Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of faculty teaching in programs designed to support internationally educated nurses’ transition to nursing practice in Canada. Methods This was a qualitative study that gathered data through semi-structured interviews. Results Four themes were developed from the data: learning the learner, feeling moral unrest in my role, inviting reciprocal relationships, and finding our way. Conclusions There is an urgent need to ensure that faculty are well prepared for their role and that the needs of internationally educated nurses, both personal and pedagogical, are central. Despite the challenges experienced by faculty, they also describe great growth as a result of their new role. Implications for an International Audience Findings from this study are particularly relevant for those in high income countries seeking to support internationally educated nurses. Faculty preparedness and holistic support for students are critical for ethical, high-quality education.
This research addresses an identified need to further understand digital literacies (DL) and whether undergraduate students view DL as being important in their lives and in their learning. Using a cross-sectional survey sent to a stratified random sample of 2500 undergraduates representative of the overall student population at a medium-sized Canadian undergraduate university (survey response rate of 19.8%, N = 496), we explored the relationships between social media and digital literacies, particularly in different disciplinary contexts. We also explored the ways in which students report using social media in their university learning, showing that students value social media for collaboration, discussion, information finding and sharing, and practise activities related to their learning. Additionally, we examined the importance students place on DL, and how they perceive and rate their own abilities with digital literacies across three domains: procedural and technical, cognitive, and sociocultural. Findings illustrate an observable gap between the high importance that students place on digital literacies (including DL for social media) in their learning and their lives and the lack of coverage students reported receiving about these topics in their undergraduate education. Based on the study’s findings, we discuss the specific ways that those in the higher education community can address this gap by engaging with and fostering development of digital literacies within specific disciplinary and professional contexts, and in interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary learning settings across the curriculum.
Dead-space associated rebreathing of expired air and heat-trapping with use of surgical masks and N95 respirators may underlie anecdotal reports of adverse symptoms associated with medical face barriers. Limited data exists directly comparing the physiological effects of masks and respirators at rest. We assessed the short-term physiological effects of both barrier types over 60-min at rest, including face microclimate temperature, end-tidal gases, and venous blood acid-base variables. We recruited 34 participants into two trials: surgical masks (n=17) and N95 respirators (n=17). In a seated position, participants underwent a 10-min baseline without a barrier, and then wore a standardized surgical mask or dome-shaped N95 respirator for 60-min, followed by a 10-min washout. We instrumented participants with a peripheral pulse oximeter (SpO2) and a nasal cannula connected to a dual gas analyzer for measurement of the pressure of end-tidal (PET)CO2 and PETO2, with an associated temperature probe for face microclimate temperature. Venous (v) blood samples were obtained at baseline and following 60-min mask/respirator wearing to assess PvCO2, [HCO3-]v and pHv. Compared to baseline during/following 60-min, temperature, PETCO2, PvCO2, and [HCO3-]v were mildly but significantly higher, and PETO2 and PvO2 were significantly lower, but SpO2 was unaffected. The magnitude of effects was similar between barrier types. Temperature and PETCO2 returned to baseline levels within 1-2 min following removal of the barrier. These mild physiological effects may underly reports of qualitative symptoms while wearing masks or respirators. However, the magnitudes were mild, not physiologically-relevant and reversed immediately with the removal of the barrier.
In this paper, we investigate whether lenders alter their degree of monitoring of loans given to a firm after a credit default Swap (CDS) becomes available for the firm. Using a sample of nearly 21,000 loans taken by nearly 4600 non-financial U.S firms over the period of 1996–2014, we find that lenders decrease their degree of monitoring on loans granted to a firm after the inception of the firm’s CDS. The reduction in degree of monitoring is not dependent on whether the lender holds the CDS or not. The availability of the CDS motivates the lenders to decrease the degree of monitoring of loans granted to the firm evidenced by relatively lower degree of comprehensiveness and intensity of both financial and non-financial covenants attached to the post-CDS loans. These findings are robust to loan and firm characteristics, and different measures of covenant comprehensiveness and intensity.
