Experimental studies have shown that temperature attenuation of luminescence in undoped ZnSe crystals depends on the nature of the band-band excitation. It is determined that this attenuation differs from the attenuation at intracentric excitation of the 630 nm luminescence band. A comparative analysis of the results of the action of X-rays, N2 laser (337 nm) and LED-390 (390 nm) shows that the temperature dependence of luminescence depends on the density of generated free electron-hole pairs. The corresponding theoretical dependences for external luminescence attenuation and in the presence of simultaneous intracentric and external luminescence attenuation are obtained. Analysis of the shape of the curves of temperature luminescence attenuation shows that the increase in the excitation density increases the probability of radiative transitions from the excited state of the luminescence center in comparison with nonradiative transitions. This is confirmed by the lux-luminescent characteristics of X-ray and photoluminescence at different temperatures. It can be stated with high probability that the temperature position of the beginning of the temperature attenuation of luminescence is affected by forced transitions in the scintillation pulse.
The article considers the implementation of project methods in the training of future teachers. The special role of the project method in the development of professional competencies of future educators is noted. The aim is to study the effectiveness of the project method in the development of professional competencies of future educators. The study involved the survey method, the method of synthesis and analysis, Delphi technique. The chi-squared test, contingency test and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used to calculate the results of the study. The results of the study showed high level of students’ subjectivity when using the project method in both the main and control groups. The introduction of the project method has an unconditional favourable effect in the development of the professional competencies of future teachers. Together with traditional teaching methods, the project method is an effective tool for training future teachers. We state that the reliability of the obtained results is proved by the chi-squared test. Its level is 0.01, which allows concluding on the reasonability of applying the proposed project model. The analysis of the obtained results was followed by the establishment of expediency of applying the project method in the training of future teachers. Further research will be aimed at finding optimal forms of using various pedagogical technologies to increase the level of competencies of future educators.
The purpose of the academic paper, based on the results of the analysis of the viewpoints of scientists regarding the selection and application of information and communication technologies in the conditions of distance education of choir and orchestra conductors and the study of practical aspects of the master’s training of specialists in choral and orchestral conducting, lies in revealing and identifying the main features of the professional training of this type of specialists. Methodology. In the process of conducting the research, an analytical and bibliographic method has been used to study the scientific literature on the issues of distance master’s training of choir and orchestra conductors, as well as a questionnaire to conduct a survey of choral and orchestral conductors. Results. Based on the results of the research conducted, the features of the choice and application of information and communication technologies in the conditions of distance master’s training of choir and orchestra conductors have been analysed, and basic information has been prepared on the effectiveness of using various information.
This paper examines the role of pets in preserving the emotional and spiritual wellbeing of Ukrainian Residents during Russian Hostilities. On February 24, 2022, Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine, which resulted in a huge number of refugees, both in the country and outside the country. This, in turn, has caused pet owners to rethink their priorities in many ways. This paper is focused on the influence of these animals and relationships with them on maintaining the emotional state and the decision-making process of the Ukrainian residents during the war. In addition, the functions that pets perform in families were considered: educational, reproductive, leisure, etcetera. In Ukraine, pets are considered family members, so many families refused to leave their homeland because they could not leave their cats and dogs alone. Thus, there was/is no mass abandonment or killing of animals in Ukraine during the war.
The purpose of the investigation is to make a theoretical generalization in terms of revealing the essence of the preventive activities of the National Police aimed at the exclusion of violations of the rights and freedoms of internally displaced persons. Main content. It should be noted that today Ukraine has been faced with an unknown problem -the need to solve problems related to forced migrants, which requires the development of effective mechanisms for the realization of the right to social protectionof this category of the population, as part of the activities of the National Police. Methodology: The dialectical method of scientific knowledge is the methodological basis of the investigation. Conclusions. It has been established that the protection ofthe rights and freedoms of internally displaced persons within the activities of the preventive police forces is carried out by observing the following norms: the principle of supremacy of the law; preventive police forces guarantee the protection of the rights and freedoms of internally displaced persons regardless of their political beliefs and party affiliation.
