National Centre for Nuclear Research
Recent publications
The transformation and evolution of a galaxy is strongly influenced by interactions with its environment. Neutral hydrogen (H i) is an excellent way to trace these interactions. Here, we present H i observations of the spiral galaxy NGC 895, which was previously thought to be isolated. High-sensitivity H i observations from the MeerKAT large survey project MIGHTEE reveal possible interaction features, such as extended spiral arms, and the two newly discovered H i companions, that drive us to change the narrative that it is an isolated galaxy. We combine these observations with deep optical images from the Hyper Suprime Camera to show an absence of tidal debris between NGC 895 and its companions. We do find an excess of light in the outer parts of the companion galaxy MGTH$\_$J022138.1-052631 which could be an indication of external perturbation and thus possible sign of interactions. Our analysis shows that NGC 895 is an actively star-forming galaxy with a SFR of 1.75 ± 0.09[M⊙/yr], a value typical for high stellar mass galaxies on the star forming main sequence. It is reasonable to state that different mechanisms may have contributed to the observed features in NGC 895 and this emphasizes the need to revisit the target with more detailed observations. Our work shows the high potential and synergy of using state-of-the-art data in both H i and optical to reveal a more complete picture of galaxy environments.
A Modular COsmic Ray Detector (MCORD) was prepared for use in various physics experiments. MCORD detectors can be used in laboratory measurements or can become a part of large measurement sets. MCORD can be used as a muon detector, a veto system, or a tool supporting the testing and calibration of other detectors. MCORD can also work as a stand-alone device for scientific and commercial purposes. The basic element of MCORD is one section consisting of eight oblong scintillators with a double-sided light reading performed by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). This work presents a practical description of testing, calibration, and programming of analogue and digital electronics modules. The characterisation and calibration methods of the analogue front-end electronic modules, the obtained results, and their implementation into an operating system are presented. In addition, we describe the development environment and the procedures used to prepare our kit for practical use. The architecture of the FPGAs is also presented with a description of their programming as a data-collecting system in a simple coincidence circuit. We also present the possibilities of extending the data analysis system for large experiments.
Equiatomic NiCoCr solid solutions have been shown by recent experiments and atomistic simulations to display exceptional mechanical properties that have been suggested to be linked to nanostructural short-range order (SRO) features that may arise from thermal treatments, such as annealing or/and aging. Here we use hybrid Monte Carlo–molecular dynamics simulations to gain further insights of thermal effects on the SRO formation as well as the edge dislocation plasticity mechanisms of equiatomic NiCoCr face-centered cubic solid solution. For that purpose, we utilize two well-known NiCoCr interatomic potentials, one of which displays well-documented SRO, believed to be linked to experimental evidence and labeled as the Li-Sheng-Ma potential, while the other (Farkas-Caro) does not. We use these two potentials to discern short-range ordering (from inherent randomness in random solid solutions) and understand how SROs influence dislocation depinning dynamics in various thermal annealing scenarios. In this context, we used robust, scale-dependent metrics to infer a characteristic SRO size in the Li-Sheng-Ma case by probing local concentration fluctuations which otherwise indicate uncorrelated patterns in the Farkas-Caro case in a close agreement with random alloys. Our Voronoi-based analysis shows meaningful variations of local misfit properties owing to the presence of SROs. Using relevant order parameters, we also report on the drastic increase of chemical ordering within the stacking fault region. More importantly, we find that the Li-Sheng-Ma potential leads to excellent edge dislocation depinning strength with low stacking fault width. Our findings indicate an enhanced roughening mechanism due to the SROs-misfit synergy that leads to significant improvements in dislocation glide resistance. We argue that the improvements in alloy strength have their atomistic origins in the interplay between nanoscopic SROs and atomic-level misfit properties.