More than fifty years of civil war has left about eight million internally displaced people in Colombia, with millions struggling to make a living in new precarious urban spaces. Illicit narcoparamilitary groups, also emergent from the conflict, have dispossessed millions from their land and become vital moneylenders that enable displaced people to work and subsist in cities while profiting from them. Using the metaphor of compounding, I suggest thinking of financial frontiers as consecutive processes of expansive economic growth where one asset or principal (land dispossession and rural displacement in the Colombian case) originates exponential profits over time, benefiting narcoparamilitary groups. Such exponential gain happens gradually in circular financial transactions. Each transaction produces extra profits and opens possibilities for new financial transactions that further extract value from displacement and land dispossession. This approach helps us understand the social relations that permit capital accumulation over long periods, across geographic spaces, through political changes, and through economic shifts that determine the development of novel forms of financial power in Colombia and beyond. This article proposes a concept of compounding financial frontiers to grasp how new spaces for financial value extraction emerge and how capitalism finds the conditions for its reproduction.
Aims and objectives/purpose/research questions Pronoun comprehension can present challenges for young bilingual and monolingual children. The current study aimed to assess cross-linguistic influence (CLI) and pronoun comprehension in early childhood. Several studies have demonstrated the role of overlap across languages and its impact on language development. The present study investigates the influence of the acquisition of another language containing third-person pronouns on pronoun comprehension in English. Additional possible social influences are also discussed. Design/methodology/approach In addition to the completion of language surveys and vocabulary tests, toddlers and preschoolers were presented with a forced-choice test to identify the pronouns ‘he/she/it’ between a man doll, a woman doll, a ball, and a monkey. Data and analysis Accuracy in pronoun comprehension was analysed based on age and preschooler’s accuracy was compared across language groups (monolingual in English, bilingual with and without third-person pronouns). Findings/conclusions Overall, the results demonstrated that, although young toddlers were able to comprehend ‘it’, children struggled with ‘he’ and ‘she’ until 3 years of age. In addition, bilingual preschool children that were learning a language that distinguished between the third-person pronouns, ‘he’ and ‘she’, performed similarly to monolingual English-speaking children and both groups performed better than bilingual children learning a language that did not distinguish between ‘he’ and ‘she’. The findings are discussed in the context of within- and between-language factors that can impact comprehension. Originality Most recent research on early pronoun development involves production. This study presents evidence of early pronoun comprehension and investigates the role of CLI in this difficult, yet common component of language. Significance/implications The results suggest that learning a language with different features can negatively impact pronoun comprehension in another language. The findings are discussed in the context of an integrated system for bilinguals.
Background: Understanding factors that affect integration of NPs is likely to address the barriers and provide reform strategies that shape a cost-effective, sustainable, accessible, and efficient health care system. There is a limited number of current and high-quality studies examining the transition process of registered nurses (RNs) to nurse practitioners (NPs)-especially in Canada. Purpose: To explore the experiences of RNs transitioning to NPs in Canada. Methodology: Thematic analysis of audio-recorded semi-structured interviews was conducted to explore the experiences of 17 RNs as they transitioned to NPs. A purposive sampling of 17 participants was completed in 2022. Results: Six main themes emerged from analysis of 17 interviews. The content of themes varied according to NPs' years of experience and the NP school they attended. Conclusions: Peer support and mentorship programs were facilitators in the transition from RN to NP. Conversely, shortcomings in education, financial stressors, and the lack of NP role definition were seen as barriers. Legislation and regulations supportive of NPs, diverse and comprehensive education, and improved availability of mentorship programs may strengthen transition facilitators and help NPs overcome related barriers. Implications: Legislation and regulations supportive of the NP role are needed, focusing on defining the NP role and establishing an independent and consistent remuneration structure for NPs. A more in-depth and diversified educational curriculum is needed, with increased support from faculty and educators and continual encouragement of initiation and perpetuation of peer support. A mentorship program is beneficial to reduce transition shock from the role of the RN to the NP.
