National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Recent publications
Much of Ukraine’s soil has been and is still being degraded by military operations. Its revival will need a lot of organic matter, much of which can be provided by municipal sewage sludge. Any associated environmental risks may be minimised by applying the sludge to energy crops, in particular, Miscanthus x giganteus. The introduction of municipal sewage sludge at the rate of 20-40t/ha, or composted with straw, increases the content of total and mobile forms of heavy metals in the soil. But, the resulting concentrations of heavy metals remain well within permissible limits. The integral indicator of soil cover pollution for applications of various kinds of fertiliser applied at a rate equivalent to N90P90K90 fluctuates within insignificant limits (20–23) with a tendency to increase in treatments with the highest rate of application of sewage sludge.
The anatomy of the nasal cavity and its structures, as well as other elements building a scaffold for olfactory organs, differs significantly among various groups of mammals. Understanding anatomical conditions of quality of olfaction are being studied worldwide and is a complex problem. Among many studies regarding bone and epithelial structures of turbinates and connected anatomical structures, few studies describe the vascularization of turbinates. Ethmoid turbinates are above all covered in olfactory epithelium containing branched axons that receive olfactory stimuli and as olfactory nerves penetrate the cribriform lamina of the ethmoid bone conveying information from smell receptors to the brain. Differences in vascularization of the cribriform plate and turbinates may add crucial information complementing studies regarding the olfactory organ's bone and soft tissue structures. In the study, we describe the vascularization of the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone of 54 Artiodactyla and Carnivora.
The air temperature in school buildings significantly affects the ability of students and teachers to focus on the educational process. Students usually begin to feel an increase the temperature in room. The purpose of this study is to find the limit of the temperature rise in the classroom when people no longer feel the temperature rise in the room. For this reason, several experimental measurements of indoor air parameters were carried out: air temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. Measured temperature differences and individual subjective ratings of audiences determined the dependence using mathematical statistics, from which can be determined the critical level of increase in air temperature at which people no longer perceive the change in air temperature.
Citation: Trach, Y.; Melnychuk, V.; Stadnyk, O.; Trach, R.; Bujakowski, F.; Kiersnowska, A.; Rutkowska, G.; Skakun, L.; Szer, J.; Koda, E. The Possibility of Implementation of West Ukrainian Paleogene Glauconite-Quartz Sands in the Building Industry: A Case Study. Sustainability 2023, 15, 1489. Abstract: The integrated use of minerals facilitates the reduction in the impact of mining on the environment. Many industries are in need of quartz sand in huge quantities. Quality requirements for quartz sand often refer to a high percentage of SiO 2 and low content of Fe 2 O 3 , as well as the absence of clay impurities. The extraction of conditioned quartz sands and their close geographic location to consumers are economically profitable. Due to their wide distribution in Ukraine and their subsurface occurrence, glauconite-bearing Paleogene sands attract special attention. It has been experimentally confirmed that such sands are capable of dry magnetic separation. As a result of dry magnetic separation, three magnetic fractions and a nonmagnetic fraction were isolated. Glauconite was the dominant mineral in the magnetic fraction at 0.8 Tl. Their content was 5.1% and 2.8% in sand, respectively. The nonmagnetic fractions obtained from two studied samples were at 80.4 and 80.7%, respectively. XRF analyses showed that in each nonmagnetic fraction the content of SiO 2 is at 96.9 wt.% and 93.7 wt.%, and Fe 2 O 3 at 0.26 wt.% and 0.87 wt.%, respectively. In XRD, the nonmagnetic fractions contained 94.8% and 93.1% of sand, and 0.8% and 1.9% of glauconite, respectively. The values of the fineness moduli for the nonmagnetic fractions were 1.10 and 1.85. The size classes of quartz sands were 0.63 + 0 mm and −0.8 + 0 mm. Compared with current Ukrainian standards, the nonmagnetic fractions can be used in the building industry as well as in the manufacturing of glass, with the addition of a certain amount of glass from recycling.
As a result of mycological surveys of the territory of Kivertsi National Nature Park “Tsumanska Pushcha” during 2004–2021, 203 species of fungi and fungus-like organisms were detected and registered. A comparative analysis of the species composition of the mycoflora of the park was carried out. The most diversified and rich was the phylum Basidiomycota, which comprises 172 species, belonging to 48 genera of 49 families, ten orders of the class Agaricomycetes. Many rare macromycetes that are rare or relatively rare for Ukraine (i.e., Cortinarius bolaris, Craterellus cornucopioides, Entoloma bloxamii, Fistulina hepatica, and Gyroporus castaneus) and listed in the Red Book of Ukraine (Grifola frondosa, Phaeolepiota aurea, Pseudoboletus parasiticus, and Sparassis crispa) have been discovered. For two species listed in the Red Book of Ukraine (Grifola frondosa and Pseudoboletus parasiticus), new localities have been discovered. As of today, the conducted studies expand information about the mycoflora of the Kivertsi National Nature Park “Tsumanska Pushcha”. However, the mycoflora of the park still requires further, more detailed research and inventory.
