The absence of intelligence leadership may lead to a failure to motivate employees within universities, which leads to adverse effects on organizational excellence, primarily if the prevailing organizational culture does not support the processes of development and success. Thus, organizational culture is expected to play an essential role in enhancing the leadership's ability to use its intelligence to achieve organizational excellence. Accordingly, the study aims to identify the mediating role of organizational culture in the impact of leadership intelligence on achieving organizational excellence in Jordanian universities. Qualitative data were collected and quantitatively analyzed. A questionnaire was designed using a leadership intelligence scale and distributed to a sample of 371 faculty members in 33 Jordanian universities. The sample size was chosen according to the statistical tables, and this sample is considered statistically acceptable. The data were processed using structural equations using SPSS and AMOS software. The study concluded that there is an effect of intelligence leadership on organizational excellence. It was also found that organizational culture mediates the relationship between intelligence leadership and organizational excellence. Therefore, the study recommends that the decision makers in Jordanian universities strengthen intelligence leadership, with the need to establish clear foundations in the selection of university leaders, ensuring intelligence leaders' existence.
As globalisation and competition grow rapidly, adopting a flexible manufacturing philosophy becomes more critical for manufacturers. Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS) is among one of the most favourable ones which has been deeply studied in academia since this philosophy was coined in 1925. To design the manufacturing system efficiently and effectively, the management team needs to have a comprehensive representation of the definitions, classifications, solution approach to cellular manufacturing design problems. In this study, exact methods, heuristic approaches, metaheuristic techniques, and artificial intelligence strategies for cellular manufacturing design are reviewed. A comparison of solution approaches is discussed and based on this analysis, some suggestions for future research are proposed. Moreover, we tried to highlight the importance of investigating sustainability decisions related to CMS problems, and integration of supply chain decisions with CMS decisions which have not been sufficiently studied to identify a research direction for researchers to model and analyse those issues. Finally, we briefly discuss the placement of CMS as one of the major production systems in the industry 4.0 evolution paradigm. Reviewing the adoption of industry 4.0 techniques by CMS sheds light on the contribution of methodological approaches in transition to intelligent CMS.
The widespread availability of high-resolution digital elevation data and high computational capabilities, along with GIS tools, has revolutionized big data processing, management, and interpolation. The present investigation generates high spatial resolution maps of thermal comfort levels, heating (HDD), and cooling (CDD) degree days across the populated areas in Jordan. Results show that areas having indoor apparent temperature (IAT) of 26 °C or above, which represents warm/hot conditions on this thermal index, cover a large portion of the study area during July and August. This thermal zone encompasses a large cluster of the major urban centers in the country. For instance, Amman, Zarqa, and Irbid, which host more than 80% of the population of the country, experience 13, 14, and 19 h of warm to very warm conditions during July and August, demonstrating that cooling needs are required to bring about thermal comfort for dwellings and office buildings. Heavy cooling loads, 1700–2000 CDDs, are restricted to the Jordan Rift Valley (JRV) and other small, low-level urban centers. With the exception of the JRV, the populated areas in the country experience cold to very cold conditions during the three coldest months, December through February. Very cold conditions in winter, IAT ≤ 8 °C, span more than 13–14 h of the diurnal cycle in most urban centers. The HDD range from values close to zero along the JRV to ⁓ 1900 in the southern mountains. Heating loads for dwellings and office buildings are very demanding and represent a pressing financial challenge to bring about thermal comfort to homes and public buildings during winter. The present procedure can be integrated with auxiliary data within a GIS environment to investigate numerous climatological, environmental, and site suitability issues. The present procedure can be used for operational purposes over territorial or regional scales for a wide range of applications.
In this paper, we introduce a new fuzzy contraction mapping and prove that such mappings have fixed point in τ-complete fuzzy metric spaces. As an application, we shall utilize the results obtained to show the existence and uniqueness of random solution for the following random linear random operator equation. Moreover, we shall show the existence and uniqueness of the solutions for nonlinear Volterra integral equations on a kind of particular fuzzy metric space.
We give several sharp inequalities involving powers of the numerical radii and the usual operator norms of Hilbert space operators. These inequalities , which are based on some classical convexity inequalities for nonneg-ative real numbers and some operator inequalities, generalize earlier numerical radius inequalities.