Obstetrics is a well-known area for malpractice and medical-legal claims, specifically as they relate to injuries the baby suffers during the intrapartum period. There is a direct implication for nurses’ work in labor and delivery because the law recognizes that monitoring fetal well-being during labor is a nursing responsibility. Using institutional ethnography, we uncovered how two powerful ruling discourses, namely biomedical and medical-legal risk discourses, socially organize nurses’ fetal surveillance work in labor and delivery through the use of an intertextual hierarchy and an ideological circle.
Phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) provides an easy to use and robust measure of changing soil microbial condition. The method provides data on both the quantity and composition of the soil microbial community-critical knowledge because the community is an important component of soil health. However, it is challenging for new researchers to know how to process data, how to interpret the results, and to know its effectiveness in evaluating soil health management. We set out to address these challenges using the North American Project to Evaluate Soil Health Measurements PLFA dataset. The dataset is comprised of results of over 1800 agricultural soil samples from a range of environmental regions and management practices. Using this dataset, we identified that quantifying soil PLFA biomass through summing the biomarkers from C14:0 to C20:0 yielded greater biomass results than summing specific biomarkers and was almost identical to summing C9:0 to C20:0. We utilized microbial biomass with common and novel biomarker ratios to evaluate the response of the soil microbial community to changes in the environment or changes in management practice. These ratios were based on commonly used genotypic categorization (e.g., Gram-positive to Gram-negative) or based on chemical structure with chemical ratios of either universal characteristics (e.g., unsaturated to saturated) or targeted phenotypic biomarkers known to shift with changing growth conditions (e.g., a15:0 and a17:0 to i15:0 and i17:0). One novel phenotypic ratio, the adaptation response ratio (ARR), significantly correlated with mean annual temperature and soil pH across grassland reference plots, a wheat climate transect, an intensive vegetable agricultural dataset, and a wheat-corn dataset from Mexico. Neither the common genotypic ratio nor ratios based on chemical structure demonstrated clear and consistent trends with environmental conditions. Targeted phenotypic biomarker ratios and microbial biomass also detected significant differences with soil health management practices of decreased tillage, cover crops, organic nutrients, residue retention, and rotation diversity. Therefore, with standardized microbial biomass and biomarker calculations that significantly vary with environmental conditions and management practices, these results support a wider understanding and adoption of the PLFA method in soil health management.
Purpose: Plasmalogens (Plgs) are highly abundant lipids in the retina, and their deficiency leads to severe abnormalities during eye development. The first acylation step in the synthesis of Plgs is catalyzed by the enzyme glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPAT), which is also known as dihydroxyacetone phosphate-acyltransferase (EC 126.96.36.199). GNPAT deficiency produces rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 2, a genetic disorder associated with developmental ocular defects. Despite the relevance of retinal Plgs, our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate their synthesis, and the role of GNPAT during eye development is limited. Methods: Using the Xenopus laevis model organism, we characterized by in situ hybridization the expression pattern of gnpat and compared it to glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase mitochondrial (gpam or gpat1) during eye neurogenesis, lamination, and morphogenesis. The Xenopus Gnpat was biochemically characterized in a heterologous expression system in yeast. Results: During development, gnpat is expressed in proliferative cells of the retina and lens, and post-embryogenesis in proliferative cells of the ciliary marginal zone and lens epithelium. In contrast, gpam expression is mainly restricted to photoreceptors. Xenopus Gnpat expressed in yeast is present in both soluble and membrane fractions, but only the membrane-bound enzyme displays activity. The amino terminal of Gnpat, conserved in humans, shows lipid binding capacity that is enhanced by phosphatidic acid. Conclusions: Enzymes involved in the Plgs and glycerophospholipid biosynthetic pathways are differentially expressed during eye morphogenesis. The gnpat expression pattern and the molecular determinants regulating Gnpat activity advance our knowledge of this enzyme, contributing to our understanding of the retinal pathophysiology associated with GNPAT deficiency.