The article presents the effect of using a tillage tool with skimmers, second stage skimmers, and bodies (double-deck plow) on the reduction of traction resistance and energy consumption by at least 1.1 kN, i.e., 3.3%. In addition, the statistical characteristics of the plowing depth and the width of the longitudinal profile of the field are stabilized. The use of agricultural machinery with skimmers, secondary skimmers, or bodies ensures even distribution of plowing depth fluctuations. The use of a plow without skimmers mounted on it leads to a regular and significant increase in the spread of fluctuations in the working depth and cross-section of the field. The normalized correlation function of this process is characterized by the presence of a noticeably marked periodic component. When the plow is used without skimmers mounted on it, the working period of the unit practically corresponds to the working width of the tillage tool. The use of skimmers with a grinding angle of 25° causes its deformation in the soil environment, which results in stratification, not shearing. This ensures a statistically significant and regular decrease in the traction resistance of the plow.
The technology and decomposition algorithm for accelerating the processing of geoinformation data based on the distribution of samples of dynamic and quasi-static data using the analysis of eigenvalues of matrices obtained by means of iterative calculation according to the Khilenko’s method are proposed. The algorithm is aimed at processing large geoinformation data arrays. Comparative results of model calculations using known computation methods are given.
High-quality cutting of beet heads during harvesting reduces the loss of sugar-bearing upper parts of root crops. One of the ways to ensure high quality cutting is to scientifically substantiate the parameters of the machine that harvests the sugar beet leaves; this machine is front-mounted on the tractor’s attachment mechanism. Theoretical calculations established the following. A front-mounted beet topper machine with damping coefficient and the moment of inertia parameters that vary from 0.35 to 1.35 kN s m−1 and from 3000 to 3500 kg m2, respectively, is invariant to the influence of external disturbances in the form of vertical vibrations of the field’s longitudinal profile. These vibrations vary in frequency from 0 to 40 s−1 according to the harmonic function. Setting the tyres stiffness coefficient value of the leaves harvester support-feeler wheels at 315 kN m−1 is characterized by a desirable decrease (up to 41.2%) of the dynamic system’s amplitude–frequency values characteristics when the system is subjected to an external disturbance. With this value of tyre stiffness coefficient, the tyre inflation pressure should not exceed 0.125 MPa.
Stem taper equations are crucial for forest management allowing to reliably estimate merchantable wood volume. Their main benefit is the ability to predict stem diameters at a certain height of the stem. Ukraine has recently adopted European Union standards for round wood classification, which prompted the necessity to model stem taper and updates all reference data to conform with the new standards. This study is a systematic attempt to develop a set of taper equations for the most common forest tree species in the Polissia and Forest steppe of Ukraine. For this purpose, we used a data set of 1994 sample trees representing eight tree species collected on 238 sample plots. The Kozak A. (2004, My last words on taper equations. For. Chron.80, 507–515) model was chosen to fit the taper equations. To characterize the variability in stem shape among tree species, mixed-effect models were calibrated for this equation. In this model, random-effect parameters were selected based on their coefficients of variation through a bootstrapping process. This is a novel feature we suggest for the process of calibrating taper models. The Kozak A. (2004, My last words on taper equations. For. Chron.80, 507–515) equation showed a good performance in predicting diameters outside bark and estimating the total stem volume. Our mixed-effect modelling approach accurately characterizes the variation in stem form for different tree species based on adequately chosen random-effect parameters. The stem volumes derived from the developed taper models were compared with existing volume equations outputs (divergence up to 0.5 per cent). A deviation up to 5 per cent was found between the values of fitted and observed cylindrical form factors for the studied tree species. We expect that our taper equations will complement the future steps towards the development of reliable merchantable volume distribution models for the main tree species in the forests of flat land Ukraine, thus, contributing to transparency, reliability and sustainability of forest management and markets in Europe.
With the significant growth of the cyber environment over recent years, defensive mechanisms against adversaries have become an important step in maintaining online safety. The adaptive defense mechanism is an evolving approach that, when combined with nature-inspired algorithms, allows users to effectively run a series of artificial intelligence-driven tests on their customized networks to detect normal and under attack behavior of the nodes or machines attached to the network. This includes a detailed analysis of the difference in the throughput, end-to-end delay, and packet delivery ratio of the nodes before and after an attack. In this paper, we compare the behavior and fitness of the nodes when nodes under a simulated attack are altered, aiding several nature-inspired cyber security-based adaptive defense mechanism approaches and achieving clear experimental results. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the fitness of the nodes and their differences through a specially crafted metric value defined using the network performance statistics and the actual throughput difference of the attacked node before and after the attack.