Film is a remarkably effective medium in conveying drama and especially in the evocation of emotion. The film also affects the formation of society’s personality. In this era, there are many films that give negative effects in the life of the community because no Islamic concepts found in that films. The researcher tried to research Islamic concepts present in one of the famous films in Malaysia and their impact on the life of society. This study aims to show the Islamic concepts contained in the movie "Pendekar Bujang Lapok". If these concepts are presented through the axes of the events of the film. So, these questions came about what these concepts are, how they are presented, and the purpose of telling this film that the film director wanted to communicate to the viewer. In addition, this study aims to analyze the effect of this film on the behavior of society. The researcher adopted the descriptive analytical method and used interview and questionnaire as the research tools to get the necessary information and data, in order to achieve the objectives of the study. The results of the research found that this film contains some characteristics of the Islamic civilization found in the land of Malay. In addition, the director also tries to show the human values that existed after the advent of Islam in the land of Malay. The director tries to show the contribution of Islamic civilization in the land of Malay and its impact on the behavior of society.
The study aims to examine the effect of the Corona pandemic (COVID19) on the government general budget deficit, using econometrics models for this purpose, by using yearly panel data from 2019 to 2021 for 38 countries; this study applied pooled regression, fixed effects, and random effects to examine the relationships between variables. According to the Hausman test and the redundant fixed effects, the fixed effects model was the best suitable, and there is no serial correlation problem, multicollinearity problem, and Heteroscedasticity problem. The study results indicated that COVID19 has a positive and significant effect on the government general budget deficit among the sample countries over the period under consideration. The increase in Covid19 yearly cases by 10% led to an increase in budget deficit a percentage of GDP by 0.2%.
Star anise (Illicium verum) is a medium-sized plant that is native to Asia as well as one of the most important medicinal plants used in Chinese herbal medicine. Star anise has bioactive compounds having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The antioxidant activity of Star anise (Illicium verum) methanolic extract was studied by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay. The current study aims to investigate the effect of Star anise (Illicium verum) methanolic extract as ant-inflammatory by reducing the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL 1beta and reducing the oxidative stress by acting as a scavenger because inflammation and oxidative stress can induce each other. The highest free radical scavenging activities were exerted by the APTS method (95.1±0.33 Trolox/g) whereas, the free radical scavenging activities were exerted by ABTS was 77.7±0.30 Trolox/g. The anti-inflammatory activity of the Star anise (Illicium verum) methanolic extract was studied by its ability to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines productions (Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)) and reduce oxidative stress at different concentrations. Star anise (Illicium verum) methanolic extract significantly reduce the pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β production (p<0.05) compared with negative control which is treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and has a similar effect in reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines production similar to the positive control which treated with ascorbic acid. Star anise (Illicium verum) methanolic extract significantly reduces oxidative stress (p<0.05) by reducing antioxidant enzyme activity catalase and glutathione-peroxidase compared with the LPS treated group. In conclusion Star anise (Illicium verum) methanolic extract act as strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory medicinal plant.
This study aims to implement a widely used climate tourism index (TCI) developed by Mieczkowski (Can Geogr/Geogr Can 29:220-233, 1985) in a hot arid climate. This index provides a quantitative measure of a tourist destination based on five meteorological criteria, daytime comfort index (CID), daily comfort index (CIA), precipitation index (P), sunshine duration index (S), and wind speed (W). This index provides five qualitative classifications, namely excellent, very good, good, acceptable, and unfavorable. The climatic tourism index is applied to 12 destinations, chosen to represent the various geographic zones in Saudi Arabia. A great deal of disparity both spatially and temporally was observed. For instance, high-altitude regions situated in the western parts of the country experience favorable index values during the entire course of the year. Most other areas experience favorable climatic conditions during the winter months but are subject to very unfavorable climate conditions during the summer months. The landscape surrounding the two holy Moslem sites, Makkah and Al Madinah, experience excellent conditions from December through March, but experience very low values during the summer months.
