Global sand demand due to infrastructure construction has intensified sand mining activities in many rivers, with current rates of sand extraction exceeding natural replenishment. This has created many environmental problems, particularly concerning riverbank stability, which adversely affects the livelihoods of people in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD). However, sand mining’s social impacts in the region remain inadequately understood. Here we assess locals’ perception of sand mining activities in the VMD and its impacts on riverbank erosion. Residents living along the Bassac River, a hotspot of sand mining, were interviewed. Our results showed that while sand mining is perceived as destructive to the environment, few were aware of its role in worsening riverbank erosion. Only residents directly affected by riverbank collapse were aware of the implications of sand mining and its negative effect on bank stability, as they seem to have actively sought clarification. Our findings highlight the need for greater awareness and understanding among the locals regarding sand mining’s impact on riverbank stability.
Background Cognitive flexibility (CF) enables individuals to readily shift from one concept or mode of practice/thoughts to another in response to changes in the environment and feedback, making CF vital to optimise success in obtaining goals. However, how CF relates to other executive functions (e.g., working memory, response inhibition), mental abilities (e.g., creativity, literacy, numeracy, intelligence, structure learning), and social factors (e.g., multilingualism, tolerance of uncertainty, perceived social support, social decision-making) is less well understood. The current study aims to (1) establish the construct validity of CF in relation to other executive function skills and intelligence, and (2) elucidate specific relationships between CF, structure learning, creativity, career decision making and planning, and other life skills. Methods This study will recruit up to 400 healthy Singaporean young adults (age 18–30) to complete a wide range of cognitive tasks and social questionnaires/tasks. The richness of the task/questionnaire battery and within-participant administration enables us to use computational modelling and structural equation modelling to examine connections between the latent constructs of interest. Significance and Impact The current study is the first systematic investigation into the construct validity of CF and its interrelationship with other important cognitive skills such as learning and creativity, within an Asian context. The study will further explore the concept of CF as a non-unitary construct, a novel theoretical proposition in the field. The inclusion of a structure learning paradigm is intended to inform future development of a novel intervention paradigm to enhance CF. Finally, the results of the study will be useful for informing classroom pedagogy and the design of lifelong learning policies and curricula, as part of the wider remit of the Cambridge-NTU Centre for Lifelong Learning and Individualised Cognition (CLIC).
This interventional case study adopted a data-supported reflective assessment (DSRA) design to help pre-service teachers (PTs) engage in effective Knowledge Building (KB) and examined the mechanisms of this design to support PTs’ productive KB discourse. The participants were 80 PTs from two classes taking the same course. Statistical analysis of indices from social network theory and content analysis of the participants’ Knowledge Forum discourse revealed DSRA’s positive influence on PTs’ KB discourse. Thematic analysis of the PTs’ prompt sheets, supplemented by analysis of classroom videos and classroom observations, revealed four mechanisms by which the DSRA fostered PTs’ KB: (1) identifying promising directions for further inquiry; (2) navigating data for extending collective focal ideas; (3) integrating separated keywords and identifying problems for further inquiry; (4) and improving “storylines” in the collective inquiry process and making numerical values meaningful. These findings extend the literature by revealing the mechanisms by which learners engage in productive shared regulation which are crucial for successful inquiry and KB. The findings also have significant implications for teacher educators and researchers seeking to design technology-enhanced learning to develop PTs’ higher-level KB competencies.
In this study, we classify the seizure types using feature extraction and machine learning algorithms. Initially, we pre-processed the electroencephalogram (EEG) of focal non-specific seizure (FNSZ), generalized seizure (GNSZ), tonic-clonic seizure (TCSZ), complex partial seizure (CPSZ) and absence seizure (ABSZ). Further, 21 features from time (9) and frequency (12) domain were computed from the EEG signals of different seizure types. XGBoost classifier model was built for individual domain features and combination of time and frequency features and validated the results using 10-fold cross-validation. Our results revealed that the classifier model with combination of time and frequency features performed well followed by the time and frequency domain features. We obtained a highest multi-class accuracy of 79.72% for the classification of five types of seizure while using all the 21 features. The band power between 11-13 Hz was found to be the top feature in our study. The proposed study can be used for the seizure type classification in clinical applications.