The complexity and multidimensionality of international migration, as a form of international economic relations in the current conditions of the global economy, requires a review of scientific approaches to its study and understanding. The paper aims to develop a systematic study of the international migration of human resources under conditions of social transformation, by analyzing the positive and negative economic consequences for labor-exporting and labor-importing countries. The methods of cognition used in this study included statistical methods and comparative analysis, to assess the geo-economic risks facing countries and regions; economic–mathematical modeling with correlation–regression to build a model for assessing the attractiveness of migration, and for verification and testing of the model; and a graphic–analytical approach to illustrate the examined processes. As a result, a system of determinants of the formation of motives for migration is suggested. These include economic, socio-demographic, political–security, linguistic–cultural, and ecological–natural determinants. The suggested mechanism for parameterizing the migration attractiveness of countries is the identification of which indicators should be taken into account when studying and formalizing the preconditions of migration processes. Based on the identified need to compare countries according to factors of “attraction–repulsion”, using the proposed list of determinants of migration motives, a model of a country’s migration attractiveness was formalized. The model was tested using EU indicators for 2014–2020. The relationship between migration attractiveness and the number of asylum applications in the EU was analyzed, and a high inverse relationship density was established. As a result, the use of the developed model makes it possible to explain and predict migration flows between countries, through the prism of the migratory attractiveness of countries for potential migrants.
A simple mechanical method (grinding and sieving) was proposed to separate the composite into carotenoid-enriched and LDH-enriched materials. The method is based on the internal self-abrasion of the composite when grinding solid particles of LDH as grinding bodies. When removing carotenoids in the form of a composite, rapid precipitation of the sediment and ease of filtration under vacuum were found. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the composite and products of its separation contain X-ray amorphous Zn-Al LDH, an oxide phase, and an amorphous phase of carotenoids. The method of dichloroethane extraction proved the effectiveness of the composite separation process. It was shown that for the optimal amount of Zn-Al LDH, the content of carotenoids in carotenoid-enriched material was 24.4 %, and in LDH-enriched – 4.4 %. For these conditions, it was found that the total yield of carotenoids was 184.3 mg/100 g of pumpkin pulp, of which 155.4 mg/100 g was in the carotenoid-enriched material and 28.9 mg/100 g was in the LDH-enriched material. A hypothesis was expressed regarding the chemical nature of the interaction of carotenoids and LDH in the composite due to π-d interaction. The resulting carotenoid-containing materials can be used as food additives or processed to obtain purified carotenoids.
The article presents structural-functional analysis for the socio-practical potential of such educational component as philosophy of business, as well as research the degree of its impact on evolution of strategic thinking abilities, progress of creative potential, values and attitudes of students. Therefore, in the text of the article is outlined the author’s structure of the analyzed educational component, that is relevant for socio-economic sphere of contemporary Ukraine and, at the same time, one that will motivate younger generation to apply cross-disciplinary knowledge for improving the national business sphere and for making progress in economic culture of Ukrainian society in general. The structure of analyzed educational component must include: studying the philosophy of business problem field in the context of game theory; analysis of business ontological specifics as well as related risks and success criteria; description the philosophical aspects of branding and business-leadership; analysis of such phenomena connection as capital, property and wealth; determining the basics of culture, ethics and social responsibility of business, its role in the structure of social institutions; and also studying of such instruments for strategic thinking evolution as theory of game Go and 36 ancient Chinese stratagems; and, finally, a detection of essential transformations for business-processes in conditions of digitalization and active artificial intelligence development. So we consider that socio-creative manifestations of that educational discipline should be analyzed, first of all, on three main levels: economic, administrative law and culturological. Article proves that in each of these professional educational areas, philosophy of business, as separate educational component, provides specific functional effects, significantly supplementing and improving curricula with additional knowledge and competencies that increases preparation level of modern specialists, creates opportunities for their better understanding of business practical value for national and global economies.
Polymer nanocomposites of polychlortrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)-tin dioxide (SnO 2) system obtained by hot pressing. Concentration dependences of physical and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites in the 0 ≤ φ ≤ 54 vol. % range were investigated experimentally. The propagation velocity, the absorption coefficient, the complex modulus of elasticity, the tangent of the angle of mechanical losses, and the jump in the absorption of ultrasound at the frequency changes determined by the ultrasonic method. A three-component model of segregated nanocomposite structure, which takes into account the existence of polymer in the states of interfacial and wall layers, is proposed.
Nowadays situation at the universities in Ukraine and all other countries round the world are faceted with different challenges almost every new quarter of the year. The very vivid example of it was the pandemic period, which determined transforming of forms of education and different approaches to education. Moreover, the Pandemia provoke the huge wave of challenges for scientific and pedagogical staff of universities. A great number of changes took place at the system of educational process organization: pandemic has exacerbated the need for digital, technology-enabled education experiences, new types of online-classes appared and new ways to scale them etc. But after pandemic period and all these transmitions in universities their appared the need for analyses of challenges which we are going to face with, when we come back to ordinary style of teaching? what problems are we going to solve? To answer these questions, we created a Questionnaire for teaching staff and students of different Universities in Ukraine in different regions. We asked them to give their feedbacks, opinions and feelings of the quarantine restrictions of COVID-19, what difficulties they had durining the next few months. The investigation helped to distinguish challenges to scientific and pedagogical staff of higher educational institutions, the nature of which is the peculiarities of the professional activities of teachers and challenges to the scientific and pedagogical staff of higher educational institutions, the nature of which are the features of the educational activities of students.