In this study, we investigated the physisorption mechanisms of O2, H2O, CH4, and CO2 molecules on alumina and their effect on electronic properties. We employed quantum‐classical molecular dynamics simulations and the self‐consistent‐charge density‐functional tight‐binding (SCC‐DFTB) approach to dynamically model these mechanisms. Our results revealed the binding pathways of O, H, and C atoms in the various molecules to Al and O atoms at the top atomic layers of the α−alumina surface. We examined several adsorption sites and molecular orientations relative to Al‐terminated and Ox‐terminated alumina surfaces and found that the most stable physisorbed state on the Al‐terminated surface is located above the Al atom, while the Ox‐terminated state is found above the oxygen, resulting in enhanced optical adsorbance. The dissociation of CH4 into CH2+H2 after interaction with the surface resulted in hydrogen production, but with low adsorbate rates. While, O2 molecules primarily bond to the Al atoms, leading to the highest adsorbance rate among the other molecules. Our findings provide important insights into the physisorption mechanisms of molecules on alumina and their impact on electronic properties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Non-additive (or non-extensive) entropies have long been intensively studied and used in various fields of scientific research. This was due to the desire to describe the commonly observed quasi-power rather than the exponential nature of various distributions of the variables of interest when considered in the full available space of their variability. In this work we will concentrate on the example of high energy multiparticle production processes and will limit ourselves to only one form of non-extensive entropy, namely the Tsallis entropy. We will discuss some points not yet fully clarified and present some non-obvious consequences of non-extensiveness of entropy when applied to production processes.
TRIstructural ISOtropic (TRISO)-particle fuel is nuclear fuel used in high-temperature reactors. During reactor operation, partial damage may occur to the covering layers of this fuel. The authors of the publication propose an ion implantation method as a surrogate for neutron irradiation in the reactor core. This method makes it possible to reflect the damage that can be caused by irradiating samples in the reactor much faster and without having to deal with radioactive material. This paper presents an experiment on the p-TRISO samples, with a focus on the level of damage to the covering layers that could occur after 1, 3 and 5 years of neutron irradiation. The paper presents research conducted on both polished and unpolished p-TRISO fuel samples implanted with ions (Ne+, He+) of appropriate fluence and energy. It is necessary to determine whether the passage of time affects the occurrence of structural changes in p-TRISO fuel layers and, at the same time, whether it contributes to an increase in the probability of damage in the examined fuel material. The result of this work is confirmation that ion implantation is an efficient tool for reflecting irradiation-induced damage in the p-TRISO samples. In addition, the assumption that the sample does not need to be polished to obtain information about damage in the p-TRISO covering layers was confirmed.
The presented paper concerns the technological aspects of the interface evolution in the nickel-silicon carbide composite during the sintering process. The goal of our investigation was to analyse the material changes occurring due to the violent reaction between nickel and silicon carbide at elevated temperatures. The nickel matrix composite with 20 vol pct SiC particles as the reinforcing phase was fabricated by the spark plasma sintering technique. The sintering tests were conducted with variable process conditions (temperature, time, and pressure). It was revealed that the strong interaction between the individual components and the scale of the observed changes depends on the sintering parameters. To identify the microstructural evolution, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy were used. The silicon carbide decomposition process progresses with the extension of the sintering time. As the final product of the observed reaction, new phases from the Ni-Si system and free carbon were detected. The step-by-step materials evolution allowed us to reveal the course of the reaction and the creation of the new structure, especially in the reaction zone. The detailed analysis of the SiC decomposition and formation of new components was the main achievement of the presented paper.
High-entropy alloys are extensively studied due to very promising properties. However manufacturing methods used to prepare HEAs nowadays are complicated, costly, and likely non-industrially scalable processes. This limits their evolution and poses questions regarding the material's applicability in the future. Considering the abovementioned point, we developed a novel methodology for efficient HEA production using a low ball-to-powder ratio (BPR). Using different milling times, we manufactured four HEA powder precursors using a BPR of 5:1, that were later sintered via the Spark Plasma Sintering technique. Microstructural characterization was done by optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with EDS and EBSD detectors, and X-ray diffraction. Mechanical properties were measured using nano and microhardness techniques. In this work, we follow the structural evolution of the material and connect it with the strengthening effect as a function of milling time. Further, we discuss the impact of different sintering and annealing conditions, proving that HEA characterized by high mechanical properties may be manufactured using low BPR.