Assessment feedback is an important aspect of teacher assessment literacy which can be understood along three interrelated dimensions: conceptual in terms of conceptions teachers have of feedback, praxeological regarding feedback practice, and socio-emotional which relates to how teachers attend to the emotional dynamics of assessment from the students’ perspective (Pastore & Andrade, 2019). This paper presents the findings of a phenomenographic study involving 15 teachers in Singapore schools that explored their qualitatively different ways of experiencing assessment feedback. Drawing on the variation theory perspective, the analysis of interview data resulted in five teachers’ conceptions of assessment feedback that shed light on the non-static nature of feedback engagement. These conceptions represent the variation in teachers’ qualitatively different ways of experiencing assessment feedback, and ranged from feedback as inspection of students (emphasizing mistakes) to feedback as introspection for students (emphasizing reflection on feedback). The findings show the potential that teachers can aspire to move from level to level, depending on contexts and students. Insights on the continuum of teacher assessment feedback literacy are drawn. Implications for developing teacher assessment literacy are discussed to assist teachers in reviewing their conceptions of assessment feedback beliefs and enhancing assessment feedback practices beyond improving academic learning.
Design thinking is interpreted and implemented in various ways as detailed by the five articles in this special issue. Besides offering a summary of the five articles, this editorial commentary advocates for the need to view design thinking more holistically by considering the larger system in which the solution resides and also giving thought to the end-point of design thinking cycles.
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Automated prediction of epileptic seizures is essential in monitoring the health of an epileptic individual to avoid cognitive problems, accidental injuries, and even fatality. In this study, scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings of epileptic individuals were used to predict seizures using a configurable Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) machine learning algorithm. Initially, the EEG data was preprocessed using a standard pipeline. We investigated 36 minutes before the onset of the seizure to classify between the pre-ictal and inter-ictal states. Further, temporal and frequency domain features were extracted from the different intervals of the pre-ictal and inter-ictal periods. Then, the XGBoost classification model was utilized to optimize the best interval for the pre-ictal state to predict the seizure by applying Leave one patient out cross-validation. Our results suggest that the proposed model could predict seizures 10.17 minutes before the onset. The highest classification accuracy achieved was 83.33 %. Thus, the suggested framework can be optimized further to select the best features and prediction interval for more accurate seizure forecasting.
This paper explores the use of escape room puzzles and instructional scaffolding in teaching novice learners about basic music theory. This study used Shaffer’s epistemic frames in games as the basis for its experiment, combined with the use of technology-based scaffolding. We examined how effective it is to engage and motivate novice learners when they are made to mimic the role of an expert in music and solve problems using knowledge and skills in the subject. We find positive responses from participants’ attitudes toward music theory and the ability to retain knowledge of the subject, as well as evidence that proves games can have significant effects on motivation in the learning process.
Purpose The present study investigates to what extend de-contextualized practice is necessary to acquire technical skills in developmental soccer training. Typically, open play is considered beneficial for acquiring tactical skills, whereas specific drills are used to support the development of technical skills like passing and shooting. Therefore, a field-based study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a Nonlinear Pedagogy (NP) approach in contrast to a classical Deliberate Practice approach to improve passing performance in young developmental soccer players. Method Forty young male players (age 10 ± 1 years) were randomly assigned to three groups (PLAY, PRACTICE, and CONTROL). The PRACTICE group performed classical passing drills, whereas the PLAY group underwent a NP training regime. Passing skill was assessed before and after a 5-week training program using a standardized passing test according to the German Football Association. Additional retention testing was performed 5 weeks later. Results The results indicated that, although the test design showed no specificity to the learning environment of the PLAY group, both groups improved passing skills after training, but the PLAY group displayed better results during retention testing (PRACTICE: p = 0.004, d = 0.48; PLAY: p = 0.001, d = 0.53) compared to the PRACTICE group. These findings are suggestive of general transfer learning in dynamic learning environments. Conclusion The findings indicate that even when there is an emphasis on “technical skill” enhancement, more effective improvement in young development players may be observed through dynamic learning environments. Consequently, this study encourages coaches to design training regimes that afford players to train as they play.
