Pharmaceutical and personnel care products (PPCPs) from wastewater are a potential hazard to the human health and wildlife, and their occurrence in wastewater has caught the concern of researchers recently. To deal with PPCPs, various treatment technologies have been evolved such as physical, biological, and chemical methods. Nevertheless, modern and efficient techniques such as advance oxidation processes (AOPs) demand expensive chemicals and energy, which ultimately leads to a high treatment cost. Therefore, integration of chemical techniques with biological processes has been recently suggested to decrease the expenses. Furthermore, combining ozonation with activated carbon (AC) can significantly enhance the removal efficiency. There are some other emerging technologies of lower operational cost like photo-Fenton method and solar radiation-based methods as well as constructed wetland, which are promising. However, feasibility and practicality in pilot-scale have not been estimated for most of these advanced treatment technologies. In this context, the present review work explores the treatment of emerging PPCPs in wastewater, via available conventional, non-conventional, and integrated technologies. Furthermore, this work focused on the state-of-art technologies via an extensive literature search, highlights the limitations and challenges of the prevailing commercial technologies. Finally, this work provides a brief discussion and offers future research directions on technologies needed for treatment of wastewater containing PPCPs, accompanied by techno-economic feasibility assessment.
Body coveralls, often made of single-use plastics, are essential Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and, along with masks, are widely used in healthcare facilities and public spaces in the wake of the recent Covid-19 pandemic. The widespread use of these body coveralls poses a significant threat to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, given their polluting nature and disposal frequency. Therefore, it is necessary to promote the adoption of alternatives that increase the safe reusability of PPE clothing and reduce environmental and health hazards. This study presents a comparative Cradle-to-Grave Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of disposable and reusable PPE body coveralls from a product life cycle perspective. A comprehensive life cycle inventory and LCA framework specific to Indian conditions have been developed through this study. The LCA is performed as per standard protocols using SimaPro software unDer recipe 2016 (H) impact assessment method. Six midpoint impact categories viz. Global warming potential, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, terrestrial ecotoxicity, human carcinogenic toxicity, and water consumption are assessed, along with Cumulative Energy Demand. Results suggest that reusable PPE improves environmental and human health performance in all the impact categories except water consumption. Sensitivity analysis reveals that replacing conventional electricity with solar energy for PPE manufacturing and disposal will provide additional environmental benefits. The findings can help the medical textile industries, healthcare workers, and policymakers to make environmentally informed choices.
Microplastic pollution in various ecosystems has gained significant attention across the globe. Due to ubiquitous abundance, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at regional scales are polluted via uncontrolled anthropogenic actions. Therefore, this study investigates microplastic pollution and distribution in sediments and surface water of the Moheshkhali river channel of Bangladesh, along with their shape, size, color, and polymeric analysis. It has been observed that both sediments and surface water are significantly contaminated with microplastics at 14 sediments and 12 surface water sampling sites. 291 particles of microplastic were observed in two quadrants, separated 10-m away from each other, across 14 sediment sampling sites, with average concentrations registered in the range of 6.66 to 138.33 particles/m². At the same time, 163 particles were observed across 12 sampling sites in the surface water, ranging from 0 to ~0.1 particles/m³. Various shapes, like films, fragments, lines, foams, and pellets (resins), were observed extensively in the Moheshkhali channel. Besides, various risk assessments, like contamination factors, polymeric risk assessment, pollution risk index, and pollution load index, were analyzed for each sampling site across the river channel. Pollution load index (PLI) of shore sediments and surface water were 2.51 and 1.67, respectively, indicating significant pollution in the Moheshkhali channel. This research investigation provides insight into anthropogenic activities and baseline microplastic pollution in the Moheshkhali channel of Bangladesh, which helps to prepare robust strategies for conservation and management to deal with such environmental issues.
