Contamination with anthropogenic debris, such as plastic and paint particles, has been widely investigated in the global marine environment. However, there is a lack of information regarding their presence in marine protected areas (MPAs). In the present study, the abundance, distribution, and chemical characteristics of microplastics (MPs; <5 mm), mesoplastics (MePs; 5-25 mm), and paint particles were investigated in multiple environmental compartments of two MPAs from Peru. The characteristics of MPs across surface water, bottom sediments, and fish guts were similar, primarily dominated by blue fibers. On the other hand, MePs and large MPs (1-5 mm) were similar across sandy beaches. Several particles were composite materials consisting of multiple layers confirmed as alkyd resins by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, which were typical indicators of marine coatings. The microstructure of paint particles showed differentiated topography across layers, as well as different elemental compositions. Some layers displayed amorphous structures with Ba-, Cr-, and Ti-based additives. However, the leaching and impact of potentially toxic additives in paint particles require further investigation. The accumulation of multiple types of plastic and paint debris in MPAs could pose a threat to conservation goals. The current study contributed to the knowledge regarding anthropogenic debris contamination in MPAs and further elucidated the physical and chemical properties of paint particles in marine environments. While paint particles may look similar to MPs and MePs, more attention should be given to these contaminants in places where intense maritime activity takes place.
Delay-tolerant networks (DTN) are time evolving networks which do not provide continuous and instantaneous end-to-end communication [5, 9]. Instead, the topological configuration of DTN changes continuously: connections are available only during some time intervals and thus the network may suffer from frequent partitions and high delay.
This article attempts to determine whether the peace negotiation process initiated in Colombia that culminated with the Peace Treaty in 2016 had a positive economic effect, using the National Gross Domestic Product per capita as a measure. We apply a synthetic control method that is appropriate for a policy evaluation. Considering the anticipated and realized effects on economic variables, our results suggest that the Peace Treaty has positively influenced gross domestic product per capita. Furthermore, this positive effect has been maintained through 2021, the last available year of data. Data to 2021 show post‐pandemic Colombia is better off when compared with a hypothetical Colombia—or synthetic Colombia—that did not begin a peace negotiation process.
The entanglement production is key for many applications in the realm of quantum information, but so is the identification of processes that allow to create entanglement in a fast and sustained way. Most of the advances in this direction have been circumscribed to bipartite systems only, and the rate of entanglement in multipartite system has been much less explored. Here we contribute to the identification of processes that favor the fastest and sustained generation of tripartite entanglement in a class of 3-qubit GHZ-type states. By considering a three-party interaction Hamiltonian, we analyse the dynamics of the 3-tangle and the entanglement rate to identify the optimal local operations that supplement the Hamiltonian evolution in order to speed-up the generation of three-way entanglement, and to prevent its decay below a predetermined threshold value. The appropriate local operation that maximizes the speed at which a highly-entangled state is reached has the advantage of requiring access to only one of the qubits, yet depends on the actual state of the system. Other universal (state-independent) local operations are found that conform schemes to maintain a sufficiently high amount of 3-tangle. Our results expand our understanding of entanglement rates to multipartite systems, and offer guidance regarding the strategies that improve the efficiency in various quantum information processing tasks.
The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the mobility restrictions governments imposed to prevent its spread changed the cities’ ways of living. Transport systems suffered the consequences of the falling travel demand, and readjustments were made in many cities to prevent the complete shutdown of services. In Córdoba, the second largest city in Argentina, the Municipality dictated route cuts and reduced frequencies to sustain the buses and trolleys system. In 2022, Martinazzo and Falavigna assessed potential accessibility to hospitals before (2019) and during the pandemic (2021). Overall, the study indicated that average travel times increased by 20% and that the gap between less vulnerable and more vulnerable population quintiles reached almost 8 points. In this paper, potential accessibility to public hospitals in 2022 and 2023 is calculated using Martinazzo and Falavigna’s (2022) work as a baseline to compare, considering that neither cutting the services during the pandemic nor recovering the service after the pandemic the Municipality performed an accessibility assessment. The main results showed that, despite the system having almost recovered its extension by 2023, it maintained the regressive tendency between less vulnerable and more vulnerable population quintiles, as the difference in average travel time between these two groups reached up to 14 min, while the cumulative opportunities measure for the high-income groups was up to 68% higher than the most vulnerable households.