We search for an axion-like particle (ALP) a through the process ψ(3686)→π+π−J/ψ, J/ψ→γa, a→γγ in a data sample of (2.71±0.01)×109 ψ(3686) events collected by the BESIII detector. No significant ALP signal is observed over the expected background, and the upper limits on the branching fraction of the decay J/ψ→γa and the ALP-photon coupling constant gaγγ are set at 95% confidence level in the mass range of 0.165≤ma≤2.84GeV/c2. The limits on B(J/ψ→γa) range from 8.3×10−8 to 1.8×10−6 over the search region, and the constraints on the ALP-photon coupling are the most stringent to date for 0.165≤ma≤1.468GeV/c2.
An overview of the recent operations and the main results of cesium injection in the Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from Rf plasma (SPIDER) negative ion source are described in this contribution. In experiments without cesium injection, all SPIDER plants were tested to verify the basic expectations on the operational parameters (e.g., electron cooling effectiveness of magnetic filter field) and to determine its operational region. For beam properties, it was shown that the current density varies across the beam in the vertical direction. In preliminary cesium experiments, the expected increase of negative ion current and simultaneous decrease of co-extracted electrons were found, along with the influence of the control parameters (polarization of the plasma electrodes, magnetic filter field) on the SPIDER beam uniformity in the horizontal and vertical directions. It was shown that non-Gaussian tails can be identified in the angular distribution on the plane perpendicular to the beam propagation direction. Stray particles, nonhomogeneous beam and large divergence might result in unexpected heat and particle loads over ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) accelerator grids; it is the goal of SPIDER to assess and possibly to identify suitable methods for controlling these beam features. A major shutdown, planned for late 2021, to solve the issues identified during the operation and to carry out scheduled modifications, is outlined. Such improvements are expected to allow SPIDER to pursue the ITER requirements in terms of negative ion current, electron-to-ion ratio, and beam duration.
Renewable energy sources, such as wind turbines, have become much more prevalent in recent years, and thus a popular form of energy generation. This is in part due to the ‘Fit for 55’ EU initiative, and in part, to rising fossil fuel prices, as well as the perceived requirement for nations to have power independence, and due to the influence of renewable energy sources we can see a marked increase in large wind farms in particular. However, wind farms by their very nature are highly inconsistent regarding power generation and are weather-dependent, thus presenting several challenges for transmission system operators. One of the options to overcome these issues is a system being able to forecast the generated power in a wide-ranging period—ranging from 15 min up to 36 h, and with an adequate resolution. Such a system would better help manage the power grid and allow for greater utilization of the green energy produced. In this document, we present a process of development for such a system, along with a comparison of the various steps of the process, including data preparation, feature importance analysis, and the impact of various data sources on the forecast horizon. Lastly, we also compare multiple machine learning models and their influence on the system quality and execution time. Additionally, we propose an ensemble that concatenates predictions over the forecast horizon. The conducted experiments have been evaluated on seven wind farms located in Central Europe. Out of the experiments conducted, the most efficient solution with the lowest error rate and required computational resources has been obtained for random forest regression, and two independent models; one for the short-term horizon, and the other, for the mid- to long-term horizon, which was combined into one forecasting system.
Mini-EUSO is a high-sensitivity imaging telescope that observes the Earth from the ISS in the near ultraviolet band (290÷430 nm), through the nadir-facing, UV-transparent window in the Russian Zvezda module. The instrument, launched in 2019, has a field of view of 44∘, a spatial resolution on the Earth’s surface of 6.3 km and a temporal sampling rate of 2.5 microseconds. Thanks to its triggering and on-board processing, the telescope is capable of detecting UV emissions of cosmic, atmospheric, and terrestrial origin on different time scales, from a few microseconds up to tens of milliseconds. The optics is composed of two Fresnel lenses focusing light onto an array of 36 Hamamatsu Multi-Anode PhotoMultiplier Tubes, for a total of 2304 pixels. The telescope also contains two cameras in the near-infrared and visible, an 8-by-8 array of Silicon-PhotoMultipliers and a series of UV sensors to manage night-day transitions. The scientific objectives range from the observation of atmospheric phenomena [lightning, Transient Luminous Events (TLEs), ELVES], the study of meteoroids, the search of interstellar meteoroids and strange quark matter, mapping of the Earth’s nocturnal emissions in the ultraviolet range, and the search of cosmic rays with energy above 1021 eV. The instrument has been integrated and qualified in 2019, with the final tests in Baikonur prior to its launch. Operations involve periodic installation in the Zvezda module of the station with observations during the crew night time, with periodic downlink of data samples, with the full data being sent to the ground via pouches containing the data disks. Mission planning involves the selection of the optimal orbits to maximize the scientific return of the instrument. In this work, we will describe the various phases of construction, testing, and qualification prior to the launch and the in-flight operations of the instrument on board the ISS.