The abundance of micro(nano)plastics in natural ecosystems is a crucial global challenge, as these small-sized plastic particles originate from land-based and marine-based activities and are widely present in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems. Micro(nano)plastics can significantly be reduced through various methods, such as biological, chemical, and physical techniques. Biochar is a low-cost adsorbent and is considered an efficient material and its application is ecologically effective carbon-negative for remediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. Therefore, this review critically discusses the fate and transport of micro(nano)plastics and their interactions with different biochar in aqueous and column porous media. This review outlines the implications of biochar with the co-existence of micro(nano)plastics in efforts to understand their coupled effects on soil physicochemical properties, microbial communities, and plant growth, along with the removal of heavy metals and other toxic contaminants. In batch experiments, biochar synthesized from various biomasses such as corn straw, hardwood, pine and spruce bark, corncob, and Prosopis juliflora had shown high level of removal efficiency (>90 %) for microplastic adsorption under varying environmental conditions viz., pH, temperature, ionic strength, particle size, and dose due to chemical bonding and electrostatic attractions. Increased temperature of the aqueous solutions encouraged higher adsorption, while higher pH and dissolved organic matter and nutrients may show decreased adsorption capacities for micro(nano)plastics using biochar. Compared to other available physical, chemical, and biological methods, biochar-amended sand filters in column experiments have been very efficient in removing micro(nano)plastics. In saturated column porous media, various microplastics could be inhibited using biochar due to decreased electrostatic repulsion, steric hindrance, and competitive sorption due to humic acid, ionic strength, and cations. Finally, this review provides in-depth insights on further investigations and recommendations for overall micro(nano)plastics removal using biochar-based materials.
Reclaimed water is highly required for environmental sustainability and to meet sustainable development goals (SDGs). Chemical processes are frequently associated with highly hazardous and toxic by-products, like nitrosamines, trihalomethanes, haloaldehydes, haloketones, and haloacetic acids. In this context, we aim to summarize the formation of various commonly produced disinfection by-products (DBPs) during wastewater treatment and their treatment approaches. Owing to DBPs formation, we discussed permissible limits, concentrations in various water systems reported globally, and their consequences on humans. While most reviews focus on DBPs detection methods, this review discusses factors affecting DBPs formation and critically reviews various remediation approaches, such as adsorption, reverse osmosis, nano/micro-filtration, UV treatment, ozonation, and advanced oxidation process. However, research in the detection of hazardous DBPs and their removal is quite at an early and initial stage, and therefore, numerous advancements are required prior to scale-up at the commercial level. DBPs abatement in wastewater treatment approach should be considered. This review provides the baseline for optimizing DBPs formation and advancements in the remediation process, efficiently reducing their production and providing safe, clean drinking water. Future studies should focus on a more efficient and rigorous understanding of DBPs properties and degradation of hazardous pollutants using low-cost techniques in wastewater treatment.
Over the last several decades, extensive and inefficient use of contemporary technologies has resulted in substantial environmental pollution, predominantly caused by potentially hazardous elements (PTEs), like heavy metals that severely harm living species. To combat the presence of heavy metals (HMs) in the agrarian system, biochar becomes an attractive approach for stabilizing and limiting availability of HMs in soils due to its high surface area, porosity, pH, aromatic structure as well as several functional groups, which mostly rely on the feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. Additionally, agricultural waste-derived biochar is an effective management option to ensure carbon neutrality and circular economy while also addressing social and environmental concerns. Given these diverse parameters, the present systematic evaluation seeks to (i) ascertain the effectiveness of heavy metal immobilization by agro waste-derived biochar; (ii) examine the presence of biochar on soil physico-chemical, and thermal properties, along with microbial diversity; (iii) explore the underlying mechanisms responsible for the reduction in heavy metal concentration; and (iv) possibility of biochar implications to advance circular economy approach. The collection of more than 200 papers catalogues the immobilization efficiency of biochar in agricultural soil and its impacts on soil from multi-angle perspectives. The data gathered suggests that pristine biochar effectively reduced cationic heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni) and Cr mobilization and uptake by plants, whereas modified biochar effectively reduced As in soil and plant systems. However, the exact mechanism underlying is a complex biochar-soil interaction. In addition to successfully immobilizing heavy metals in the soil, the application of biochar improved soil fertility and increased agricultural productivity. However, the lack of knowledge on unfavorable impacts on the agricultural systems, along with discrepancies between the use of biochar and experimental conditions, impeded a thorough understanding on a deeper level.