Introduction: A cost-effective and ecologically friendly method of generating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) includes pathways that utilize a variety of biological sources to decrease metal ions. This study was designed to synthesize AgNPs using a fungus strain Aspergillus flavus and evaluate its antibacterial activities alone or in combination with Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (EO). Methods: The antibacterial activity of different concentrations of biosynthesized AgNPs by Aspergillus flavus individually and in combination with fennel EO was investigated using disc diffusion methods and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Bacterial species, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Shigella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested. Results: Formation of dark brown color, ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used for the characterization of AgNPs. Obvious synergistic effects were observed between AgNPs and EO of fennel (F. vulgare) with all tested bacteria except S. aureus, through increases in fold area of inhibition (IFAs) within the range of 0.15 to 8.87. Although S. aureus had the most susceptibility toward both AgNPs and EO of fennel (24 and 17 mm, respectively), no synergistic activity was exhibited. The best synergistic capacity resulted from AgNPs and fennel EO was observed against S. epidermidis (8.87-fold in IFA). Conclusion: This study revealed that when biosynthesized AgNPs were mixed with the EO of F. vulgare, they became more bacteriostatic and might be developed to treat bacterial infections in the future
In field electron emission (FE) studies, interpretation of measured current–voltage characteristics and extraction of emitter characterization parameters are usually carried out within the framework of “smooth planar metal-like emitter (SPME) methodology”, using a data-analysis plot. This methodology was originally introduced in the 1920s. Three main data-plot types now exist: Millikan-Lauritsen (ML) plots, Fowler–Nordheim (FN) plots, and Murphy–Good (MG) plots. ML plots were commonly used in early FE studies, but most modern analysis uses FN plots. MG plots are a recent introduction. Theoretically, it is now known that ML and FN plots are predicted to be slightly curved in SPME methodology, but a Murphy–Good plot will be very nearly straight. Hence (because 1956 Murphy–Good emission theory is “better physics” than 1928 Fowler–Nordheim emission theory as corrected in 1929), expectation is that parameter extraction using a MG plot will be more precise than extraction using either ML plots or FN plots. In technological FE studies, current–voltage characteristics are often converted into other forms. Thus, measured voltage may be converted to (apparent) macroscopic field, and/or current values may be converted to macroscopic current densities. Thus, four data-input forms can be found in the context of analysing FE current–voltage results. It is also the case that over-simplified models of measurement-system behaviour are very widely assumed, and the question of whether simple use of a data-analysis plot is a valid data-interpretation procedure for the particular system under investigation has often been neglected. Past published studies on field emitter materials development appear to contain a high incidence of spurious values for the emitter characterization parameter “characteristic field enhancement factor”. A procedure (the so-called “Orthodoxy Test”) was described in 2013 that allows a validity check on measurement-system behaviour, and found that around 40% of a small sample of results tested were spuriously high, but has had limited uptake so far. To assist with FE current–voltage data interpretation and validity checks, a simple user-friendly webtool has been under design by the lead author. The webtool needs as user input some system specification data and some “range-limits” data from any of the three forms of data-analysis plot, using any of the four data-input variations. The webtool then applies the Orthodoxy Test, and—if the Test is passed—calculates values of relevant emitter characterization parameters. The present study reports the following: (1) systematic tests of the webtool functionality, using simulated input data prepared using Extended Murphy–Good field electron emission theory; and (2) systematic comparisons of the three different data-plot types, again using simulated input data, in respect of the accuracy with which extracted characterization parameter values match the simulation input values. The paper is introduced by a thorough summary review of the theory on which modern SPME-based current–voltage data-analysis procedures are based. The need in principle to move on (in due course) to data-analysis procedures based on curved-emitter emission theory is noted. An important result is to confirm (by simulations) that, particularly in respect of the extraction of formal emission areas, the performance of the Murphy–Good plot is noticeably better than the performances of Fowler-Nordheim and Millikan–Lauritsen plots. This result is important for field electron emission science because it is now known that differences as between different theories of field electron emission often affect the formal emission area.
Thermal comfort is usually calculated using discrete point measurements. This procedure is not suitable to study thermal comfort for inhabited areas with rugged terrains where climate gradient is high. The wide availability of remote sensing data and GIS tools has revolutionized data management, processing, and visualization. The present paper implemented digital elevation data, GIS tools, and a computational algorithm to generate spatially continuous maps of climatological elements which were employed to derive thermal comfort levels across Jordan. Results show detailed information of the spatial distribution of the degree of thermal comfort in winter and summer across the country which cannot be resolved using discrete point measurements. It is shown that most mountainous areas in the country, where most urban centers are situated, experience “slightly warm” to “warm” indoor apparent temperatures in summer in 50% of the diurnal cycle. The Jordan Valley and the desert experience high indoor apparent temperatures in summer with warm and hot conditions for the most part of the diurnal cycle. Cold conditions prevail over most parts of the country in winter, with the heating degree days ranging from 2200 in the southern mountains to values close to zero near the Dead Sea area. Mountainous and desert areas experience cold or very cold conditions in more than 75% of the diurnal cycle. The presented procedure demonstrated that the very low levels of ambient vapor pressure is an important atmospheric forcing contributing to the widespread cold conditions prevailing over the desert areas in winter. The efficiency of direct evaporative cooling systems to achieve thermal comfort in the various parts of the country is investigated. The procedure presented can be used over regional scales with different levels of spatial resolutions for a wide range of climatological studies.