Foreland basins are ideal laboratories to examine and quantify forces that contribute to Earth's topography. The interaction of these driving mechanisms (atmospheric, lithospheric and asthenospheric) affects the accumulation and preservation of strata in marine or terrestrial depocentres. For foreland basins that cover thousands of kilometres along orogens, geodynamic processes or lithospheric structure might differ and/or overlap differently along or across strike. The Magallanes‐Austral basin in the southernmost Patagonia serves as a good analogue to analyse the interactions between subcrustal forces and foreland sedimentation. While to the northern part of southern Patagonia, Cenozoic basins were predominantly terrigenous and above sea level; at the southernmost end of Patagonia, sedimentation in the island of Tierra del Fuego was mostly submarine. We analysed in this contribution the southernmost foreland of Patagonia by combining backstripping with reconstruction of flexural and dynamic subsidence. These results were compared with terrestrial records exposed further north of southern Patagonia. We found that, in addition to crustal contributions (as deformation and sedimentation), subcrustal forces are required to accommodate the proximal and distal foreland strata and explain the palaeoenvironmental and subsidence discrepancies that resulted after our analysis. When our models are compared with dynamic topographic curves, strong correlations are observed during the Palaeogene, whereas strong topographic differences occurred in the Neogene. Dynamic topography models in the Neogene have reproduced clear uplift, whereas our residual topography results show equilibrium (close to the orogen) to subsidence values (to the distal foreland). We propose that changes in the lithospheric mantle had to work together with the rest of the tectonics and dynamic forces to match 1‐D backstripping and flexural curves. This suggests that foreland basins in southern Patagonia were controlled differently along strike the southern Andes and that crustal deformation, asthenospheric flows and a heterogeneous lithospheric mantle structure affected the Cenozoic basin evolution.
In mountain forests, tree regeneration is limited by increasingly frequent frosts with increasing elevation. We investigated the effects of exposure to freezing temperature on early life stages of two native trees of different elevational origin in a seasonally dry mountain forest. We hypothesized that the negative effects of freezing exposure on performance of early life stages increases as freezing temperature decreases, and that frost resistance increases in plants of high elevational origin. We collected seeds of two tree species ( Kageneckia lanceolata and Lithraea molleoides ) from populations located at different elevations and grew seedlings and saplings in a greenhouse. Dry seeds, imbibed seeds and 1‐month‐old seedlings were exposed to seven temperature treatments ranging from 4 °C to −20 °C, while 12‐month‐old saplings were exposed to four temperature treatments from −8 °C to −20 °C. After freezing exposure in a climate chamber, we monitored seed germination and seedling and sapling survival. Germination of K. lanceolata decreased with decreasing temperature only for imbibed seeds from mid‐ and high elevations, whereas germination of L. molleoides slightly increased with decreasing temperature only for imbibed seeds from high elevations. For both species, seedling survival decreased with decreasing temperature. For K. lanceolata , the negative effects of freezing temperatures were weaker as elevational origin of seeds increased, whereas L. molleoides showed the opposite pattern. For both species, saplings only survived at the mildest applied freezing temperature (−8 °C). We conclude that effects of climatic variation associated with elevation depend on the study species and life stage. The observed patterns could be caused by maternal effects, which are absent at the sapling stage. Moreover, temperatures below −8 °C can limit recruitment since partial mortality of seedlings and saplings occurred at such values.
En el presente artículo se sistematizaron las principales acciones de transformación digital (TD) de los sistemas de salud que abordan a las funciones esenciales de la salud pública (FESP). Se realizó una revisión narrativa, donde se interrelacionó el marco conceptual de las funciones esenciales de la salud pública renovadas con los ocho principios rectores de la transformación digital del sector de la salud. En las publicaciones seleccionadas, se halló que las principales acciones de la TD comprenden la historia clínica electrónica, la telemedicina, la legislación en salud digital, la alfabetización digital, los portales del paciente, las tecnologías de código abierto y la gobernanza de datos. Estas acciones posibilitan aumentar la calidad y la eficiencia de los sistemas de salud, favorecer la accesibilidad y mejorar los resultados de salud.
Inter-particle Coulombic electron capture (ICEC) is an environment-enabled electron capture process by means of which a free electron can be eﬃciently attached to a system (e.g. ion, atom, molecule, or quantum dot). The excess electron attachment energy is simultaneously transferred to a neighboring system which concomitantly undergoes ionization (or excitation). ICEC has been theoretically predicted in van-der-Waals and in hydrogen-bonded systems as well as in quantum dot arrays. The theoretical approaches employed in these works range from analytical models to electronic structure and (quantum) dynamical calculations. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the main theoretical approaches that have been developed and employed to investigate ICEC and summarize the main conclusions learned from these works. Since knowledge on ICEC is still in its early stage, we conclude this review with our own views and proposals on the future perspectives for the research in ICEC.