This paper explains the transmission of SARS-CoV and influences of several environmental factors in the transmission process. The article highlighted several methods of collection, sampling and monitoring/estimation as well as surveillance tool for detecting SARS-CoV in wastewater streams. In this context, WBE (Wastewater based epidemiology) is found to be the most effective surveillance tool. Several methods of genomic sequencing are discussed in the paper, which are applied in WBE, like qPCR-based wastewater testing, metagenomics-based analysis, next generation sequencing etc. Additionally, several types of biosensors (colorimetric biosensor, mobile phone-based biosensors, and nanomaterials-based biosensors) showed promising results in sensing SARS-CoV in wastewater. Further, this review paper outlined the gaps in assessing the factors responsible for transmission and challenges in detection and monitoring along with the remediation and disinfection methods of this virus in wastewater. Various methods of disinfection of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater are discussed (primary, secondary, and tertiary phases) and it is found that a suite of disinfection methods can be used for complete disinfection/removal of the virus. Application of ultraviolet light, ozone and chlorine-based disinfectants are also discussed in the context of treatment methods. This study calls for continuous efforts to gather more information about the virus through continuous monitoring and analyses and to address the existing gaps and identification of the most effective tool/ strategy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Wastewater surveillance can be very useful in effective surveillance of future pandemics and epidemics caused by viruses, especially after development of new technologies in detecting and disinfecting viral pathogens more effectively.
In developing countries like India, a well-functioning agricultural sector is crucial for economic growth and livable incomes. In an agricultural market system, prices can organize production efficiently by encouraging farmers to serve markets with excess demand and provide the levels of quality and varieties that consumers prefer. Though the state often plays a large role in market organization, the Government of India has been pressing for market reforms with State Governments to deal with market inefficiencies. One such major move has been to promote integrated markets across space and time in the country through the adoption of the National Agriculture Market Scheme (e-NAM). This paper examines the impact of the adoption of e-trading through e-NAM in regulated stand-alone wholesale APMC markets in Rajasthan on price realization by farmers in select commodities and its impact on market arrivals as a measure of market development. Difference-in-difference estimates indicate increase in farmers’ prices or quantities, consistent with increased demand and supply, while survey evidence suggests areas for further efficiency gains. The survey was conducted in select e-NAM APMC markets in Rajasthan during March–May 2021 and 2022.
Uranium (U) and fluoride (F−) are the major global geogenic contaminants in aquifers and pose serious health issues. Biochar, a potential adsorbent, has been widely applied to remediate geogenic and anthropogenic contaminants. However, there is a lack of research progress in understanding the role of different feedstock types, modifications, adsorption mechanisms on physico-chemical properties of biochar, and factors affecting the adsorption of U and F− from aqueous solution. To fill this lacuna, the present review gives insight into the U and F− removal from aqueous solution utilizing biochar from various feedstocks. Feedstock type, pyrolysis temperature, modifications, solution pH, surface area, and surface-charge-influenced biochar adsorption capacities have been discussed in detail. Major feedstock types that facilitated U and F− adsorption were crop residues/agricultural waste, softwood, grasses, and animal manure. Low-to-medium pyrolyzing temperature yielded better biochar properties for U and F− adsorption. Effective modification techniques were mainly acidic and magnetic for U adsorption, while metal oxides, hydroxides, alkali, and magnetic modification were favourable for F− adsorption. The major mechanisms of U adsorption were an electrostatic attraction and surface complexation, while for F− adsorption, the major mechanisms were ion exchange and electrostatic attraction. Lastly, the limitations and challenges of using biochar have also been discussed.
We investigated the impact of climate change on non-timber forest products in 62 villages of Khunti district, Jharkhand, India by employing structured questionnaires to collect primary data from 387 NTFP collectors. For contextualising the primary data results, focus group discussions and transect walks were conducted. Secondary data (temperature and rainfall from 1980 to 2018) supplemented the examination of climate change impacts over time. The findings revealed that an increase in maximum temperature has decreased lac (Kerria lacca) yield significantly by 31.60 tonnes/year. Changing climate has degraded the quality of NTFPs which has direct impacts on NTFP-based livelihoods, with the sale price of lac falling from 350 to 150 INR/kg, mahua from 22 to 20 INR/kg, and tamarind from 22 to 18 INR/kg in recent years. The majority of respondents believed that infrastructure development (98.7%), forest cover loss (94.83%) had caused shifts in climatic trends. 22% of the respondents believed that not taking into account their indigenous understanding of climate change in institutional processes was one of the challenges they face for adaptation and coping mechanisms. This study, provides strong evidence of climate change impacts on NTFPs and offers recommendations for timely actions that should be taken by the concerned stakeholders.
