Nankai University
  • Tianjin, Tianjin 天津, China
Recent publications
Deterioration of surface ozone (O3) pollution in Northern China over the past few years received much attention. For many cities, it is still under debate whether the trend of surface O3 variation is driven by meteorology or the change in precursors emissions. In this work, a time series decomposition method (Seasonal-Trend decomposition procedure based on Loess (STL)) and random forest (RF) algorithm were utilized to quantify the meteorological impacts on the recorded O3 trend and identify the key meteorological factors affecting O3 pollution in Tianjin, the biggest coastal port city in Northern China. After “removing” the meteorological fluctuations from the observed O3 time series, we found that variation of O3 in Tianjin was largely driven by the changes in precursors emissions. The meteorology was unfavorable for O3 pollution in period of 2015-2016, and turned out to be favorable during 2017-2021. Specifically, meteorology contributed 9.3 µg/m³ O3 (13%) in 2019, together with the increase in precursors emissions, making 2019 to be the worst year of O3 pollution since 2015. Since then, the favorable effects of meteorology on O3 pollution tended to be weaker. Temperature was the most important factor affecting O3 level, followed by air humidity in O3 pollution season. In the midday of summer days, O3 pollution frequently exceeded the standard level (>160 µg/m³) at a combined condition with relative humidity in 40%-50% and temperature > 31°C. Both the temperature and the dryness of the atmosphere need to be subtly considered for summer O3 forecasting.
The incorporation of vasculature is known to be effective in tissue or organ functional regeneration. However, a vague understanding of the interaction between epidermal appendages and their vascular niches is a foremost obstacle to obtaining sweat gland (SG)-specific vasculature units. Here, we map their precise anatomical connections and report that the interplay between SG cells (SGCs) and the surrounding vascular niche is key for glandular development and homeostasis maintenance. To replicate this interplay in vitro, we used three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting to generate reproducible SGC spheroids from differentiated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). With dermal microvascular endothelial cells (DMECs), sacrificial templates made from poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were fabricated to pattern the vascular niche. This interplay model promoted physiologically relevant vascularized glandular morphogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We identified a reciprocal regulatory mechanism for promoting SGs regeneration via contact-independent cell communication and direct cell-cell interactions between SGs and the vasculature. We envision the successful use of our approach for vascularized organ regeneration in the near future.
The inertness of synthetic polymer materials and the insufficient mechanical strength of reprocessed decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) limited their promotive efforts on tissue regeneration. Here, we prepared a hybrid scaffold composed of PCL microfibers and human placental extracellular matrix (pECM) nanofibers by co-electrospinning, which was grafted with heparin and further absorbed with IL-4. The hybrid scaffold with improved hemocompatibility firstly switched macrophages to anti-inflammatory phenotype (increased by 18.1%) and then promoted migration, NO production, tube formation of endothelial cells (ECs), and migration and maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and ECM deposition in vitro and in vivo. ECs coverage rate increased by 8.6% and the thickness of the smooth muscle layer was 1.8 times more than PCL grafts at 12 wks. Our study realized the complementary advantages of synthetic polymer materials and dECM materials, and opened intriguing perspectives for the design and construction of small-diameter vascular grafts (SDVGs) and immune-regulated materials for other tissue regeneration.
Temperature inversion (TI) is one of the meteorological conditions that significantly affect regional air quality. Knowledge gap regarding the impacts of TI on surface PM2.5 in different topographies still existed. In the present study, the occurrence frequency, temperature lapse rate (TLR), depth, and the diurnal variations of TI, surface-based TI (SBTI), elevated TI (ElTI), and multiple layers of TIs (MultiTI) and their impacts on near-surface PM2.5 concentrations over eastern China that covers a range of topographies and climates, are systematically investigated based on global reanalysis ERA5 and the nationwide monitoring PM2.5 dataset from 2014 to 2020. TIs occurred mostly in the early morning. Different types of TIs present distinctive seasonal and spatial patterns. The majority of SBTIs and ElTIs occurred during nighttime in northern China and daytime in southern China, respectively, as the result of their formation mechanisms. SBTIs usually had larger TLR while ElTIs had deeper depth. SBTIs showed strong enhancement effects on PM2.5 concentration over the study domain while ElTIs showed more obvious impacts on northern nocturnal PM2.5. The peak time of PM2.5 was found around 18:00-22:00 LST, and TLR and depth of TIs are thought to be more relevant to PM2.5 peak concentration due to their coincident peak times. The strength of TIs is therefore more crucial in regulating PM2.5 than its occurrence frequency. Based on statistical analysis, our study provided a large picture of the generic spatiotemporal patterns of TIs and illustrated the impacts of different TIs on surface PM2.5 pollution on a diurnal basis. For a deeper understanding of the formation of PM2.5 pollution, more attention needs to be paid to the nocturnal PM2.5 not only at surface level but also at higher levels in the presence of TIs.