Observation rainfall networks in developing countries such as Nepal face many challenges (like availability and quality). Global Precipitation Products (GPPs) could be an alternative to gauge-based observed rainfall (GOR) in hydro-meteorological studies. However, GPPs performance across the Himalayan regions is still unknown and is influenced by several factors such as spatial and temporal resolutions, primary data sources, etc. We have comprehensively assessed the suitability of the latest GPPs using categorical and continuous variable performance metrics for the Gandak River Basin in the Nepalese Himalayas. We then ranked GPPs for the first time using the Multicriteria Decision-Making technique. 11 out of 12 GPPs considered underestimated the annual rainfall in the basin. Performance of GPPs was also inconsistent for monthly/annual and daily timescales. At longer timescales, CHIRPS and IMERG_Final are better at representing the spatial and temporal pattern of the rainfall (spatial correlation of 0.75) and least percentage bias (PBIAS < 12%). At a daily timescale, IMERG_Final, ERA5, and PERSIANN_CDR stand out for probability of detection (POD) of rainfall, while all GPPs perform poorly in false alarm ratio (FAR). Although all GPPs have relatively high RMSE (6-14 mm/day), correlation (CC) with observed rainfall was high for IMERG_Final, ERA5, and MERRA_2 in most of the sub-basins. With elevation, the performance of all GPPs is reduced, as evidenced by higher PBIAS, and lower CC. Although there is plenty of room for improvements in rainfall estimation by GPPs, among the existing dataset, IMERG_Final scored best in the majority of the performance indicators and ranked first in five out of six sub-basins. It would be relatively the better choice in the data sparse Himalayan region when daily rainfall data is required. For applications that require monthly/annual rainfall, both CHIRPS and IMERG_Final are equally suitable. The method proposed in the study for assessing GPPs can be readily applied in other river basins and at sub-daily timescales.
Purpose The present study examined the relationship between playing style adaptability and team match performance indicators throughout the season. Three playing style adaptability metrics were analysed, namely, (1) flexibility (i.e., exhibiting a wide range of playing styles), (2) reactivity (i.e., adapting playing style based on opposition) and (3) imposition (i.e., executing predetermined playing style regardless of opposition). Methods Team playing styles were derived through a clustering analysis of 21,708 matches played in the top five male European leagues from 2014/15 to 2019/20. Spearman’s correlation was utilized to assess the association between the three playing style adaptability metrics and four team match performance indicators (e.g., shots taken in opposition penalty box; shots conceded in own penalty box; goals scored; goals conceded; and total wins). Results Playing style flexibility was positively associated with both offensive and defensive match performance indicators and win frequency. Conversely, playing style reactivity and imposition were negatively associated with these team match performance indicators. Conclusions Our results suggest that the capacity to exhibit a wide range of playing styles throughout a season is associated with greater team performance. Furthermore, it is possible that high performing teams are capable of functionally switching between playing style reactivity and imposition, depending on match dynamics.
Prosocial behaviour can be defined as any voluntary action that is performed to benefit another individual. Despite accumulating evidence of the importance of environmental variables (e.g., socioeconomic status; SES), and individual characteristics (e.g., theory of mind - ToM - skills), in influencing prosocial behaviours in young children, it is unknown how these factors relate to the underlying motivations for prosocial behaviours. Accordingly, both extrinsically (sharing) and intrinsically (generosity)-guided prosocial behaviours are measured in this study. We explore the influences of SES and ToM skills on young children's sharing behaviour and generosity, while controlling their age, working memory and language skills. Sixty-six 4- to 6 year olds (Mage = 5.24 years, SD = 0.73) from diverse SES (measured by parental education level) and ethnic backgrounds in Singapore completed tasks assessing the ToM measures of false belief and appearance-reality understanding, working memory, language skills, generosity, and sharing behaviour. The results of hierarchical regression analyses demonstrate that the father's education level and children's appearance-reality understanding were significant predictors of sharing, after controlling for age, working memory, language skills, and the mother's education level. Children's appearance-reality understanding was the sole predictor of children's generosity. Our findings highlight the impact of children's ability to hold different views of reality and their family's education levels on the development of sharing and generosity in early childhood.
Based on the favorable ionic conductivity and structural stability, sodium superionic conductor (NASICON) materials especially utilizing multivalent redox reaction of vanadium are one of the most promising cathodes in sodium‐ion batteries (SIBs). To further boost their application in large‐scale energy storage production, a rational strategy is to tailor vanadium with earth‐abundant and cheap elements (such as Fe, Mn), reducing the cost and toxicity of vanadium‐based NASICON materials. Here, the Na3.05V1.03Fe0.97(PO4)3 (NVFP) is synthesized with highly conductive Ketjen Black (KB) by ball‐milling assisted sol‐gel method. The pearl‐like KB branch chains encircle the NVFP (p‐NVFP), the segregated particles possess promoted overall conductivity, balanced charge, and modulated crystal structure during electrochemical progress. The p‐NVFP obtains significantly enhanced ion diffusion ability and low volume change (2.99%). Meanwhile, it delivers a durable cycling performance (87.7% capacity retention over 5000 cycles at 5 C) in half cells. Surprisingly, the full cells of p‐NVFP reveal a remarkable capability of 84.9 mAh g⁻¹ at 20 C with good cycling performance (capacity decay rate is 0.016% per cycle at 2 C). The structure modulation of the p‐NVFP provides a rational design on the superiority of others to be put into practice.
