This work designs and analyzes a metastructure-based vibration isolation model to improve small-scale equipment's isolation effectiveness under low-frequency excitations. The feature of the proposed model is the high static and low dynamic stiffness characteristics, also called quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS), possessed by the metastructure under vertical load. The metastructure consists of four parallelly arranged unit cells, and the QZS property is realized in each unit cell by the snap-through behavior of the cosine beam system and the bending-dominated behavior of semicircular arches. The static characteristics of the metastructure are studied analytically and numerically and validated with experimental results. Based on the static analysis results, the dynamic equation of the proposed metastructure is set up in the form of Duffing's equation. The harmonic balance method is used to calculate the frequency response and motion transmissibility of the metastructure at steady state for a harmonic load. The time and frequency responses under the sinusoidal base excitation are examined analytically and numerically, and their results are compared. The simulation results revealed that the proposed QZS metastructure obtains lower transmissibility and wider effective isolation range compared to the equivalent linear model. The parametric study shows that in the low-frequency excitation region, the motion transmissibility increases with decreasing damping ratio, whereas for the effective isolation range, the motion transmissibility increases with increasing damping ratio. Finally, stability analysis is performed to study the unstable region in the frequency response curve. The parametric study indicates that the unstable region reduces with the increase in damping ratio and remains unaffected with varying excitation amplitude.
Electrospinning of aqueous gelatin nanofiber has always been a challenge due to its polycationic nature. This requires a complex solvent system which often was cytotoxic. In our present work, the ambient parameters were modified to make the aqueous gelatin electrospinnable. The design of experiments and process optimization was performed using the Taguchi method and the critical parameters affecting the diameter and morphology of the nanofibers were studied. This was further analyzed with a custom response surface design. The gelatin nanofiber mat was fabricated with the optimized parameters and was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Further, the fabricated scaffold was studied for its cytotoxicity, cell attachment, and proliferation, which rendered desirable results, thus qualifying the gelatin nanofiber mat to be a promising candidate to be a tissue engineering scaffold.
Before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the global community had been cautiously approaching a new era in global health. Between 1990 and 2015, maternal mortality worldwide dropped by 44%.1 Since 2000, the global under-5 mortality rate declined by 44%, new HIV cases decreased by 35%,2 and the incidence rate of TB declined by 19%. However, even with this progress, the world had not been on track to achieve its Sustainable Development Goal targets, with inequity increasing.3 While the ripple effects of COVID-19 will take years, if not decades, to untangle, early data demonstrate its stark impact. As of April 2021, antenatal care visits fell by 43%, malaria diagnosis fell by 31%, and HIV testing dropped 41%.4 COVID-19 has also highlighted the extent to which, even in the face of progress, longstanding societal inequities remain intact.5,6 COVID-19 has given global health practitioners yet another opportunity to radically rethink how we work and engage in global health moving forward. Trends like demographics, urbanization, slower and unequal economic growth, and climate change, all pose huge challenges. Our global health goals depend on our collective efforts to problem solve, strategically take risks, and quickly iterate/adapt to spur more impactful solutions. Global health practitioners and designers alike recognize that real questions remain about the application and complementarity of design in global health.* Design for Health—jointly led by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development— brought together donors, designers, researchers, implementing partners, and country governments to explore these questions more fully. Members of this community came together in this special issue of Global Health: Science and Practice to build upon lessons from the use of design in global health, to distill and demystify the design methodology, and simultaneously open the conversation to perspectives and questions that can generate change and new ideas to tackle the health crises of today and those on the horizon.