In this work, a study was performed on the influence of the ratio of height to the diameter of the reduction zone of a small-size downdraft gasifier as well as of the fuel fraction sizes on the gas quality (the quality was evaluated for CO content). The ratio of a full side area to the volume of a fuel fraction (SVR) was used as a fuel parameter. The maximum CO concentration was observed when using a small fuel fraction with SVR—0.7–0.72 mm−1 and when adhering to the ratio of height to the diameter of the reduction zone H/D—0.5–0.6. The maximum electric power for gasoline generators (nominal power equaled 4 kW) when using the gas received from the fast-growing hybrid willow biomass equaled 2.4 kW. This power is 37.5% lower than when using gasoline and 7.0% lower than when using the gas received from the hardwood biomass. The emissions of harmful gases into the atmosphere by the gasoline generator engine equaled 0.12–0.14% CO and 24–27 mln−1 CxHy. The emissions were 64.8 times less for CO and 8.5 times less for CxHy when compared with using gasoline.
Optimization of credit activity is the key to stable development, expansion of the customer base, and growth of profits of banking institutions. Therefore, the priority of ensuring the financial stability of a modern bank should be the formation and effective implementation of credit policy. The purpose of the article is to study the features of banking lending and substantiate scientific and practical recommendations for its improvement, taking into account modern realities and prospects for financial market development. We set a task to determine the main directions of bank lending optimization. For this purpose, the analysis of modern tendencies of credit activity of banks is carried out, problems in the sphere of formation and realization of their credit policy are revealed. Suggestions for strengthening the efficiency of the bank with bad debts are provided. Methodological approaches to the formation of a mechanism for managing problem loans of the bank with the justification of management methods and criteria for their selection, which can be used in the management of credit risks of the bank. The methods of improving the efficiency of the bank’s loan portfolio management substantiated in the article have value for improving its quality and increasing the profitability of credit operations. The proposed fundamental aspects of the formation of the bank’s credit strategy with the identification of its main objectives, priorities, factors, and sequence of specific actions are appropriate for use by banks in building an effective credit policy and increase the profitability of credit operations.
The article is focused on asset management performance of investment management companies of Ukraine and on the possibility of forming effective measures of its optimization. The analysis of performance of investment management companies of Ukraine allowed to identify positive and negative tendencies of their activity. The economic modeling revealed the relationship between the asset management performance of investment management companies and such factors as costs, revenues, liabilities, equity and asset turnover ratio of this companies. The authors proposed a set of management measures, implementation of which would improve asset management performance of investment management companies.
The interaction processes activation of agricultural insurance stakeholders from the regional to the global level testifies to their natural reaction to the possibility of timely and effective counteraction to probable risks in the field of agricultural production. The authors emphasize that the determining condition for the coordination of insurance interests of market participants is their corporate social responsibility. Based on the above, the purpose of this study is to scientifically substantiate the process of generating insurance relations in the agricultural sector based on corporate social responsibility. The initial data of the study was formed by the results of a poll. The participants of the survey were potential consumers of insurance services, 250 enterprises of various forms of ownership within Zhytomyr, Kyiv and Khmelnytsky regions, as well as 40 insurance companies, branches and regional directorates that position their services in the field of property insurance. The empirical study was conducted using the tools for estimating the minimum required sample size for agricultural enterprises and insurance companies. The results of the sociological survey showed the feasibility of forming a systematic interaction between stakeholders of agricultural insurance. The authors emphasize that the achievement of this interaction requires the introduction of four levels of corporate social responsibility, namely: moral and ethical, communicative, financial and economic and inclusive. This will allow participants in the insurance process to implement closed distribution of risks in space and time effectively, while minimizing agricultural risks at the micro and macro levels. At the theoretical level, it is proven that the key components of financial inclusion in the formation of corporate social responsibility of agricultural insurance stakeholders are “affordability”, “service and quality” and “reliability of insurance protection”. Summarizing scientific developments, the authors of the article have formed certain recommendations and proposals that can be used by state and non-state insurance market institutions to ensure the reliability of the agricultural sector of the economy.