Rising global temperature, pollution load, and energy crises are serious problems, recently facing the world. Scientists around the world are ambitious to find eco-friendly and cost-effective routes for resolving these problems. Biochar has emerged as an agent for environmental remediation and has proven to be the effective sorbent to inorganic and organic pollutants in water and soil. Endowed with unique attributes such as porous structure, larger specific surface area (SSA), abundant surface functional groups, better cation exchange capacity (CEC), strong adsorption capacity, high environmental stability, embedded minerals, and micronutrients, biochar is presented as a promising material for environmental management, reduction in greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, soil management, and soil fertility enhancement. Therefore, the current review covers the influence of key factors (pyrolysis temperature, retention time, gas flow rate, and reactor design) on the production yield and property of biochar. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the diverse application of biochar such as waste management, construction material, adsorptive removal of petroleum and oil from aqueous media, immobilization of contaminants, carbon sequestration, and their role in climate change mitigation, soil conditioner, along with opportunities and challenges. Finally, this review discusses the evaluation of biochar standardization by different international agencies and their economic perspective.
Fluoride () is one of the essential elements found in soil and water released from geogenic sources and several anthropogenic activities. Fluoride causes fluorosis, dental and skeletal growth problems, teeth mottling, and neurological damage due to prolonged consumption, affecting millions worldwide. Adsorption is an extensively implemented technique in water and wastewater treatment for fluoride, with significant potential due to efficiency, cost-effectiveness, ease of operation, and reusability. This review highlights the current state of knowledge for fluoride adsorption using biochar-based materials and the limitations of biochar for fluoride-contaminated groundwater and industrial wastewater treatment. Biochar materials have shown significant adsorption capacities for fluoride under the influence of low pH, biochar dose, initial concentration, temperature, and co-existing ions. Modified biochar possesses various functional groups (–OH, –Cdouble bondC, –C–O, –CONH, –C–OH, X–OH), in which enhanced hydroxyl (–OH) groups onto the surface plays a significant role in fluoride adsorption via electrostatic attraction and ion exchange. Regeneration and reusability of biochar sorbents need to be performed to a greater extent to improve removal efficiency and reusability in field conditions. Furthermore, the present investigation identifies the limitations of biochar materials in treating fluoride-contaminated drinking groundwater and industrial effluents. Since fluoride removal using biochar-based materials at an industrial scale for understanding the practical feasibility is yet to be documented, thus the review work recommended the potential feasibility of biochar-based materials in column studies that can be worth research on fluoride remediation in the future.
We combine phytoliths, non-pollen palynomorphs, stable carbon isotopes of sediment organic matter, environmental magnetic parameters and sediment texture data of a lacustrine sedimentary archive from the Bengal region to understand the ecosystem response to past hydroclimatic changes. The region experienced a high Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall during c.10.2–5.6 ka corresponding to the Holocene Climatic Optimum (HCO) when the lake level was high. Our study reveals that ISM weakened at c.4.3 ka with a decline in lake level, became strong between c.3.7 and 2.1 ka and then shifted towards a drier mode. However, this weakened phase was punctuated by a stable phase between c.1–0.8 ka, and a comparatively stronger phase between c.0.2–0.1 ka corresponding to the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA), respectively. An eutrophication of the lake began at c.3.7 ka which was completely in-filled during c.0.2–0.1 ka. A comparison of the present results with published records suggests millennial-scale coherence in the Holocene ISM variability across the Bay of Bengal (BoB) moisture source regions while, the finer-scale incongruities are attributable to differential proxy response and dating uncertainty. Our proxy-based observations are also compared with a few palaeo-model outputs for selected time-spans [such as, 1550–1850 CE (0.4–0.1 ka), 900–1300 CE (1–0.6 ka), 2100–2000 BCE (4.1 − 4 ka), and 4050–3350 BCE (6–5.3 ka)] from the Palaeo Modeling Intercomparison Project Phase 3–4 (PMIP3/PMIP4) experiments which support the assumption that changes in lake ecosystem may be strongly influenced by ISM rainfall, and the region surrounding northern BoB received higher precipitation than the other parts of India since the past 10.2 ka. The millennial-scale variations in the ISM rainfall may largely be attributed to gradual decline in orbital insolation and dynamics of Inter tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). However, centennial scale variations may be collectively triggered by forcings like NAO, ENSO and IOD.