This work describes Raman imaging and its data evaluation methods by using the software's original features: built-in fitting function and K-means cluster analysis (KMC) followed by fitting in an external environment. For the first time, these methods were compared in terms of their principles, limitations, versatility, and process duration. The performed analysis showed the indispensability of Raman imaging in terms of phase distribution, phase content calculation, and stress determination. Zirconium oxide formed on different zirconium alloys under various oxidation conditions was selected as an exemplary material for this analysis. The reason for the material choice is that it is an excellent example of the application of this type of Raman analysis since both phase distribution and stress analysis in zirconium oxide are of crucial importance for the development of zirconium alloys, especially for nuclear applications. The juxtaposition of the results showed advantages and limitations of both procedures allowing a definition of the criteria for selecting the evaluation method for different applications.
Quantum deformed potentials arise naturally in quantum mechanical systems of one bosonic coordinate coupled to Nf Grassmann valued fermionic coordinates, or to a topological Wess-Zumino term. These systems decompose into sectors with a classical potential plus a quantum deformation. Using exact Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin, we derive exact quantization condition and its median resummation. The solution of median resummed form gives physical Borel-Ecalle resummed results, as we show explicitly in quantum deformed double- and triple-well potentials. Despite the fact that instantons have finite actions, for generic quantum deformation, they do not contribute to the energy spectrum at leading order in semiclassics. For certain quantized quantum deformations, where the alignment of levels to all order in perturbation theory occurs, instantons contribute to the spectrum. If deformation parameter is not properly quantized, their effect disappears, but higher-order effects in semiclassics survive. In this sense, we classify saddle contributions as fading and robust. Finally, for quantum deformed triple-well potential, we demonstrate the perturbative/nonperturbative relation, by computing period integrals and Mellin transform.
Using a sample of 4.3×105 η′→ηπ0π0 events selected from the ten billion J/ψ event dataset collected with the BESIII detector, we study the decay η′→ηπ0π0 within the framework of nonrelativistic effective field theory. Evidence for a structure at π+π− mass threshold is observed in the invariant mass spectrum of π0π0 with a statistical significance of around 3.5σ, which is consistent with the cusp effect as predicted by the nonrelativistic effective field theory. After introducing the amplitude for describing the cusp effect, the ππ scattering length combination a0−a2 is determined to be 0.226±0.060stat±0.013syst, which is in good agreement with theoretical calculation of 0.2644±0.0051.
A bstract We perform a comprehensive analysis of a version of the 3-Higgs doublet model whose scalar potential is invariant under a global ∆(27) discrete symmetry and where the three scalar doublets are chosen to transform as a triplet under this discrete group. For each of the known tree-level minima we study the mass spectra and use the oblique parameters STU as well as perturbative unitarity to constrain the parameter space of the model. We then discuss phenomenological consequences of some leading order flavour mixing quark Yukawa couplings by considering the flavour violation process b → sγ . We show that perturbative unitarity significantly constrains parameters of the model while, conversely, the beyond the Standard Model contributions to the b → sγ decay are automatically tamed by the symmetry.