Adjectival syllable count, often used to predict English comparatives more versus - er , is of little help in predicting the comparatives of adjectives ending in , pronounced /i/, here called the y -adjectives. Examples of y -adjectives include silly and worthy . This article considers whether the phonemic segment count (segment count) and penultimate syllable weight (penultimate weight) of y -adjectives may serve as alternatives to syllable count in predicting more versus - er . The segment count and penultimate weight of relevant y -adjective tokens from a set of diachronic corpora are studied, alongside the tokens’ morphological complexity and period of occurrence in two separate, parallel sets of mixed-effects models. Syllabification principles for penultimate weight coding differentiate the two sets of modelling. Findings converge on segment count as a predictor of the comparative form, while the role of morphological complexity remains less clear, emerging significantly from one set of modelling but not the other. A rethinking of adjectival length based on segment count is advanced for our understanding of y -adjective comparatives. Discussed also are downstream implications of variant syllabification theories on accounts of y -adjective comparatives, together with insights shed on morphophonological intersections and the potential place of English y -adjective comparatives within the ambit of English alternations.
Research on orthographic consistency in English words has selectively identified different sub-syllabic units in isolation (grapheme, onset, vowel, coda, rime), yet there is no comprehensive assessment of how these measures affect word identification when taken together. To study which aspects of consistency are more psychologically relevant, we investigated their independent and composite effects on human reading behaviour using large-scale databases. Study 1 found effects on adults' naming responses of both feedforward consistency (orthography to phonology) and feedback consistency (phonology to orthography). Study 2 found feedback but no feedforward consistency effects on visual and auditory lexical decision tasks, with the best predictor being a composite measure of consistency including onset, vowel, and coda (OVC). In Study 3, we explicitly modeled the reading process with forward and backward flow in a bidirectionally connected neural network. The model captured latent dimensions of quasi-regular mapping that explain additional variance in human reading and spelling behaviour, compared to the established measures. Together, the results suggest interactive activation between phonological and orthographic word representations. They also validate the role of computational analyses of language to better understand how print maps to sound, and what properties of natural language affect reading complexity.
Re‐establishing extirpated wildlife—or “rewilding”—is touted as a way to restore biodiversity and ecosystem processes, but we lack real‐world examples of this process, particularly in Southeast Asia. Here, we use a decade of aggregated camera trap data, N‐mixture occupancy models, and input from local wildlife experts to describe the unassisted recolonization of two native large herbivores in Singapore. Sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) escaped from captivity (in private or public zoos) in the 1970s and contemporary camera trap data show they have only colonized nearby forest fragments and their abundance remains low. Wild pigs (Sus scrofa), in contrast, naturally recolonized by swimming from Malaysia in the 1990s and have rapidly expanded their range and abundance across Singapore. While wild pigs have not recolonized all viable green spaces yet, their trajectory indicates they soon will. We also note that a third ungulate, the muntjac deer (Muntiacus muntjak), was captured in camera trapping in 2014 and 2015 but was never recorded afterward despite increased sampling effort, and thus we do not focus on their presumably unsuccessful recolonization. The divergent rewilding trajectories between sambar deer and wild pigs suggest different conservation outcomes and management requirements. Sambar deer may restore lost plant–animal interactions such as herbivory and seed dispersal without requiring significant management. Wild pigs, in contrast, have reached high numbers rapidly and may require active management to avoid hyperabundance and negative ecological impacts in regions, such as Singapore that lack both hunting and large predators.
The way teachers support students’ Knowledge Building discourse may influence their subsequent discourse moves and emotions. However, in previous research on Knowledge Building, teacher scaffolding was rarely scrutinized, especially in offline Knowledge Building discourse; neither was how the support is associated with students’ discourse moves or emotions. This study addressed these issues by examining how two teachers scaffolded the offline Knowledge Building discourse of a class of students from grade 2 to grade 3 and the associations between teacher scaffolding and students’ discourse moves and emotions. Through discourse analysis, we identified a few patterns of teaching scaffolding for Knowledge Building, including giving instructions, asking for elaboration, revoicing, asking for explanations, inviting different ideas, and inviting new directions. Using correlation analyses, we found positive correlations between teacher asking for explanations and students providing partial or elaborated explanations. Teacher inviting new directions was positively correlated with students’ questions. There was a negative correlation between teacher asking for elaboration and student curiosity. This study has implications for how teacher support can be designed to foster desired student discourse moves and emotions.
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