The article deals with the influence of globalization on the educational and scientific processes. The tendencies of education in globalization are determined. The peculiarities of globalization of education are considered. The article investigates the main aspects of the educational and scientific prospects of the XXI century. XXI century -this is the time of transition to a high-tech information society, in which the quality of human potential, the level of education, and culture of the entire population acquires a decisive value for the country's economic and social progress. Integration and globalization of social, economic and cultural processes that are taking place in the world, prospects for the development of the Ukrainian state for the next two decades require a deep update of the education system, leads to its advanced character. The main tendencies in the modernization of education are recognized: democratization of the entire system of training and education; increase in the fundamentality of education; Humanization and humanitarianization of education, use of the latest technologies of training; Integration of various forms and education systems both at the national and world levels.
Objective: The aim: The article is devoted to uncovering the essence of the trauma, identifying the cause of its formation, and investigating the consequences for the person and the community. Patients and methods: Materials and methods: The methodological basis of the given study is the interdisciplinary and hermeneutic approach, which was used in combination with the methods of retrospective, analysis, synthesis, and extrapolation, as well as the methodological apparatus of memory studies with its inherent intention of the problem of group identity formation. A prominent place in the process of writing the work played the method of critical literature review. Sources reflecting research on individual and collective dimensions of trauma were found in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Research articles were found using the keywords "trauma", "traumatic experience", "victim", "violence", "collective trauma", "cultural trauma", "memory", etc. Conclusion: Conclusions: Modern studies of traumatic experience are inextricably linked with the scientific work of Sigmund Freud, who was one of the first to explicate trauma as a destroyer of "protection". This gave reason to modern researchers to consider it an emotional reaction of the psyche to mental, physical, or cultural violence directed against the identity of an individual or an entire community. Whether inflicted on an individual or a community as a whole, trauma invariably seeks testimony in order to produce meanings and mechanisms capable of preventing violence and preserving the mental health of both the individual and the community as a whole.
The article studies the current changes taking place in the civil society sector of Eastern European countries under the impact of intensifying radical action on the political environment. One of the key areas of progress of modern states is a further development of democratic values, which depends largely on the activity of the civil society sector. In this regard, the aim of the study was to examine the main problems and areas of change in the development of the civil society sector during the period of intensification of political radicalism in some Eastern European democracies. Methodologically, they used the empirical results of a survey of citizens of Eastern European countries to determine areas of development and key issues of civil society. In conclusion, a comparative analysis of the level of development of the civil sector and the degree of radicalization in Eastern European countries revealed the correlation between the development of civil society and radical policy frameworks.
Досліджено вплив різних систем землеробства та заходів основного обробітку ґрунту на поживний режим, його зв’язок із кількістю мікроорганізмів, які беруть участь у трансформації органічної речовини чорноземів типових. Досліджено спрямованість процесів формування деяких фізіологічних показників у полі пшениці озимої. Встановлено, що при використанні екологічної системи землеробства створюються найбільш сприятливі умови живлення і розвитку ґрунтової мікрофлори, а також показників росту і розвитку культур.
The article outlines the essence of the concept of the educational environment, reveals its structure, and clarifies its key role in the system of future primary school teachers’ training. To meet that aim, several theoretical methods, including analysis of sources and literature on the research; structural and functional to justify the structure, content, and principles of building a training system; and theoretical modeling, are utilized. The interconnected components of the researched professional training have been described. They provide a positive result for the professional development of the future primary school teacher: axiological, socio-cultural, epistemological, cognitive, creative, personal-activity, and communicative. It has been proved that the educational environment design utilizing art synthesis allows: for more accurately predicting and controlling the teaching process, solving educational and training tasks, ensuring favorable conditions for the development of creative personality, and optimal use of available resources.