The study aimed to investigate the reality of distance learning at the University of Jordan in the setting of Covid-19 pandemic from the students’ point of view. The study relied on the descriptive analytical approach, and used questionnaire, which consisted of 60 items, as its study tool to achieve the objectives of the study. The stability of the study tool was confirmed and it was validated. The data was collected from a random sample of 826 students from the University of Jordan. The results indicated that the degree to which faculty members’ use of e-learning applications in education from the students’ point of view was medium. As for the University of Jordan students’ attitudes towards distance learning, they tended to be negative. The problems, students face during distance learning, came with a medium degree as well. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences at the significance level (α= 0.05) in relation to the attitudes of the University of Jordan students towards distance learning regarding the variable of gender and it came in favor of males. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences at the significance level (α= 0.05) in relation to the problems that faced the students during distance learning regarding the gender, but it comes in favor of females this time. Statistically significant differences at the level of the significance (α= 0.05) appeared in the responses of the study sample to the problems that faced them during distance learning in relation to the faculty and it came in favor of humanities faculty. One of the most important recommendations the study reached to was to train the faculty members on using e-learning applications.
The present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of phloretin–a nutraceutical found in apples and its nanoparticulated form–on cervical cancer. Phloretin surfactant-based nanoparticles (microemulsions) were prepared and characterized for particle size, charge, polydispersity, stability under refrigeration conditions and morphology. The cytotoxic activity of phloretin and its microemulsion was tested in cervical cancer HeLa cell line using tetrazolium dye colorimetric assay. Results revealed that phloretin microemulsion exhibited suitable particle size (10.65 ± 0.10 nm), homogenous dispersion (PDI = 0.29 ± 0.05), and negative charge of –9.99 ± 0.81. The microemulsion was stable on storage for 3 months and displayed spherical particle morphology. Both phloretin and its microemulsion exhibited cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells, with IC50 values of 15.3 ± 0.8 and 2.94 ± 0.12 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting more than 5-fold potentiation of the cytotoxic effect of phloretin against cervical cancer by nanoencapsulation. Phloretin microemulsion is concluded to be a stable product of enhanced cytotoxic activity, and findings might be useful for research involving other nutraceuticals.
Anaerobic digestion is a promising technology for biogas recovery from lipid-based wastes. Although other types of such wastes have been investigated, sewage scum (SS) produced from primary and secondary settling tanks of wastewater treatment plants is yet to be fully explored as an alternative source of biogas. To this end, anaerobic co-digestion and blending were adopted as strategies to enhance biogas production from SS using biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay while three kinetic models were used for interpretation. This work examines the synergistic effect of percentage sewage scum loading: 10%, 20%, and 40% (volatile solids basis) during mesophilic co-digestion with various organic substrates, viz., organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), old landfill leachate (OL), new landfill leachate (NL), and a leachate blend (LB) prepared from 67% old leachate and 33% new leachate. After 27 days, results showed that the highest level of improvement in the net cumulative methane yield (CMY) was observed in SS:OL ratio of 40:60 where the yield increased by 67% (105.2 ± 33.1 mL gVS⁻¹) when compared with OL alone (35 ± 0.3 mL gVS⁻¹). This increase was linked to positive synergism and improved anaerobic biodegradability of the mixtures. In addition, reactors containing leachate blends showed a higher methane recovery (338.1 ± 30.6 mL gVS⁻¹) by 5.38-fold over other sets due to the associated effect of leachate blending. Furthermore, the modified Gompertz model achieved a better fit with up to an R² value of 0.999 while co-digestion substantially reduced the lag time by 2.5-fold (2.1 day) compared with mono-digestion. Results from this study suggests that existing facilities can incorporate either SS addition or leachate blending as environmentally friendly strategies to improve biogas production during waste treatment.
The study examines the impacts of using two dimensions of the technology acceptance model (TAM), perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, on the adoption of big data analytics in auditing, and the subsequent impact on audit quality. Five hypotheses were developed. A questionnaire survey was undertaken with external affiliated audit companies and offices in Jordan. Eventually, 130 usable questionnaires were collected, representing a 72.22% response rate. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed for diagnosing the measurement model, and to test the hypotheses of the study. The study finds that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have a direct effect on audit quality, without mediating the actual use of data analytics. However, the use of big data analytics is shown to moderate the relationship between perceived usefulness and audit quality, but not between the perceived ease of use and audit quality. The study is one of the first to examine auditors’ acceptance of big data analytics in their work and the impact of this acceptance and actual use on audit quality. It contributes to the existing literature in auditing through its application of SEM to examine the impact of big data analytics usage on audit quality by using the TAM.