Autologous mosaicplasty is a common approach used to treat osteochondral defects in clinical practice. Gap integration between host and transplanted plugs requires bone tissue reservation and hyaline cartilage regeneration without uneven surface, graft necrosis and sclerosis. However, poor gap integration is a serious concern, which eventually leads to deterioration of joint function. To deal with such complications, this study has developed a strategy to effectively enhance integration of the gap region following mosaicplasty by applying injectable bioactive supramolecular nanofiber-enabled gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel (BSN-GelMA). A rabbit osteochondral defect model demonstrated that BSN-GelMA achieved seamless osteochondral healing in the gap region between plugs of osteochondral defects following mosaicplasty, as early as six weeks. Moreover, the International Cartilage Repair Society score, histology score, glycosaminoglycan content, subchondral bone volume, and collagen II expression were observed to be the highest in the gap region of BSN-GelMA treated group. This improved outcome was due to bio-interactive materials, which acted as tissue fillers to bridge the gap, prevent cartilage degeneration, and promote graft survival and migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by releasing bioactive supramolecular nanofibers from the GelMA hydrogel. This study provides a powerful and applicable approach to improve gap integration after autologous mosaicplasty. It is also a promising off-the-shelf bioactive material for cell-free in situ tissue regeneration.
Butanol production from rice straw via Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation has been considered a sustainable and cost-effective approach to cope with energy crisis and environmental issues. However, a number of factors, particularly low butanol production and energy-intensive separation, impede its industrial application. In this study, Cu²⁺, Zn²⁺, Fe²⁺, and Ni²⁺ were individually induced into the ABE fermentation system of Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 with butyric acid and sugars both from rice straw as co-substrates to increase the specific butanol yield. The results demonstrated that the additional 0.20 g/L Cu²⁺ (i.e. 1.25 mmol/L) significantly increased SBY and butanol/acetone to 0.194 ± 0.006 g/g rice straw and 3.90 ± 0.21, respectively, compared to those of 0.126 ± 0.004 g/g rice straw and 2.61 ± 0.17 in control system. The improved butanol production was attributed to the formation of Cu²⁺-cysteine/Cu⁺-cysteine complex, which enhanced the adsorption of butyrate from rice straw by upgrading the activity of key enzyme (ctfAB) and NADH/NAD⁺. The study provides a reinforcement strategy for efficient lignocellulosic butanol production.
The green synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) with sustainable biomass resources as carbon precursors has attracted widespread interest in various applications. In this work, Zr-doped ordered mesoporous carbon ([email protected]) with an environmentally friendly process was synthesized with arbutin (a kind of polyphenol extracted from plants) as the carbon precursor, F127 as the soft template, and Zr⁴⁺ as the cross-linker through the solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly method. The obtained [email protected] exhibited highly ordered mesoporous structures with a BET surface area of 375–427 m²/g and an average pore size of 3.9–4.6 nm, which exhibited excellent catalytic performance for the conversion of furfural (FF) to furfuryl alcohol (FA) through Meerwein-Ponnodorf-Verley (MPV) reaction with isopropanol as hydrogen donor, and a maximum FA yield of 93.2 % with FF conversion of 100 % could be achieved at 180 °C. Meanwhile, [email protected] could be easily regenerated by heating at 400 °C for 2 h under nitrogen flux to recover its high catalytic activity in FF conversion.
This paper explores the changing trend of adult height in China for cohorts born in 1950–90. We use information on household structure and local economic conditions during the individual’s childhood to explain the trend. We find that during the 40-year period, the growth rate of adult height increased, with the most substantial increase occurring in the 1980s. One important contributing factor to the growth of adult height is the continued increase in government per capita spending on health and education. The impressive growth in the 1980s was mainly due to the introduction of market-oriented economic reforms, rather than the advent of the One-Child Policy. We find that the positive effect of economic reforms was larger for urban dwellers than for their rural counterparts and within the rural areas the benefit was far greater for men than for women.
The promising application of femtosecond laser filamentation in atmospheric remote sensing brings imperative demand for diagnosing and controlling the spatiotemporal dynamics of long-distance filamentation. Here, the acoustic method was adopted to quantitatively diagnose the long-distance filamentation of femtosecond pulses manipulated by energy and temporal domain. The onset and length of filament can be conveniently obtained from a simple analytic formula based on reasonable approximation and further demonstrated by the experimental results. The influence of pulse energy and initial pulse chirp under three different focal lengths (∼10 m, 20 m, and 30 m) on the filamentation in the air were studied experimentally. These findings provide a guiding significance for the optimal control of the long-distance propagation of filament, thereby laying a firm foundation for femtosecond laser-based atmospheric remote sensing.