Modeling cognitive load of user interaction based on ocular parameters have become a dominant method for exploring usability evaluation of interfaces for systems and applications. Growing importance of Artificial Intelligence in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) has proposed many approaches to understand users’ need and enhance human centric method for interface design. In particular, machine learning-based cognitive modeling, using eye tracking parameters have received more attention in the context of smart devices and applications. In this context, this paper aims to model the estimated cognitive load values for each user into different levels of cognition like very high, high, moderate, low, very low etc., while performing different tasks on a smart phone. The study focuses on the use behavioural measures, ocular parameters along with eight traditional machine learning classification algorithms like Decision Tree, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, Naïve Bayes, Neural Network, Fuzzy Rules with Weight Factor and K-Nearest Neighbor to model different levels of estimated cognitive load for each participant. The data set for modeling consisted of 250 records, 11 ocular parameters as prediction variables including age and type of task; and three types of classes (2-class, 3-class, 5-class) for classifying the estimated cognitive load for each participant. We noted that, Age, Fixation Count, Saccade Count, Saccade Rate, Average Pupil Dilation are the most important parameters contributing to modeling the estimated cognitive load levels. Further, we observed that, the Decision Tree algorithm achieved highest accuracy for classifying estimated cognitive load values into 2-class (86.8%), 3-class (74%) and 5-class (62.8%) respectively. Finally, from our study, it may be noted that, machine learning is an effective method for predicting 2-class-based (Low and High) cognitive load levels using ocular parameters. The outcome of the study also provides the fact that ageing affects users’ cognitive workload while performing tasks on smartphone.
Voice conveys information as well as emotion in the film. The film sound production starts with voice recording, and it informs the subsequent sound design. This paper examines the influence of sync sound recording technologies on the aesthetics of voice and sound design in the Hindi cinema since 2001. In the landscape of Indian cinema with the practice of dubbing, a unique aesthetics of voice evolved, privileging the human voice over all other sounds, imbuing it with ‘God-like’ acoustic properties. However, at the turn of the millennium, one observes a shift in the pattern of sound design with the re-emergence of sync sound recording technologies in the Hindi cinema. The present paper analyzes ten case studies of Hindi films through critical listening and comparative analysis of dubbed and sync sound films between 2001 to present. Observations from the analysis reveal that sync sound recording has caused a profound shift in sound design principles within mainstream Hindi cinema conforming more closely to global sound design aesthetics of realism.
Usage of smartphones and tablets has been increasing rapidly with multi-touch interaction and powerful configurations. Performing tasks on mobile phones become more complex as people age, thereby increasing their cognitive workload. In this context, we conducted an eye tracking study with 50 participants between the age of 20 to 60 years and above, living in Bangalore, India. This paper focuses on visual nature of interaction with mobile user interfaces. The study aims to investigate how aging affects user experience on mobile phones while performing complex tasks and estimate cognitive workload using eye tracking metrics. The study consisted of five tasks that were performed on an android mobile phone under naturalistic scenarios using eye tracking glasses. We recorded ocular parameters like fixation rate, saccadic rate, average fixation duration, maximum fixation duration, and standard deviation of pupil dilation for left and right eyes, respectively, for each participant. Results from our study show that aging has a bigger effect on performance of using mobile phones irrespective of any complex task given to them. We noted that participants aged between 50 and 60+ years had difficulties in completing tasks and showed increased cognitive workload. They took longer fixation duration to complete tasks which involved copy-paste operations. Further, we identified design implications and provided design recommendations for designers and manufacturers.
The notion of well-being has been becoming a faraway reality. With evolution, the environment around us has also changed. The need to survive and the inborn nature to compete have eventually led us, humans, to achieve unattainable things which, in turn, have made us susceptible to many of the conditions like depression and anxiety. This project done on mental health works towards creating a space which will indirectly help our senses to enhance our moods emphatically in daily life. This will lead to the so-called empowerment of our mental health even though people are aware of what they should have been doing in order to achieve the state of a healthy mind. They are still incapable of doing so, as it is really hard to do so and it majorly depends on others—spaces and people around us. Time restrictions and financial limitations are one of the important factors contributing to them and also unwanted pressure from parents and society. This project has been done as a part of systems design project through the case study of the students living in Kota, Rajasthan. One of the categories among the research groups includes: age, occupation and family type. The design intervention came through the research will eventually aid in achieving those little yet significant tasks and experiences which amount to our well-being. Space which surrounds us from the moment we wake up till we sleep can affect our mental health immensely. The ambience, which consists of lights, colours, sound textures and aroma, indirectly signals our brain to be at a certain state of mind. The creation of a manipulative yet sympathetic environment can control the space which will include furniture and supportive systems. Hence, designing a solution to effortlessly put our minds at ease.