RESEARCH ARTICLE The Effectiveness of Using Critical Concepts and Outcomes in Distance Learning via Darsak Platform during Corona Pandemic in Compensating Students' Educational Loss in AL-Mazar Ash-Shamali Directorate of Education: Teachers' Perspectives Dr: Faisal Saleh Al-Jarrah Part-time lecturer, Irbid National University, Jordan Part-time lecturer, Mu’tah University, Jordan Educational supervisor and expert at Al-Mazar Ash-Shamali Directorate of Education, Jordan Abstract The present study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of using critical concepts and outcomes in distance learning via Darsak platform during “covid-19” pandemic in compensating students' educational loss from the perspectives of the teachers in AL-Mazar Ash-Shamali Directorate of Education. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher prepared an electronic questionnaire that consisted of (20) items. The questionnaire was distributed electronically to the sample of the study which consisted of (220) male and female teachers who were randomly chosen from the population of the study. The validity and reliability of the study questionnaire were ensured, and the descriptive analytical approach was used to analyze the data collected. The findings of the study stressed the importance of critical concepts and outcomes used in the distance learning program in compensating the students' educational loss. The findings also revealed that there were no statistically significant differences at (α ≤ 05.0) among the participants towards the use of critical concepts and outcomes in the distance learning program through Darsak Platform in compensating educational loss due to the gender variable. Keywords: Critical concepts and outcomes, distance learning program, educational loss, Darsak platform, teachers.
Accumulating evidence suggests that consumption of whole grains and legumes is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), whereas the risk is increased by consuming refined grains and cereals. This study aimed to investigate the association between grain and legume consumption and the risk of CVD. The study was conducted using a convenient sampling method with a total of 399 participants who underwent coronary angiography. Cases and controls were matched by age with a 1:1 ratio. Standardized and validated questionnaires were used to collect socio- demographic, health, lifestyle, and dietary data. Intake of more than 1 serving/d of white bread increased the risk of CVD significantly with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 3.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37∼6.84], while consuming more than 1 serving/d of wholegrain bread reduced the risk significantly to approximately 53% (AOR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24∼0.93). Similar trends between consuming white bread on daily basis and increased risk of CVD, and consuming wholegrain bread and reduced risk of CVD were also observed. In addition, consuming unsweetened cornflakes on a weekly basis had a protective effect against CVD (AOR: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03∼0.96). Intake of legumes reduced the risk of CVD, although only insignificantly for all the tested legumes. The present study calls for consideration of consuming wholegrain bread prevent CVD in the Jordanian population.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of mineral and natural additives (2.5; 5; 10 wt.%) on the impact strength of epoxy–basalt composites. Three types of filler were used to modify the epoxy matrix: basalt powder (BP), basalt microfiber (BF) and sunflower husk ash (SA). The impact strength and the maximum force were determined for the materials. The results of the conducted research confirm that the addition of a powder fillers to the epoxy matrix of basalt fiber reinforced composites is an effective method of improving their impact characteristic. The introduction of fillers to epoxy resin allowed to improve the impact properties of all tested groups of laminates. Moreover, in all cases, the introduction of the filler increased the maximum force needed to damage the composite sample and their hardness. For the modified materials, an increase in impact strength was recorded, respectively: by 44% for composites with BP, by 7.5% for composites with BF and by 2.5% for composites with SA.
Liquid-liquid fractionation was performed for two samples of honey, and the fractions were nanoencapsulated in microemulsions using the method of water dilution. The microemulsions were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity, and physicochemical stability under refrigeration conditions. The antiproliferative activity of extracts and their microemulsions was tested on HepG2 and MCF-7 cancer cells (liver and breast cancer cell lines, respectively). Results revealed successful preparation of the honey-loaded microemulsions with suitable particle sizes within 14 – 16 nm, homogenous dispersion with polydispersity index (PDI) ranging within 0.13 – 0.34, and neutral surface charge. Microemulsions displayed insignificant changes in their physicochemical properties after storage for 3 months. The nanoencapsulation of honey in microemulsion formulations led to significant decrease in the IC50 values (or up to 104 times increase in antiproliferative potency). Therefore it can be concluded that nanoencapsulation of honey extracts significantly potentiates their antiproliferative activity, thus presenting a possible powerful tool for cancer treatment.
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