In this paper, GM(1,Nr) model is established to improve the traditional GM(1,N) model from three aspects: (1) transforming the original sequence to satisfy the modeling conditions with particle swarm optimization algorithm; (2) introducing grey incidence analysis to obtain the grey incidence ranking and carrying out stepwise test for significant variables to determine the number of variables; and (3) predicting the related factor sequence through the improved GM(1,1) model. Empirical analysis shows that the proposed GM(1,Nr) model has remarkable good prediction performance compared with the traditional grey forecasting model. It is also demonstrated that the extraction of influencing factors can significantly improve the prediction effectiveness, especially when pursuing the best fitting effect on small sample data. The findings indicate that the electricity consumptions of Jiangsu Province in the next several years will be at a high level and keep rising, with a predicted value of 9712.48 billion kilowatt-hours in 2030. The findings can help the government and energy related institutions to develop management policies on energy demand, and the proposed model can also be extended for the application in other regions.
Laser-induced damage of germanium (Ge) sheets plays a key role to estimate the lifetime of optical components in the vacuum and space irradiation environment. However, the dependence between the degrees of laser-induced surface damage and nanosecond pulsed irradiation remains unclear for Ge sheet. Here, we investigate damage morphology and the growth characteristic of Ge sheets under different conditions and measure the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) in vacuum. Our results reveal that optical reflectivity of Ge in vacuum chamber falls 92% because of the defective sites on the damaged surface. The area, the depth and the size of the damage crater increase but the hillock height and the surrounding thermal diffuse area decrease along with the increase of vacuum degree. The thermal effect, the failure effect of plasma shock wave and the mechanical stress are analyzed to be the main mechanism in the laser damage. The combined experimental and theoretical work gives an insight into the change of surface damage and material failure behavior, hence broadens the potential applications of Ge sheets in areas of laser material manufacturing and laser processing.
Destination image has long been an important topic in tourism marketing research. However, tourist image has been largely ignored. The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure tourist image in contexts of high cultural distance, taking Chinese tourists and UK residents as an example. Following initial item production, scale refinement, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and a criterion variable test, a 12-item scale in 4 dimensions (Respect, Friendliness, Appearance, Negative impression) was validated. This study innovatively extends the measurement of tourist image from contexts of low cultural distance to high cultural distance and shows the gradual nature of tourists' image perception from limited, increasing and highest level. The findings provide insights relevant to the civic education and the public diplomacy strategies of tourist source countries and sustainable development of destination tourism supported by both tourists and local residents.
Recent studies have revealed that chemokine-like factor-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing family member 6 (CMTM6) promotes tumor progression and modulates tumor immunity by regulating programmed death-ligand 1 stability; however, its intrinsic functions and regulatory mechanisms in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remain poorly understood. Here, we show that CMTM6 is upregulated in ccRCC tissues and is strongly associated with advanced tumor grades, early metastases, and a worse prognosis. CMTM6 depletion significantly impaired the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ccRCC cells in vitro and in xenograft mouse models in vivo. In addition, targeting CMTM6 promotes anti-tumor immunity, represented by increased infiltration of CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells in syngeneic graft mouse models. Further research revealed that loss of CMTM6 triggered aberrant activation of DNA damage response, resulting in micronucleus formation and G2/M checkpoint arrest, finally leading to cellular senescence with robust upregulation of numerous chemokines and cytokines. Our findings show for the first time the novel role of CMTM6 in maintaining cancer genome stability and facilitating tumor-mediated immunosuppression, linking DNA damage signaling to the secretion of inflammatory factors. Targeting CMTM6 may improve the treatment of patients with advanced ccRCC.
