Language impairment is comorbid in most children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but its neural mechanisms are still poorly understood. Some studies hypothesize that the atypical low-level sensory perception in the auditory cortex accounts for the abnormal language development in these children. One of the potential non-invasive measures of such low-level perception can be the cortical gamma-band oscillations registered with magnetoencephalography (MEG), and 40 Hz Auditory Steady-State Response (40 Hz ASSR) is a reliable paradigm for eliciting auditory gamma response. Although there is research in children with and without ASD using 40 Hz ASSR, nothing is known about the relationship between this auditory response in children with ASD and their language abilities measured directly in formal assessment. In the present study, we used MEG and individual brain models to investigate 40 Hz ASSR in primary-school-aged children with and without ASD. It was also used to assess how the strength of the auditory response is related to language abilities of children with ASD, their non-verbal IQ, and social functioning. A total of 40 children were included in the study. The results demonstrated that 40 Hz ASSR was reduced in the right auditory cortex in children with ASD when comparing them to typically developing controls. Importantly, our study provides the first evidence of the association between 40 Hz ASSR in the language-dominant left auditory cortex and language comprehension in children with ASD. This link was domain-specific because the other brain-behavior correlations were non-significant.
Language impairment is comorbid in most children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but its neural basis is poorly understood. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the present study provides the whole-brain comparison of both volume- and surface-based characteristics between groups of children with and without ASD and investigates the relationships between these characteristics in language-related areas and the language abilities of children with ASD measured with standardized tools. A total of 36 school-aged children participated in the study: 18 children with ASD and 18 age- and sex-matched typically developing controls. The results revealed that multiple regions differed between groups of children in gray matter volume, gray matter thickness, gyrification, and cortical complexity (fractal dimension). White matter volume and sulcus depth did not differ between groups of children in any region. Importantly, gray matter thickness and gyrification of language-related areas were related to language functioning in children with ASD. Thus, the results of the present study shed some light on the structural brain abnormalities associated with language impairment in ASD.
The article presents an overview of studies on the problem of speech evaluation in childhood. We analyzed the material based on the model that describes 4 levels of language: phonetics and phonology, morphosyntax, semantics and pragmatics. The article contains the analysis of studies describing each level of language as well as existing approaches to its assessment, and reviews studies on language impairments in children with autism spectrum disorders. Additionally, the article contains a detailed analysis of existing foreign and Russian standardized methods for assessing speech development, showing which level of language organization (among each of the mentioned above methods) allows us to assess. It also describes the assessment procedures and evaluation. The review systematizes the available data on the approaches to atypical speech development in children with autism spectrum disorders.
The article is devoted to the study of the possibilities of a seven-component model of psychological diagnostics of information stress tolerance of law enforcement officers. Based on the content analysis of the problems of informational and psychological impact on personnel and evaluation procedures, the author's diagnostic-oriented approach to the phenomenon of «Informational stress tolerance» is proposed. The informational aspect of stress tolerance is represented by such predictors as «Informational activity», «Informational skepticism», «Informational illegibility», the regulatory aspect – «Sensitivity to informational stress», «Generation of stressful information», «Stress regulation of behavior», «Intensity of value conflict under stress». The stimulus material of the questionnaire is given, as well as some psychometric information about its approbation among representatives of professions of special risk. The material of the article is aimed at improving the psychodiagnostic tools and psychoprophylactic work of extreme psychologists.
The rheological properties of compositions based on HDPE with the addition of chalk concentrate and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), as well as the thermal stability of the investigated compositions, were studied by capillary viscometry and DSC. It is shown that the introduction of chalk concentrate with chalk content of 80 wt.% into HDPE sharply reduced the compositions thermal stability and changed the compositions flow character. The addition of LLDPE to chalk-filled HDPE resulted in a decrease in the effective viscosity and an increase in the thermal stability of the compositions.