We study errors in organizations to understand and ideally prevent them from reoccurring. In this study we examine mistakes made as an oil company adopted new technology to access untapped reserves. We find that a pre-existing error management culture (EMC) dominated in the organization while error prevention measures were deficient. This is surprising given the complexity of the business and the importance of safety. We show that a balance between error prevention and error management is difficult to achieve owing to the contradictory nature of these approaches. While the extant organizational error literature identifies the complementary aspect of error prevention and error management it does not consider their interrelatedness-how one affects the other. We find that the dominating error management culture at Suncor Energy contributed to error prevention processes that were misapplied, informal or absent. This highlights the need for deliberate examination of error approaches especially as the business context shifts.
Patients with acute burns are more vulnerable to COVID-19 because of physiologically weak immune systems. This study aimed to assess and compare individual characteristics, clinical features, and clinical outcomes of acute burn among COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. A retrospective study, with data collected from 611 acute burn patients with or without a COVID-19 diagnosis referred to a burn centre in Iran. Data were collected from April 2020 to 2021. The mean age of acute burns patients with COVID-19 was higher compared with acute burns patients with non-COVID-19 (47.82 vs. 32.59 years, P < .001). Acute burns occurred more frequently in COVID-19 patients with comorbidities compared with non-COVID-19 patients (48.72% vs. 26.92%, P = .003). 58.97% of COVID-19 patients and 55.42% of non-COVID-19 patients had grade II & III and II burns, respectively (P < .001). The mean total body surface area of the burn was higher in COVID-19 patients compared with non-COVID-19 patients (32.69% vs. 16.22%, P < .001). Hospitalisation in the intensive care unit (ICU) was higher in COVID-19 patients than in non-COVID-19 patients (76.92% vs. 15.73%, P < .001). Length of stay in hospital and ICU, the cost of hospitalisation, and waiting time for the operating room was higher in COVID-19 patients compared with non-COVID-19 patients (15.30 vs. 3.88 days, P < .001; 9.61 vs. 0.75 days, P < .001; 30 430 628.717 vs. 10 219 192.44 rials, P = .011; 0.84 vs. 0.24 min, P < .001, respectively). Intubation and mortality in-hospital were higher in COVID-19 patients compared with non-COVID-19 patients (41.02% vs. 6.99%, P < .001; 35.90% vs. 6.12%, P < .001, respectively). Therefore, it is recommended that health managers and policymakers develop a care plan to provide high-quality care to acute burns patients with COVID-19, especially in low-income countries.
Background: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between career burnout and the barriers to gender equity identified by Canadian female orthopaedic surgeons. A secondary purpose was to assess relationships between the demographic characteristics of the female surgeons and career burnout and job satisfaction. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed to 330 Canadian female orthopaedic surgeons. Demographic variables including age, stage and years in practice, practice setting, and marital status were collated. The survey included the Gender Bias Scale (GBS) questionnaire and 2 questions each about career burnout and job satisfaction. The Pearson r correlation coefficient evaluated the relationships among the higher- and lower-order factors of the GBS, burnout, and job satisfaction. Spearman rank correlation coefficient assessed relationships among burnout, job satisfaction, and demographic variables. Results: Survey responses were received from 218 (66.1%) of the 330 surgeons. A total of 110 surgeons (50.5%) agreed or strongly agreed that they felt career burnout (median score = 4). Burnout was positively correlated with the GBS higher-order factors of Male Privilege (r = 0.215, p < 0.01), Devaluation (r = 0.166, p < 0.05), and Disproportionate Constraints (r = 0.152, p < 0.05). Job satisfaction (median = 4) was reported by 168 surgeons (77.1%), and 66.1% were also satisfied or very satisfied with their role in the workplace (median = 4). Burnout was significantly negatively correlated with surgeon age and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Half of the female orthopaedic surgeons reported symptoms of career burnout. Significant relationships were evident between burnout and barriers to gender equity. Identification of the relationships between gender-equity barriers and burnout presents an opportunity to modify organizational systems to dismantle barriers and reduce this occupational syndrome. Clinical relevance: Given the relationships between gender inequity and career burnout in this study of female orthopaedic surgeons, actions to dismantle gender barriers and address systemic biases are necessary at all career stages to reduce burnout.