Pigments are the main components of cosmetics, which determine both toxicity and consumer color characteristics. Zn-Al layered double hydroxides intercalated with anionic food dyes are promising pigments. The best sources of dyes for intercalation are natural ones. The most promising are spices. Natural dyes from spices are often biologically active substances. The parameters of samples of Zn-Al (Zn:Al=3:1) hydroxides intercalated with natural food dyes, synthesized in the medium of aqueous tinctures of saffron and safflower, were studied. The crystal structure of the samples was studied by X-ray phase analysis; color characteristics were studied by spectroscopy and calculation of parameters in the CIE L*a*b system. The possibility of synthesizing Zn-Al colored layered double hydroxides intercalated with natural dyes in the medium of saffron and safflower tinctures was shown. X-ray phase analysis showed that both pigment samples were layered double hydroxides with the α-Zn(OH)2 structure. For the pigment intercalated with saffron dye, the phenomenon of partial decomposition of Zn-Al LDH to ZnO during synthesis was revealed. The color characteristics of the samples were studied. Zn-Al LDH pigment synthesized in a saffron tincture had a bright yellow color determined by intercalated saffron carotenoids (crocin and crocetin). It was suggested that safflower dye flavonoids were partially hydrolyzed (red ones - cartamine and cartamidine, and yellow - Safflor Yellow A), which led to the formation of a dark orange-brown color of the sample. The prospects of using Zn-Al LDH intercalated with saffron food dyes as a cosmetic pigment were shown
Wild boar population (Sus scrofa) has been growing rapidly in most countries of the world over the past decades. The invasive species has high reproduction rates and well-developed adaptive responses, which allows it to successfully expand the boundaries of its habitat, create significant economic losses to agriculture and horticulture, urban ecosystems, and threatens the loss of biological diversity and the spread of zoonotic infections. The purpose of the paper was to analyse the factors that contribute to the expansion of the Sus scrofa species in the world, to determine the ecological mechanisms of population regulation against the background of rapid anthropogenic transformation of the habitat and global climatic anomalies; to assess changes in the dynamics of population size in hunting farms of Ukraine for the period from 2010 to 2020 in the Chernihivska oblast, in particular. Conventional methods of retrospective analysis, synthesis, environmental, general biological, and epizootic research were used. The paper analyses the world experience and identifies the main factors of low effectiveness of strategies for controlling the rapidly growing population of wild boar in agroecosystems, mixed forest and urban ecosystems. Due to the unique features of forming a life strategy, the Sus scrofa species demonstrate successful development, expansion of the range of available food resources, effective use of daily diversification of ecological niches in the conditions of transformed ecosystems, etc. It is established that the reason for the inefficiency of ecological mechanisms of pressure on the population of the species in the "predator-prey" system is the absence of large predators in the forest ecosystems of Chernihivska oblast. At the same time, the absence of deterrent mechanisms in the predator-prey system ensured the manifestation of next-level mechanisms, namely, the appearance of foci of African swine fever along the forest cycle in the natural biocenoses of the region. Response – the response of populations was manifested by a rapid short-term decrease in the population of Sus scrofa, as a temporary deterrent effect with a subsequent recovery trend. The results obtained can be used in the development of practical recommendations for biological monitoring, environmental control, and the development of effective forest management measures to prevent biological safety associated with the uncontrolled distribution of Sus scrofa and African swine fever based on universal ecological mechanisms of population regulation
The COVID-19 pandemic affected not only global economy and society, but also particular institutions, including those of higher education. The aim of the paper is to determine changes in students’ life at selected universities in Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus. An online survey was applied, addressed to students of four universities in Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus (n=380). As a result of the pandemic, more than 46% of students declared worsening of their material situation. In comparison to the period before the pandemic, the respondents observed appearance or intensification of various psychosomatic symptoms, and a 12 percent point decrease in the assessment of their own health. The comparative analysis showed similarities between students’ life preferences, plans on university education, and differences in their material situation, health, and employment.
Objective: The aim: To justify the appropriate levels of physical capabilities development in 12-13-years-old girls with different levels of physical health. Patients and methods: Materials and methods: The research involved 101 12-13-years-old female high-school students. The choice of the female high-school students of this age is due to the greatest variability of their morphofunctional state. The physical health of the girls was assessed according to the method of H. L. Apanasenko. Physical fitness was assessed with the help of 13 motor tests that determine different aspects of girls' physical capabilities. Results: Results: Appropriate normative standards of physical fitness for 12-13-years-old girls with different levels of health and rational parameters of physical activity were determined. It was established that a rational option for planning physical training for 12-13-years-old girls is: 26 % of time should be spent on strength development; speed and strength qualities and agility - by 22 %; endurance - 18 % and speed qualities - 12 %. Conclusion: Conclusions: It was found that the main principle of the implementation of developmental and health-oriented training sessions for physical education of adolescents is the differentiated use of loads and assessment of their physical fitness. Calculated with the help of correlation coefficients and regression equations, the appropriate values of physical development in 12-13-years-old girls with different levels of physical health make it possible, using appropriate exercises, to eliminate deviations in their health indicators.
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