approach, we focused on a broad-spectrum blast resistant rice mutant line SA0169, which was previously selected from a sodium azide induced mutation pool of TNG67, an elite japonica variety. We found that SA0169 was completely resistant against the 187 recently collected blast isolates and displayed durable resistance for almost 20 years. Linkage mapping and QTL-seq analysis indicated that a 1.16-Mb region on chromosome 6 ( Pi169-6 ( t )) and a 2.37-Mb region on chromosome 11 ( Pi169-11 ( t )) conferred the blast resistance in SA0169. Sequence analysis and genomic editing study revealed 2 and 7 candidate R genes in Pi169-6 ( t ) and Pi169-11 ( t ), respectively. With the assistance of mapping results, six blast and bacterial blight double resistant lines, which carried Pi169-6 ( t ) and/or Pi169-11 ( t ), were established. The complementation of Pi169-6 ( t ) and Pi169-11 ( t ), like SA0169, showed complete resistance to all tested isolates, suggesting that the combined effects of these two genomic regions largely confer the broad-spectrum resistance of SA0169. The sodium azide induced mutant SA0169 showed broad-spectrum and durable blast resistance. The broad resistance spectrum of SA0169 is contributed by the combined effects of two R regions, Pi169-6 ( t ) and Pi169-11 ( t ). Our study increases the understanding of the genetic basis of the broad-spectrum blast resistance induced by sodium azide mutagenesis, and lays a foundation for breeding new rice varieties with durable resistance against the blast pathogen.
Peptididylarginine deiminase type 2 (PADI2) catalyzes the conversion of arginine residues to citrulline residues on proteins. We demonstrate that PADI2 induces T cell activation and investigate how PADI2 promotes activated T cell autonomous death (ACAD). In activated Jurkat T cells, overexpression of PADI2 significantly increases citrullinated proteins and induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling, ultimately resulting in the expression of autophagy-related proteins and autophagy. PADI2 promoted autophagy and resulted in the early degradation of p62 and the light chain 3B (LC3B)-II accumulation. In Jurkat T cells, silencing the autophagy-related gene (Atg) 12 protein inhibits PADI2-mediated autophagy and promotes ER stress and apoptosis, whereas overexpression of Atg12 decreased ER stress and prolonged autophagy to promote cell survival. Additionally, PADI2 regulates T cell activation and the production of Th17 cytokines in Jurkat T cells (interleukins 6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22). In Jurkat T cells, silencing IL-6 promotes autophagy mediated by PADI2 and inhibits PADI2-induced apoptosis, whereas silencing Beclin-1 increases the activation and survival of Th17-like T cells while decreasing autophagy and apoptosis. PADI2 silencing alleviates ER stress caused by PADI2 and decreases cytokine expression associated with Th17-like T cell activation and ACAD. We propose that PADI2 was involved in Th17 lymphocyte ACAD via a mechanism involving ER stress and autophagy that was tightly regulated by PADI2-mediated citrullination. These findings suggest that inhibiting Th17 T cell activation and the development of severe autoimmune diseases may be possible through the use of novel antagonists that specifically target PADI2.
Background Taichung Native 1 (TN1) is the first semidwarf rice cultivar that initiated the Green Revolution. As TN1 is a direct descendant of the Dee-geo-woo-gen cultivar, the source of the sd1 semidwarf gene, the sd1 gene can be defined through TN1. Also, TN1 is susceptible to the blast disease and is described as being drought-tolerant. However, genes related to these characteristics of TN1 are unknown. Our aim was to identify and characterize TN1 genes related to these traits. Results Aligning the sd1 of TN1 to Nipponbare sd1 , we found a 382-bp deletion including a frameshift mutation. Sanger sequencing validated this deleted region in sd1 , and we proposed a model of the sd1 gene that corrects errors in the literature. We also predicted the blast disease resistant (R) genes of TN1. Orthologues of the R genes in Tetep, a well-known resistant cultivar that is commonly used as a donor for breeding new blast resistant cultivars, were then sought in TN1, and if they were present, we looked for mutations. The absence of Pi54 , a well-known R gene, in TN1 partially explains why TN1 is more susceptible to blast than Tetep. We also scanned the TN1 genome using the PosiGene software and identified 11 genes deemed to have undergone positive selection. Some of them are associated with drought-resistance and stress response. Conclusions We have redefined the deletion of the sd1 gene in TN1, a direct descendant of the Dee-geo-woo-gen cultivar, and have corrected some literature errors. Moreover, we have identified blast resistant genes and positively selected genes, including genes that characterize TN1’s blast susceptibility and abiotic stress response. These new findings increase the potential of using TN1 to breed new rice cultivars.