The Bay of Bengal region is strategically and economically important for a number of reasons, with its key location, abundant natural resources, but in addition to potentials also prone to vulnerabilities, including threats to marine spaces. These variables collectively affect the policies of littoral states surrounding the Bay. The interconnected destinies of the people in the Bay region, however, demand a comprehensive approach. The concept of a “blue economy” aims to recognise and address challenges to the health of the seas while also embracing the benefits associated with them. India’s approach to the Bay and her efforts to preserve, manage, and safeguard it, are examined in this article, with focus on a cooperative approach, through regional collaboration, under the rubric of the blue economy.
An estuary represents a transition point between freshwater and saltwater and has a complex but productive environment due to a strong interplay between geological, physical, chemical, and biological processes. In Bangladesh, the ecological factors and biodiversity of different estuaries have been investigated for the last 35 years. However, the data is widely scattered, not easily accessible, unpublished, and/or in the form of grey literature. In this study, an attempt has been made to aggregate information available on the geo-environmental and biodiversity status of estuaries for their sustainable management. The biological and environmental data of 21 estuaries along the Bangladesh coast were collected from previously published literature and analyzed. The analyses revealed that the estuarine environment of Bangladesh is very dynamic and diverse like other tropical estuaries. The physico-chemical and geological parameters in estuaries significantly varied due to monsoon patterns, nutrient influx, salinity intrusion, riverine discharge, siltation, and human interventions in estuaries. Among the key environmental variables, such as salinity (3.7-30 ppt), pH (7.04-8), DO (3.30-13.63 mg/L), and water temperature (21-30oC) varied. Over 830 faunal and floral species of 273 genera were recorded from the estuarine environment, including 208 fishes, 87 species of phytoplankton, and 67 species of zooplankton in this region. This study suggests the development of an appropriate policy to protect valuable, productive, and diverse ecosystems, especially for erosion control, pollution abatement, and habitat destruction, particularly in the mangrove forests and their associated habitats of Bangladesh.
Baseline marine litter abundance and distribution on Saint Martin Island, Bay of Bengal, were assessed. Seventy-two transects (100-150 m) along 12 km of coastline were surveyed for litter items every two weeks for two months. The most abundant items were polythene bags, food wrappers, plastic bottles/caps, straws, styrofoam, plastic cups, plastic fragments, fishing nets, clothes, and rubber buoys. Tourism, local markets, hotels, domestic waste, and fishing activities were primary sources of marine litter. According to the mean clean coast index (CCI), all transects were clean, of which 11.3 % and 14.1 % of sandy beaches and rocky shores with sandy beaches were reported dirty, respectively. Northern Saint Martin Island comprised sandy beaches (2.8 %) and was extremely dirty. In addition, plastic abundance index (PAI) analysis showed that 24 % of sites, out of 72 sites, were under "very high abundance", 33 % were "high abundance", 33 % showed "moderate abundance", and 4 % were classified as "low abundance".
COVID-19 pandemic has led to the generation of massive plastic wastes, comprising of onetime useable gloves, masks, tissues, and other personal protective equipment (PPE). Recommendations for the employ of single-use disposable masks made up of various polymeric materials like polyethylene, polyurethane, polyacrylonitrile, and polypropylene, polystyrene, can have significant aftermath on environmental, human as well as animal health. Improper disposal and handling of healthcare wastes and lack of proper management practices are creating serious health hazards and an extra challenge for the local authorities designated for management of solid waste. Most of the COVID-19 medical wastes generated are now being treated by incineration which generates microplastic particles (MPs), dioxin, furans, and various toxic metals, such as cadmium and lead. Moreover, natural degradation and mechanical abrasion of these wastes can lead to the generation of MPs which cause a serious health risk to living beings. It is a major threat to aquatic lives and gets into foods subsequently jeopardizing global food safety. Moreover, the presence of plastic is also considered a threat owing to the increased carbon emission and poses a profound danger to the global food chain. Degradation of MPs by axenic and mixed culture microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, microalgae etc. Can be considered an eco-sustainable technique for the mitigation of the microplastic menace. This review primarily deals with the increase in microplastic pollution due to increased use of PPE along with different disinfection methods using chemicals, steam, microwave, autoclave, and incineration which are presently being employed for the treatment of COVID-19 pandemic-related wastes. The biological treatment of the MPs by diverse groups of fungi and bacteria can be an alternative option for the mitigation of microplastic wastes generated from COVID-19 healthcare waste.