The purpose of the article is to clarify the role of information technologies in the management of innovative development of enterprises of the national economy. Withinthe article, the authors used both general scientific and special research methods. Thearticle is based on the application of the general theory of systems, economic theory, theory of information and innovations. Among the special methods, the following should be mentioned: analysis and synthesis, systematic, induction and deduction, scientific generalization and abstraction, graphic method.The ratio of the number of active innovative enterprises of Ukraine to the total number of enterprises by type of economic activity for the period 2018-2020 was analyzed.An algorithm for the use of information technologies in the management of innovative development of enterprises of the national economy is defined, which consists of eight consecutive stages, two of which have alternative options for actions, the choice of which depends on further implementation.
The article’s purpose is to analyze prospects for innovative development of entrepreneurship and generalize main directions of Ukraine’s state innovation policy. Research methods are: monographic analysis, system analysis, comparativelegal analysis, generalization, forecasting, etc. We substantiated the necessity for elaborating and implementing effective measures aimed at developing innovative entrepreneurship and increasing country’s innovative potential due to the improvement of legal tools of the state policy for developing innovative entrepreneurship. We emphasized that there is possibility to develop Ukraine’s potential of innovative entrepreneurship and strengthen commercialization of innovations due to the current legislation’simprovement, particularly through implementing European law norms into the national legal system. It is proven that the effective implementation of scientific technical progress achievements can occur only under condition of establishing cooperation between scientific and educational institutions and enterprises; due to well-chosen financial, organizational and regulatory measures to support innovations’ development and commercialization. It is concluded that formation of Ukraine’s modern innovation policyshould be based on the modernization of enterprises, active attraction of investments through participation in national and international projects, integration of information technologies into the production sphere and effective management solutions aimedat our state’s participation in global innovation processes.
This paper examines the remote sensing-based approach for mapping burned areas and tracking delayed changes in vegetation conditions after the wildfires of 2020 in the Luhansk region, Ukraine. The field-based fire severity indices (i.e., CBI and GeoCBI) collected through stratified random sampling (regarding the pre-fire land cover) were combined with Sentinel 2 data (dNBR) to map fire severity levels. The GeoCBI index performed better than the CBI in terms of combined use with satellite data. We adjusted the thresholds of dNBRvalues based on the GeoCBI index and classified burned areas into three levels of fire severity. Comparing the assessment of the fire severity circa 2021 versus 2020, the delayed forest dieback was identified in dry and moist conditions, while forests under wet site conditions showed certain potential for recovery. The study demonstrated a potential for the application of the results (e.g., methodology, reference data, calibrated dNBR thresholds) in a preliminary assessment of the war-caused wildfire effects on forest ecosystems and postfire forest management in the region.
The article discusses the possibility of using a genetic algorithm (GA) in the search for the optimal composition of information security tools (IST) for the information and educational environment of the university (IEEU). In the process of research, there was developed an optimization model for choosing the structure and composition of the information security system for IEEU nodes. The model made it possible to refine the objective function based on minimizing the costs of creating an information security system (IS) of the IEEU. The corresponding computational experiments were carried out, which confirmed the efficiency of the model. The practical significance of the conducted research lies in the fact that the proposed approach significantly reduces the time for calculating the optimal composition of the information security system for IEEU. This, in turn, allows the protection side to quickly respond to the changing landscape of cyber threats for IEEU. The proposed approaches, in our opinion, will lead to an improvement in their technical and economic indicators of the IS of IEEU system, reduce time and labor costs for designing an effective IS system
Chisel plows with a chisel as a working body, loosen the soil without mixing the layers. The analysis of the conducted research concludes that the most widespread is a cylindrical surface of a chisel working body - a chisel with a constant radius of curvature. It is theoretically established that at the radius of curvature of the bit up to 0.1 m, the soil on the surface of the bit will move chaotically, while the curvature of the bit does not affect the percentage of wrapped plant debris. As the radius of curvature increases, the force of inertia decreases, therefore, the angle of soil rise decreases. For the radius of curvature of the bit bigger than 0.5 m, the force of inertia has almost no effect on the angle of the soil rise. Without the influence of the force of inertia, the soil particles begin to move more orderly, the soil and plant debris begin to move along trajectories corresponding to the shape of the bit, which increases the coefficient of wrapping plant debris. It is established that at the radius of curvature of the bit 0.5 m and at an operating speed of 2 m·s−1 there is an orderly movement of soil on the surface of the bit, which affects the percentage of wrapping of plant remains. The use of a chisel plow point with a cylindrical surface increases the wrapping of plant remains by an average of 17%.
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550 members
Roman Kulibaba
  • Department of Animal Biology
Valery A Kashparov
  • Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR)
Volodymyr Mezhenskyj
  • prof. V.L. Symyrenko Horticulture Department
Tatyana Robertivna Stefanovska
  • Department of Plant Protection
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