Introduction. As ever there is a high demand for higher education, the problem of goal setting to increase student academic performance becomes relevant. Russian and foreign authors are addressing this problem and looking for ways to improve the situation, because every year many students fail and leave their colleges/universities. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the characteristics of goal setting among students with advanced and average academic performances. Materials and Methods. 98 full-time sophomore students from the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education were surveyed. To determine the characteristics of student’s goal setting, the following diagnostic complex was employed: Methodology for studying the motives of educational activity, Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), Testing “Meaningful Orientationsˮ, Methodology for measuring the parameters of life goals, Questionnaire for identifying the severity of self-control in the emotional sphere, activity and behavior, Questionnaire “Action controlˮ, methodology “Style of self-regulation of educational activity”. The following methods of mathematical statistics were used: Frequency and factor analysis of the IBM program SPSS Statistics 21. Results. The substantiation of goal-setting as an initiative orientation at the motivational-semantic, emotional-volitional and operational levels made it possible to specify the features of goal-setting in students with high and average academic performance. Students with high academic performance are dominated by internal educational, cognitive, professional motives, meaningful life orientations, and the ability to develop and implement goals. Students with average academic performance are characterized by external known motives, they experience problems of planning, thinking through, detailing actions to achieve the intended goals. Discussion and Conclusion. The conclusions drawn by the author contribute to the development of ideas about goal-setting as an integral process at different levels of orientation and its role in improving the academic performance of students. The materials of the article will help researchers and practitioners in solving the problems of developing and implementing programs for providing psychological assistance and support to students who have difficulty setting and achieving goals in the learning process at universities with various educational backgrounds and academic levels.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a psychiatric condition characterized by extreme mood shifts during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (MC) due to abnormal sensitivity to neurosteroids and unbalanced neural excitation/inhibition (E/I) ratio. We hypothesized that in women with PMDD in the luteal phase, these factors would alter the frequency of magnetoencephalographic visual gamma oscillations, affect modulation of their power by excitatory drive, and decrease perceptual spatial suppression. Women with PMDD and control women were examined twice–during the follicular and luteal phases of their MC. We recorded visual gamma response (GR) while modulating the excitatory drive by increasing the drift rate of the high-contrast grating (static, ‘slow’, ‘medium’, and ‘fast’). Contrary to our expectations, GR frequency was not affected in women with PMDD in either phase of the MC. GR power suppression, which is normally associated with a switch from the ‘optimal’ for GR slow drift rate to the medium drift rate, was reduced in women with PMDD and was the only GR parameter that distinguished them from control participants specifically in the luteal phase and predicted severity of their premenstrual symptoms. Over and above the atypical luteal GR suppression, in both phases of the MC women with PMDD had abnormally strong GR facilitation caused by a switch from the ‘suboptimal’ static to the ‘optimal’ slow drift rate. Perceptual spatial suppression did not differ between the groups but decreased from the follicular to the luteal phase only in PMDD women. The atypical modulation of GR power suggests that neuronal excitability in the visual cortex is constitutively elevated in PMDD and that this E/I imbalance is further exacerbated during the luteal phase. However, the unaltered GR frequency does not support the hypothesis of inhibitory neuron dysfunction in PMDD.
BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-harm includes direct and indirect behaviors that cause harm to the body. Various manifestations of such behavior (e.g., non-suicidal self-injuries) are prevalent in adolescent and youth populations, and they often serve as precursors of subsequent suicidal behavior. The interpersonal dynamics that lead to self-harm behavior remain understudied. Interpersonal sensitivity, defined as an anticipation of criticism and fear of rejection in ones relationships with other people, may become one such factor. AIM: The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between interpersonal sensitivity, psychopathological symptoms, and types of self-harm. METHODS: The sample (n=804, 1735 years, M=23.34.6 years) was recruited in online communities. A survey developed by the authors was used to measure the types of self-harm. Other measures included the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure and Symptom Checklist-90-R. RESULTS: It was discovered that superficial self-injuries could be related to more severe types of self-harm, destructive for the body on the whole (e.g., risk-taking, deprivation, fasting, substance abuse). Fear of rejection and psychopathological symptoms emerged as predictors of both superficial self-injuries and self-destructive behavior. Although younger respondents (1719 years old) were more likely to inflict on themselves superficial self-injuries, those who scored high on fear of rejection were more likely to report more severe self-destructive behavior. Acute psychological distress elevated this risk for both younger and older participants (2735 years old). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study point at the important role the dynamics of interpersonal relationships plays in perpetuating self-harm.
The demands of practice for the development of radicalisation risk assessment tools are still ahead of the capabilities of psychological science. An analysis of radicalisation risk assessment models used predominantly in the penitentiary systems of several countries suggests that these tools are controversial, hence the need for further theoretical reflection and experimental testing. The aim of the theoretical and analytical study outlined here is to formulate the key components of a model for assessing the risk of radicalisation in adolescent and young adult environments. Critical analysis of risk assessment models and social psychological theories of radicalisation allowed to demonstrate the advantages of M. Hogg’s uncertainty-identity theory in comparison with other explanatory concepts. Following the ideas of the uncertainty-identity theory several hypotheses were proposed in order to assess the radicalisation risk among adolescents and young people.