High entropy alloys (HEAs) represent highly promising multicomponent crystals that form concentrated solid solutions (CSSs) and may violate traditional thermodynamic rules of mixing, ultimately leading to excellent physical properties. For a deeper understanding, we investigate seven CSSs, including Co-Cr-Ni-Fe-Mn elements, at experimentally relevant compositions and conditions, through molecular simulations, and we use 1-1 comparisons to corresponding glass state characteristics, attained through rapid cooling protocols. We determine the behavior of various structural features, including the configurational entropy for a set of CSSs in their crystalline and vitreous states numerically. We employ swap Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, in combination with the reversible scaling method, to efficiently compute the configurational entropy (Sconf), and show that the entropic rule of mixing is not always adequate for predicting alloy formation. We study the stability and formability of crystalline solid solutions, as well as glasses, while following the thermodynamics of Sconf. An apparent entropic similarity between CSSs and corresponding glasses leads us to use a Kauzmann-like ansatz, relating the CSSs at Sconf→0 with the emergence of a CSS order-disorder transition, at temperature TOD. In the context of glasses, a comparison between kinetic and thermodynamic fragilities allows the association of sluggish diffusion onset to a drop in Sconf at TK. Analogously, we classify CSSs as “strong” or “fragile” in the sense of their ability to migrate across CSS crystal configurations at high temperatures, distinguishing its formability. We argue that the magnitude of TOD may be an excellent predictor of CSS single-phase stability, which appears to scale with well-known HEA predictors, in particular we notice that VEC and TOD have in relation to the others a significantly large Pearson correlation coefficient, much larger than most other observables (except ΔHmix).
Rare earth-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:RE) systems are attractive for future optoelectronic devices such as phosphors, displays, and LEDs with emission in the visible spectral range, working even in a radiation-intense environment. The technology of these systems is currently under development, opening up new fields of application due to the low-cost production. Ion implantation is a very promising technique to incorporate rare-earth dopants into ZnO. However, the ballistic nature of this process makes the use of annealing essential. The selection of implantation parameters, as well as post-implantation annealing, turns out to be non-trivial because they determine the luminous efficiency of the ZnO:RE system. This paper presents a comprehensive study of the optimal implantation and annealing conditions, ensuring the most efficient luminescence of RE3+ ions in the ZnO matrix. Deep and shallow implantations, implantations performed at high and room temperature with various fluencies, as well as a range of post-RT implantation annealing processes are tested: rapid thermal annealing (minute duration) under different temperatures, times, and atmospheres (O2, N2, and Ar), flash lamp annealing (millisecond duration) and pulse plasma annealing (microsecond duration). It is shown that the highest luminescence efficiency of RE3+ is obtained for the shallow implantation at RT with the optimal fluence of 1.0 × 1015 RE ions/cm2 followed by a 10 min annealing in oxygen at 800 °C, and the light emission from such a ZnO:RE system is so bright that can be observed with the naked eye.
A coronal mass ejection (CME) is an impulsive event that emerges rapidly from the Sun. We observed a quiet Sun without many spectacular episodes during the last decade. Although some fast halo and partial halo CMEs had taken place, among them was the backside CME on 23 July 2012. In this work, we verify the link between the variability of solar-wind, heliospheric and geomagnetic parameters and the transmission grid failures registered in southern Poland during 2010 – 2014 when many geomagnetic storms appeared, caused by halo and partial halo CMEs. We aim to apply three machine learning methods: Principal Components Analysis, Self-Organizing Maps, and Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering to analyze sources on the Sun and the impacts of the intense geomagnetic storms in the first half of Solar Cycle 24. The conducted analyzes underline the importance of solar-wind proton temperature and point out other solar-wind and geomagnetic parameters independently indicated by all the methods used in this study.
Hawking temperature has been widely utilized in the literature as the temperature that corresponds to various nonextensive entropies. In this study, we analyze the compatibility of the Hawking temperature with the nonextensive entropies. We demonstrate that, for every nonextensive entropy, one may define an effective temperature (which we call equilibrium temperature) by utilizing the equilibrium condition, and that there is always an additive equilibrium entropy associated with this effective temperature. Except for Bekenstein entropy, we show that Hawking temperature is thermodynamically inconsistent with other nonextensive entropies. We focus on the equilibrium requirement for the Tsallis–Cirto black hole entropy and demonstrate that the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy is the related equilibrium entropy, and the Hawking temperature is the associated equilibrium temperature for the Tsallis–Cirto black hole entropy.
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307 members
Andrzej Hryczuk
  • Department of Fundamental Research
Marek Rabinski
  • Plasma Research Division
Katarzyna Małek
  • Department of Fundamental Research
Henryk Mach
  • Department of Fundamental Research
Andrzeja Sołtana 7, 05-400, Otwock, Poland
Head of institution
prof. Krzysztof Kurek
+48 22 273 10 01
+48 22 77 93 481