Point of discussion started during colour course At NID with B.Des students. In one of the discussions, it was found that in India different languages have different colour names and different language has slightly different name for same colour. This was discovered when a group discussion was happening on an assignment, collection of colour vocabulary in mother tongue. During the time it was came to my mind that along with the difference in name of a colour, is there any difference in the colour itself also. For example, colour orange is called Narangi, Keshri, etc. In Hindi and in Bengali it is called Kamala, Kusumi and so on. But is Kusumi as colour, different from Narangi or orange? Other way also it can be said that is the word orange produces different visual perception of the colour while pronounced than the word Narangi or Kusumi. Also, as dealing with visual art it was always made me feel that word has connection with visual perception. Prof V. S Ramachandran established the fact that the sound human vocally produces as word has connection with visual form or shape, it could be other way around also, sound of any pronounced word can bring visuals in mind . Prof. Dan Everett argued that language consists of index, icon and symbols with grammar. Now index, icon and symbols are also connected with visual. So, visualization is unavoidable when language comes  Also, it was felt that different language creates different visual or multisensory experiences and sensations for the same phenomenon. For example, Bhay (Bengali) creates different visualization than Fear (English). It is also assumed that the language which is been used during zero to five years of human development can give the deeper appeal because, during the age range most of the cognitive development happens, which has lifelong impact . Couple of experiments were conducted to investigate two assumptions, one was ‘name of the same colour in different languages create different visualization of the colour’ and the second one was ‘name of the same colour in mother tongue creates different visualization than foreign language. Experiments were conducted during the colour course with B. Des and M.Des Students. The paper is about relation in between language and visualization, particularly language and colour.
Sustainable development goals (SDGs) set in 2015 by the United Nations aims to achieve a better and sustainable future for all, intended to accomplish by 2030. This paper presents the innovative and creative efforts taken up by a multidisciplinary team of designers, researchers, engineers, and architects worked on a pilot project, which was presented to the Ministry of Micro-Small Medium Enterprises (MSME), India. The focus of the project was to understand the challenges faced by a non-organized business or small business trades ranging from tea vendors, vegetable vendors, etc. How to design interventions can bring an improved ‘value perception’ in the society while providing ease of work, more earnings, cleanliness, and overall well-being to these hardworking people in India. Design is considered an essential strategy for innovation to create differentiation in the market. During this project, the designing is explored as a catalyst to bring positive social change. The team studied selected popular trades, which are generally present in every town of India, by conducting field trips, photography, and observational studies to collect data. The map of problems versus opportunities was generated. The specific requirements derived from this study offered rich insights and established the need for design interventions at the product-service-system level. Further, a co-design workshop was conducted with design students focusing on future of vending, improving employment opportunities in small businesses through mobility. The paper highlights the design process, creative explorations, and design developments of solutions. This pilot project provides future directions and lists ample opportunities for designers to play an active role in bringing social transformation.