The challenge of low water solubility in pharmaceutical science profoundly impacts drug absorption and therapeutic effectiveness. Nanocrystals (NC), consisting of drug molecules and stabilizing agents, offer a promising solution to enhance solubility and control release rates. In the pharmaceutical industry, top-down techniques are favored for their flexibility and cost-effectiveness. However, increased solubility can lead to premature drug dissolution in the stomach, which is problematic due to the acidic pH or enzymes. Researchers are exploring encapsulating agents that facilitate drug release at customized pH levels as a valuable strategy to address this. This study employed wet milling and spray drying techniques to create encapsulated NC for delivering the drug to the intestinal tract using the model drug ivermectin (IVM). Nanosuspensions (NS) were efficiently produced within 2 h using NanoDisp®, with a particle size of 198.4 ± 0.6 nm and a low polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.184, ensuring uniformity. Stability tests over 100 days at 4 °C and 25 °C demonstrated practical viability, with no precipitation or significant changes observed. Cytotoxicity evaluations indicated less harm to Caco-2 cells compared to the pure drug. Furthermore, the solubility of the NC increased by 47-fold in water and 4.8-fold in simulated intestinal fluid compared to the pure active compound. Finally, dissolution tests showed less than 10% release in acidic conditions and significant improvement in simulated intestinal conditions, promising enhanced drug solubility and bioavailability. This addresses a long-standing pharmaceutical challenge in a cost-effective and scalable manner.
Importance An initial decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is expected after initiating a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) and has been observed across patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and heart failure. Objective To examine the implications of initial changes in eGFR among patients with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) enrolled in the Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure (DELIVER) trial. Design, Setting, and Participants This was a prespecified analysis of the results of the DELIVER randomized clinical trial, which was an international multicenter study of patients with EF greater than 40% and eGFR greater than or equal to 25. The DELIVER trial took place from August 2018 to March 2022. Data for the current prespecified study were analyzed from February to October 2023. Intervention Dapagliflozin, 10 mg per day, or placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures In this prespecified analysis, the frequency of an initial eGFR decline (baseline to month 1) was compared between dapagliflozin and placebo. Cox models adjusted for baseline eGFR and established prognostic factors were fit to estimate the association of an initial eGFR decline with cardiovascular (cardiovascular death or heart failure event) and kidney (≥50% eGFR decline, eGFR<15 or dialysis, death from kidney causes) outcomes, landmarked at month 1, stratified by diabetes. Results Study data from 5788 participants (mean [SD] age, 72  years; 3253 male [56%]) were analyzed. The median (IQR) change in eGFR level from baseline to month 1 was −1 (−6 to 5) with placebo and −4 (−9 to 1) with dapagliflozin (difference, −3; P < .001). A higher proportion of patients assigned to dapagliflozin developed an initial eGFR decline greater than 10% vs placebo (1144 of 2892 [40%] vs 737 of 2896 [25%]; odds ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.7-2.1; P difference <.001). An initial eGFR decline of greater than 10% (vs ≤10%) was associated with a higher risk of the primary cardiovascular outcome among those randomized to placebo (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62) but not among those randomized to dapagliflozin (aHR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.74-1.09; P for interaction = .01). Similar associations were observed when alternative thresholds of initial eGFR decline were considered and when analyzed as a continuous measure. An initial eGFR decline of greater than 10% was not associated with adverse subsequent kidney composite outcomes in dapagliflozin-treated patients (aHR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.49-1.82). Conclusions and Relevance Among patients with HFmrEF or HFpEF treated with dapagliflozin, an initial eGFR decline was frequent but not associated with subsequent risk of cardiovascular or kidney events. These data reinforce clinical guidance that SGLT2is should not be interrupted or discontinued in response to an initial eGFR decline. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03619213
In the article, the various government orders of the Argentine federation and the bases of municipal autonomy in the National Constitution are first developed. Subsequently, the bases of the municipal regime are considered in the Provincial Constitutions and after, the different types of existing local governments. The Municipal Organic Charters are also analyzed, as an expression of local autonomy. And finally, the violations of said autonomies are described, with special reference to the financial and tax aspects, within the framework of the centralization that the country suffers.