In this present study, a novel method to fabricate bimetallic Fe-Co catalyst supported on waste silica was investigated for the photo-Fenton-like (PFL) degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye. The uniqueness of this work is on the preparation of the catalyst via fluidized-bed crystallization (FBC) process. Under the optimum conditions of initial pH of 3.0, 3.0 mM of H 2 O 2 , and 1.0 g L ⁻¹ of FBC-derived Fe-Co/SiO 2 catalyst (fFCS), the maximum response for the decoloration and mineralization efficiencies of 20 mg L ⁻¹ of MB in 60 min were 100 and 65%, respectively. Compared to the impregnated Fe-Co/SiO 2 catalyst, the fFCS catalyst exhibited comparable decoloration and mineralization efficiencies, and relatively lower metal leaching for both iron and cobalt. Superoxide radical was unveiled to be the dominant reactive oxygen species in the PFL system over the fFCS catalyst. The catalysts were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results show the successful incorporation of iron and cobalt on the surface of the SiO 2 support material.
Background Restless legs syndrome is a highly prevalent comorbidity of migraine; however, its genetic contributions remain unclear. Objectives To identify the genetic variants of restless legs syndrome in migraineurs and to investigate their potential pathogenic roles. Methods We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify susceptible genes for restless legs syndrome in 1,647 patients with migraine, including 264 with and 1,383 without restless legs syndrome, and also validated the association of lead variants in normal controls unaffected with restless legs syndrome (n = 1,053). We used morpholino translational knockdown (morphants), CRISPR/dCas9 transcriptional knockdown, transient CRISPR/Cas9 knockout (crispants) and gene rescue in one-cell stage embryos of zebrafish to study the function of the identified genes. Results We identified two novel susceptibility loci rs6021854 (in VSTM2L) and rs79823654 (in CCDC141) to be associated with restless legs syndrome in migraineurs, which remained significant when compared to normal controls. Two different morpholinos targeting vstm2l and ccdc141 in zebrafish demonstrated behavioural and cytochemical phenotypes relevant to restless legs syndrome, including hyperkinetic movements of pectoral fins and decreased number in dopaminergic amacrine cells. These phenotypes could be partially reversed with gene rescue, suggesting the specificity of translational knockdown. Transcriptional CRISPR/dCas9 knockdown and transient CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of vstm2l and ccdc141 replicated the findings observed in translationally knocked-down morphants. Conclusions Our GWAS and functional analysis suggest VSTM2L and CCDC141 are highly relevant to the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome in migraineurs.
Background The importance or necessity of a loading dose when prescribing intravenous colistin has not been well established in clinical practice, and approximate one-third to half of patients with carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) infection did not receive the administration of a loading dose. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy and risk of acute kidney injury when prescribing intravenous colistin for critically ill patients with nosocomial pneumonia caused by CRGNB. Methods This was a multicenter, retrospective study that recruited ICU-admitted patients who had CRGNB-associated nosocomial pneumonia and were treated with intravenous colistin. Then, we classified the patients into colistin loading dose ( N = 85) and nonloading dose groups ( N = 127). After propensity-score matching for important covariates, we compared the mortality rate, clinical outcome and microbiological eradication rates between the groups ( N = 67). Results The loading group had higher percentages of patients with favorable clinical outcomes (55.2% and 35.8%, p = 0.037) and microbiological eradication rates (50% and 27.3%, p = 0.042) at day 14 than the nonloading group. The mortality rates at days 7, 14 and 28 and overall in-hospital mortality were not different between the two groups, but the Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that the loading group had a longer survival time than the nonloading group. Furthermore, the loading group had a shorter length of hospital stay than the nonloading group (52 and 60, p = 0.037). Regarding nephrotoxicity, there was no significant difference in the risk of developing acute kidney injury between the groups. Conclusions The administration of a loading dose is recommended when prescribing intravenous colistin for critically ill patients with nosocomial pneumonia caused by CRGNB.
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3,345 members
Kuei-Yang Hsiao
  • Institute of Biochemistry
Ching-Chou Wu
  • Department of Bio-industrial Mechatronics Engineering
Wei-An Lai
  • Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences
Chuan-Ming Yeh
  • Institute of Molecular Biology
Kuan-Chih Chow
  • Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences
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