Background Breast cancer, one of the most common invasive cancers for women both in the developed and developing world, poses a threat as a multi-dimensional malignancy branching out into an array of medical, physical, financial, social, emotional and sexual turmoil. This paper reports research that has been carried out in an academic pursuit for answers to queries encapsulating the social perception, impact and aftermath of breast cancer—affiliated healthcare systems, effective caregiving, healthy coping and holistic healing mechanisms. Objective The study aims at presenting the illness and its negative imprints as a cumulative concern, instead of singularly scrutinizing it through a clinical lens. It urges practitioners and caregivers to innovate and intervene at three identified and overlapping target phases of the journey: (i) awareness and diagnosis, (ii) short-term healing and (iii) long-term recovery. Methodology With underlying system design practices, this qualitative study was conducted as a part of a visual communication project under the graphic design department at National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad. The deployed methodology made use of empathy mapping, opportunity mapping, gigamaping, interviews and questionnaires as tools to engage the two stakeholder groups, one including health care providers, patients and their support systems personifying direct stakeholders of the journey and the second being a group of general participants embodying indirect stakeholders. Conclusion This approach devised cancer positive, a collective and curative movement, which provides a systemic solution to downsize the trauma of the illness, foster interpersonal relationships and eradicate the perceived and actual stigma attached to breast cancer. The proffered system provides strategies for accessible and responsive caregiving, remote monitoring, telemedicine and behavioural modification by proposing an allocated breast cancer data unit. This paper primarily elaborates on the design rationale that suggests the imperative need of an all-inclusive recovery-centric approach instead of a mere survival outlook towards the life-threatening phenomenon.
COVID-19 certainly brings an economic slowdown estimation contraction of −3% in the world but there is huge opportunity in the organic industry is clocking in robust growth from 25 to 100% in 2020. Due to the unavailability of vaccine against corona virus, the people recognize immunity as ammunition against corona virus. In India, the online retailers are the witness of 100% growth in their sale. All over in India like in NCR Indiaorganic.com, pure & eco India, Rajasthan Natural and organic, Gujarat Saurian organic, North Indian retail chain modern bazaar, Belarus-based e-retail Healthy Buddha are experiencing the growth in their demand around 25 to 30% in 2019. Previously in 2018 people, trending towards the organic food because now people of India especially in Delhi-NCR having good income and people are educated so they are more interested in healthy nutritious and eco-friendly products. People want the food, which is free from chemical and fertilizer the food that can increase their immune system, which is natural, and having best quality. ASSOCHEM has reported jointly that Indian local market consumption is only 1% despite a great exporter of organic food. The Indian organic market is a new paradigm in 2019 after COVID-19. People now understand the value of nutritive food, which can increase their immune system, can prevent from corona virus so there is huge opportunity in the Indian market to motivate the consumer to buy more and more organic food it is time to shift from conventional food to organic food. The data has been observed by ASSOCHEM—Indian organic food market is going to be raised by 40, 000 million to 10,0000–1,20,000 million in 2020 after COVID-19. The paper will include the social and economic behavior of consumers in food sector during COVID-19, how consumer will behave after pandemic attack of corona in organic food sector and what is the future of organic food market in India after COVID-19.
Abstract Book Entry / pp. 232 <http://www.idc.iitb.ac.in/icord2021/ICoRD21_Abstract_Book.pdf> © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 221) Print ISBN: 978-981-16-0040-1 Online ISBN: 978-981-16-0041-8
Honey and curcumin were widely used both in modern and ancient medicines. The present research work focuses on developing an antibacterial, antioxidant, biocompatible, biodegradable, non-immunogenic, and completely natural, electrospun nanofibrous wound healing membrane using curcumin and Indian honey collected from different regions of Tamilnadu, belonging to the same species. A nanofibrous membrane was fabricated using the combination of Honey, Curcumin, and Gelatin. The fabricated membrane was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) which showed the surface morphology and the average diameter of 159.08±53.88nm of the nanofiber. The antioxidant property of the membrane was studied through scavenging the free radicals of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Phosphomolybdenum assays. The developed membrane showed 500 % swelling and the contact angle studies showed the surface wettability of the nanofiber. The membrane was also found to be cytocompatible, enhancing adhesion and proliferation using cell proliferation studies. The in-vitro wound scratch studies showed that the wound closure happened by 18 hours when treated with L929 mouse fibroblast cells, justified using the excision wound model. In-vitro kinetic studies showed a maximum release of both honey and curcumin achieved in 32 hours for the membrane. The In-vivo wound healing studies demonstrated that the Honey and Curcumin loaded nanofibrous membrane indeed showed a better wound contraction of 89.05±0.47% in comparison with other samples tested.
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