The paper describes the emergence of multiple economies of water in India’s capital Delhi, using a neo-Polanyian approach of instituted economic process. It analyses the systems of provision, distribution, appropriation and consumption of water, and the formation of scales of these economies of water. The paper systematically compares and analyses the spatially divided and partially overlapping economies of water in the planned colonies and slum-designated areas in the city. It describes the dynamics of growth and stagnation of the different economies of water within the waterscape of the capital and its implications for sustainability.
A total of 138, samples have been collected in both pre and post monsoon season to understand the seasonal variability in groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and domestic water supply. The samples were analysed for physical parameters, major ions along with fluoride and uranium. The results were integrated with GIS to represent both seasonal and spatial variations of groundwater quality parameters, drinking groundwater quality index (DGQI) and irrigation groundwater quality index (IGQI). Results show that groundwater is alkaline in nature and largely controlled by the silicate weathering, ion exchange and reverse ion exchange processes. However high nitrate concentration exceeding the WHO guideline suggests the influence of anthropogenic activities on groundwater quality. The average values of the major ions concentrations was found higher in pre monsoon season due to change in the recharge. The DGQI values of 6 samples in pre monsoon and 2 samples in post monsoon season falls under poor water quality. However, individual irrigation indices along with the combine IGQI indicate groundwater is suitable for irrigation in both the seasons. These results along with the seasonal and spatial variability map may help the decision makers in planning for better domestic and irrigation water supply. HIGHLIGHTS Silicate weathering and ion exchange controls ionic species in groundwater.; High concentration of nitrate in pre-monsoon season suggests influence of anthropogenic activities on groundwater.; Relatively high ion concentrations are found in pre-monsoon season.; Groundwater is safe in terms of fluoride and uranium.; Both DGQI and IGQI suggests that groundwater is safe for drinking and domestic water supply.;
Chromium originates from geogenic and extensive anthropogenic activities and significantly impacts natural ecosystems and human health. Various methods have been applied to remove hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aquatic environmental matrices, including adsorption via different adsorbents, which is considered to be the most common and low-cost approach. Biochar materials have been recognized as renewable carbon sorbents, pyrolyzed from various biomass at different temperatures under limited/no oxygen conditions for heavy metals remediation. This review summarizes the sources, chemical speciation & toxicity of Cr(VI) ions, and raw and modified biochar applications for Cr(VI) remediation from various contaminated matrices. Mechanistic understanding of Cr(VI) adsorption using different biochar-based materials through batch and saturated column adsorption experiments is documented. Electrostatic interaction and ion exchange dominate the Cr(VI) adsorption onto the biochar materials in acidic pH media. Cr(VI) ions tend to break down as HCrO4−, CrO42−, and Cr2O72− ions in aqueous solutions. At low pH (∼1–4), the availability of HCrO4− ions attributes the electrostatic forces of attraction due to the available functional groups such as −NH4+, −COOH, and −OH2+, which encourages higher adsorption of Cr(VI). Equilibrium isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic models help to understand Cr(VI)-biochar interactions and their adsorption mechanism. The adsorption studies of Cr(VI) are summarized through the fixed-bed saturated column experiments and Cr-contaminated real groundwater analysis using biochar-based sorbents for practical applicability. This review highlights the significant challenges in biochar-based material applications as green, renewable, and cost-effective adsorbents for the remediation of Cr(VI). Further recommendations and future scope for the implications of advanced novel biochar materials for Cr(VI) removal and other heavy metals are elegantly discussed.
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