In the present study, the association between locus of control and religiosity is analyzed in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) also known as Sudeck’s syndrome. A sample was evaluated by means of a probabilistic study of 80 patients (volunteers and under informed consent) from Latin America and Spain, of which 92.5% were women with a mean age of 41.8 years. A data sheet and the brief locus of control test for patients with chronic diseases (developed by the first three authors of this article) were applied. A descriptive and nonparametric statistical analysis was performed. The results obtained indicate that 80.3% of the sample defined themselves as believers (professing a religion). Likewise, 67.8% of the sample had a level of religiosity between regular and very strong, and 92.5% demonstrated an internal locus of control. However, this research indicated the non-existence of a statistically significant association between locus of control and religiosity.
Community service-learning (CSL) has been referred to as a “pedagogy for citizenship,” as it enhances ethical behavior and social responsibility among student participants. It represents a pedagogical and philosophical approach that promotes experiential learning by incorporating intentional course-based lessons with service in the community. Despite the numerous studies outlining the benefits of CSL initiatives, there is a dearth of research on how CSL courses can impact students already in the “helping professions.” More specifically, there is very little research on the benefits of CSL in social work field education courses. For this study, the researchers found that developing a CSL practicum led to a substantive shift in professional understanding for the students who participated in a CSL learning opportunity. Although the traditional and CSL groups began their practicum experiences believing the primary role of a social worker was to build and maintain healthy relationships with service users, the CSL group saw their primary role switch from a “micro practice” to a “macro practice” worker. CSL offers social work education additional unique opportunities to support the development of student's social work core values, knowledge, and skills.
Introduction: The relationship between the Achilles tendon moment arm length (ATMA) and the energy cost of running (Erun) has been disputed. Some studies suggest a short ATMA reduces Erun while others claim a long ATMA reduces Erun. For a given ankle joint moment, a short ATMA permits a higher tendon strain energy storage, whereas a long ATMA reduces muscle fascicle force and muscle energy cost but shortening velocity is increased, elevating the metabolic cost. These are all conflicting mechanisms to reduce Erun, since AT energy storage comes at a metabolic cost. Neither of these proposed mechanisms have been examined together. Methods: We measured ATMA using the tendon travel method in 17 males and 3 females (24 ± 3 years, 75 ± 11 kg, 177 ± 7 cm). They ran on a motorized treadmill for 10 min at 2.5 m · s-1 while Erun was measured. AT strain energy storage, muscle lengths, velocities and muscle energy cost were calculated during time-normalized stance from force and ultrasound data. A short (SHORT n = 11, ATMA = 29.5 ± 2.0 mm) and long (LONG, n = 9, ATMA = 36.6 ± 2.5 mm) ATMA group was considered based on a bimodal distribution of measured ATMA. Results: Mean Erun was 4.9 ± 0.4 J · kg-1 · m-1. The relationship between ATMA and Erun was not significant (r 2 = 0.13, p = 0.12). Maximum AT force during stance was significantly lower in LONG (5,819 ± 1,202 N) compared to SHORT (6,990 ± 920 N, p = 0.028). Neither AT stretch nor AT strain energy storage was different between groups (mean difference: 0.3 ± 1 J · step-1, p = 0.84). Fascicle force was significantly higher in SHORT (508 ± 93 N) compared to LONG (468 ± 84 N. p = 0.02). Fascicle lengths and velocities were similar between groups (p > 0.72). Muscle energy cost was significantly lower in LONG (0.028 ± 0.08 J · kg · step-1) compared to SHORT (0.045 ± 0.14 J · kg · step-1 p = 0.004). There was a significant negative relationship between ATMA and total muscle energy cost relative to body mass across the stance phase (r = -0.699, p < 0.001). Discussion: Together these results suggest that a LONG ATMA serves to potentially reduce Erun by reducing the muscle energy cost of the plantarflexors during stance. The relative importance of AT energy storage and return in reducing Erun should be re-considered.
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