To discover new agrochemicals with prominent pesticidal properties, a series of novel β-naphthol derivatives containing benzothiazolylamino and various heteroaryl groups (8a-q) were efficiently synthesised via Betti reaction. The bioassay results showed that most of the synthesised compounds exhibited favourable insecticidal potentials, particularly towards oriental armyworm (50–100% at 200 mg·L⁻¹) and diamondback moth (50–95% at 10 mg·L⁻¹). Compounds 8 b, 8f, 8 g, 8j, 8k, 8n, and 8o possessed LC50 values of 0.0988–5.8864 mg·L⁻¹ against diamondback moth. Compounds 8i, 8 l, and 8 m also displayed lethality rates of 30–90% against spider mite at the concentration of 100 mg·L⁻¹. Overall, some compounds could be considered as new insecticidal/acaricidal leading structures for further investigation. The calcium imaging experiments revealed that 8 h, 8i, and viii could activate the release of calcium ions in insect (M. separata) central neurons at a higher concentration (50 mg·L⁻¹). The SAR analysis provided valuable information for further structural modifications. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Macrophages of the M2 phenotype in malignant tumors significantly aid tumor progression and metastasis, as opposed to the M1 phenotype that exhibits anti-cancer characteristics. Raising the ratio of M1/M2 is thus a promising strategy to ameliorate the tumor immunomicroenvironment toward cancer inhibition. We report here that tumor necrosis factor superfamily-15 (TNFSF15), a cytokine with anti-angiogenic activities, is able to facilitate the differentiation and polarization of macrophages toward M1 phenotype. We found that tumors formed in mice by Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells artificially overexpressing TNFSF15 exhibited retarded growth. The tumors displayed a greater percentage of M1 macrophages than those formed by mock-transfected LLC cells. Treatment of mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells with recombinant TNFSF15 led to augmentation of the phagocytic and pro-apoptotic capacity of the macrophages against cancer cells. Mechanistically, TNFSF15 activated STAT1/3 in bone marrow cells and MAPK, Akt and STAT1/3 in naive macrophages. Additionally, TNFSF15 activated STAT1/3 but inactivated STAT6 in M2 macrophages. Modulations of these signals gave rise to a reposition of macrophage phenotypes toward M1. The ability of TNFSF15 to promote macrophage differentiation and polarization toward M1 suggests that this unique cytokine may have a utility in the reconstruction of the immunomicroenvironment in favor of tumor suppression.
Objective: To develop and validate an ultrasonic radiomics model for predicting the recurrence and differentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Convolutional neural network (CNN) ResNet 18 and Pyradiomics were used to analyze gray-scale-ultrasonic images to predict the prognosis and degree of differentiation of HCC. Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 513 patients with HCC who underwent preoperative grayscale-ultrasonic imaging, and their clinical characteristics were observed. Patients were randomly divided into training (n = 413) and validation (n = 100) cohorts. CNN ResNet 18 and Pyradiomics were used to analyze ultrasonic images of HCC and peritumoral images to develop a prognostic and differentiation model. Clinical characteristics were integrated into the radiomics model and patients were stratified into high- and low-risk groups. The predictive effect was evaluated using the C-index and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: The model combined with ResNet 18 and clinical characteristics achieved a good predictive ability. The C-indices of early recurrence (ER), late recurrence (LR), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were 0.695 (0.561-0.789), 0.715 (0.623-0.800) and 0.721 (0.647-0.795), respectively, in the validation cohort, which was superior to the clinical model and ultrasonic semantic model. The model could stratify patients into high- and low-risk groups, which showed significant differences (p < 0.001) in ER, LR, and RFS. The area under the curve for predicting the degree of HCC differentiation was 0.855 and 0.709 in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. Conclusion: We developed and validated a radiomics model to predict HCC recurrence and HCC differentiation, which could also acquire pathological information in a noninvasive manner.KEY RESULTSA hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognostic prediction model was developed and validated by convolutional neural network (CNN) ResNet 18-based gray-scale ultrasound (US).A differentiation of HCC prediction model was developed for preoperative prediction avoiding invasive operation.Compared with Pyradiomics, CNN ResNet was more suitable for extracting information from US images.
ABSTARCT Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, such as hemorrhagic colitis and lethal hemolytic uremic syndrome. Flagellum-dependent motility plays diverse roles in the pathogenesis of EHEC O157:H7, including its migration to an optimal host site, adherence and colonization, survival at the infection site, and post-infection dispersal. However, it is very expensive for cellular economy in terms of the number of genes and the energy required for flagellar biosynthesis and functioning. Furthermore, the flagellar filament bears strong antigenic properties that induce a strong host immune response. Consequently, the flagellar gene expression and biosynthesis are highly regulated to occur at the appropriate time and place by different regulatory influences. The present review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms of EHEC O157:H7 motility and flagellar biosynthesis, especially in terms of flagellar gene regulation by environmental factors, regulatory proteins, and small regulatory RNAs.
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9,306 members
Chuan-Gan Hu
  • Department of Mathematical
Yongjun Zhang
  • Institute of Polymer Chemistry
Moyuan Cao
  • School of Materials Science and Engineering
Xianglei Kong
  • State Key Lab of Elemento-Organic Chemistry
94 Weijin Road 卫津路94号, 300071, Tianjin, Tianjin 天津, China
Head of institution
Xuetao Cao M.D., Ph.D