Propalaehoplophorus is an Early Miocene genus of glyptodonts, a group of extinct armored mammals closely related to armadillos and endemic to South America. Here, we present the first digital reconstruction of the endocranial cavity of the glyptodont Propalaehoplophorus australis and compare it to endocasts of Late Miocene and Pleistocene glyptodonts, pampatheres, and extant armadillos. Propalaehoplophorus australis shares exclusively with other glyptodonts the neocortical sulcation pattern and cranial nerve (CN) V3 pathway. It also shares with both other glyptodonts and pampatheres the rhinal fissure trajectory, small piriform lobe, marked dorsal expansion of neocortical fronto-parietal region, conspicuous thickness of superior longitudinal sinus, and presence of a well-marked lateral sulcus and medial shape of petrosal bone; this last trait is also observable in Chlamyphorus. The olfactory bulbs of Pr. australis, Holmesina, and Pampatherium are anteriorly elongated and partially laterally divergent as in the glyptodont Pseudoplohophorus absolutus. Other features, like the globular proximal shape of olfactory peduncles, topological arrangement of CNs IX-XII, differentiated petrosal lobule of paraflocculus, and orientation of spinal cord are shared among Pr. australis, Ps. absolutus, pampatheres, and extant armadillos. The similarities between Pr. australis, remaining glyptodonts, and pampatheres could be synapomorphies of pampatheres + glyptodonts. By contrast, Pr. australis, pampatheres, and all the analyzed armadillos share the same configuration of the pathway of CNs IX-XII, a feature that could support the basal position of Pr. australis among glyptodonts for which cranial remains are known. In this context, the brain cavity seems to be a promising source of information for revealing the evolutionary history of this mammalian clade.
Light and temperature conditions trigger germination in specific temporal windows and microhabitats, thus determining the germination niche of plant species. Manihot species grow in fire-prone ecosystems and their seeds show heat tolerance. Successful establishment in disturbed environments might be related to seed attributes that allow seeds to cope with or avoid stressful environments. We studied some characteristics of the germination niche of Manihot grahamii , a pioneer woody species present in dry subtropical forests of central Argentina, to understand its successful establishment in disturbed environments. We evaluated the germination ecology of the seeds of M. grahamii with the aims to (1) characterize seed traits (viability, mass and moisture content); (2) determine whether it has dormancy and if it is physical or physiological; (3) evaluate the effect of several pre-treatments (gibberellic acid, after ripening, dry prechilling and dry prechilling + warm) on seed dormancy; and (4) assess the effect of different environmental events of high temperatures on the germination process simulating two treatments: fire intensities (with three levels of heat shock) and a gap temperature. M. grahamii seeds have large mass (0.24 g), low moisture content (8%), physiological dormancy, negative photoblastic behaviour and high heat tolerance. Dormancy was alleviated and seeds became insensitive to light when they were exposed to pre-treatments of dry prechilling + warm and high-temperature treatments. This germination strategy promotes secure germination timing into the rainy season on undisturbed habitats as well as a cue for competition-released gaps which in turn favour recruitment in open, disturbed and dry habitats, respectively. In the context of global change, with an increasing habitat fragmentation and fire frequency, M. grahamii could become more abundant and extend its geographic distributional range in central Argentina.
Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common comorbidity in heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and associated with worse outcomes. Purpose We investigated the relationship between COPD status and outcomes, and the efficacy of dapagliflozin, compared with placebo, according to COPD status in patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) randomized in DELIVER. Methods A total of 6,263 patients with HF with New York Heart Association functional class II-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction >40%, evidence of structural heart disease, and elevated N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide levels were randomized to dapagliflozin or placebo. Clinical outcomes and the effect of dapagliflozin, according to COPD status at baseline, were examined. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death or worsening HF. Results Of the 6,261 patients with data on baseline COPD, 692 (11.1%) had a history of COPD. Compared with patients without COPD, those with COPD were older, more often men and current smokers, and they had a higher BMI, but lower systolic blood pressure. Patients with COPD also had a longer duration of HF, a higher rate of prior HF hospitalization, higher NT-proBNP, and worse NYHA functional class and KCCQ-TSS. The risk of the primary endpoint was higher in patients with COPD compared with those without COPD (adjusted HR: 1.29 (95% CI: 1.09-1.52). The benefit of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent irrespective of COPD status: no COPD, HR: 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72-0.93); COPD, HR: 0.84 (95% CI: 0.63-1.12) (Pinteraction = 0.92). Consistent effects were observed for HF hospitalization, cardiovascular death, and all-cause mortality (Table). Dapagliflozin, as compared with placebo, increased (improved) the KCCQ-TSS from baseline to 8 months to a similar extent in patients with and without COPD (Pinteraction = 0.75) (Table). Adverse events and treatment discontinuation were not more frequent with dapagliflozin than with placebo irrespective of COPD status. Conclusions COPD is common in patients with HFpEF and associated with worse outcomes. Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF or cardiovascular death, and improved symptoms, similarly in patients with and without COPD. In addition, dapagliflozin was safe and well-tolerated, irrespective of COPD status.
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