In this study, we focused on the development of cooperation between partner countries, which may affect the reduction of inflationary risks for partnership participants in the context of global and urgent changes in the world. This article aims to identify the relationship between inflation indicators and various types of globalization (complex integration indices) of each of the member countries of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in order to develop measures to contain inflation risks in these countries. The authors used the methods of pairwise linear regression, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression. As variables, the authors used complex indicators that characterize six types of globalization: Economic, financial, demographic, industrial, information, and political indices. The authors concluded that China and India more effectively curb inflation and are less prone to inflation risks. The inflation rate and the independent variables have a close negative correlation, which indicates a strong degree of mutual influence and has a downward effect on the consumer price index. The most significant variables that have a strong influence on the inflation rate are the factors of financial and information integration. The impact of other types of integration considered in this study is not significant. In order to reduce the level of inflationary risks, the SCO member countries most vulnerable to the price volatility of raw materials (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan) are encouraged to develop trade cooperation more actively, for example, by reducing or eliminating import duties on raw materials from the SCO countries.
The concept of anthropological crisis is very popular in contemporary Russian humanities: the Russian Scientific Electronic Library, or Elibrary.ru, includes more than ten thousand publications with the keyword anthropological crisis. On the contrary, Google gives links to Russian publications only when one searches for anthropological crisis. This keyword has no reference in the famous online book catalogue Worldcat.org. Nowadays English-speaking scientific communities still explore the crisis in anthropology as a discipline. The difference between the anthropological crisis and the crisis in anthropology seems essential. The crisis of a scientific discipline is not a crisis of the human nature. The modern Russian academicians, including the late Vyacheslav Stepin, find many features of the anthropological crisis in the successes of genetic engineering and modern medicine as well as in the growing psychological pressures. Russian-language scholars find the traits of anthropological crisis in many fields, including studies of memory, bioethics, pedagogics, literature, and economics. The loss of the sense of life is often treated by Russian scholars, like Stepin and Boris Pruzhinin, as a trait of the anthropological crisis. The problems of self-identity are also marked by Russian authors as a mark of that crisis. Sergey Averintsev felt that human beings lack their human nature. Pruzhinin supposes humans cannot predict consequences of genetic engineering for their nature as a species. But all these trends have nothing in common with the anthropological crisis. Genetic engineering helps improving of sick human nature and self-realization. Certainly, all consequences are not open but there is no scientific discovery whose effects would be absolutely evident at once. Cyborgs are an inevitable step towards healthier and smarter humans. Existential problems are universal since the emergence of self-consciousness among the humans. Self-identities are in constant flux since the birth of complex societies, especially since the industrial revolution strengthened alienation. The growth and volume of information flows are not threats to humans as there is no necessity to memorize all the data in the world, and there are multiple network and personal filters which block garbage. The anthropological crisis seems a myth in contemporary Russian-language humanities in general and philosophy in particular.
Individual hobbies and interests, the ways of spending leisure time develop personal resources influencing health and wellbeing. The literature analysis helped selecting thirteen personal resources that also affect the rate of aging: sports, order, creativity, intellect, handwork, kindness, Humor, spirituality, risk, nature, achievements, optimism, communication. In 1632 people, (840 women and 792 men) personal resources were assessed using a questionnaire developed in-house. Biological age was determined by health indicators. The personal typology was determined by testing functional asymmetry, physique, interaction style, emotionality, profession, marital status, gender, age, and place of residence. The data were processed by correlation and cluster analysis and methods of automatic artificial neural networks (ANN). Personal resources were used as input continuous variables. Personality types were used as input categorical variables. The index of relative biological aging (RBA) was applied as an output continuous variable. We also calculated the correlation between the RBA index and the applied personal resources in different types of personalities. For most female types including investigative occupations, psychomotor emotionality, living in urban areas, asthenic physique, negative correlations were found between most personal resources and the aging index. In men, resources that slow down aging are found only for certain types: enterprising and conventional professions, ambidexter and left-handed, intellectual emotionality, athletic physique. In conclusion, with the help of the trained ANN, we selected personal resources that slow down aging. For women of all types, there are common resources reducing RBA index including nature, intellect, and achievements. For men, ANN was unable to find common resources that slow down aging. However, with an individual selection of resources, a trained neural network gives a favorable forecast of the ability to slow down the biological aging of a particular man by changing his hobbies and interests and ways of spending free time.
p> In 2021, a working group of the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education developed a technique for developing student’s initial representations to scientific concepts based on the material of mathematics and natural sciences in primary school. The technique was refined and concretized on the material of the course “Natural sciences”. The paper presents the materials of a study in which students of the 3rd year of the bachelor's degree program of the psychological and pedagogical direction of training (21 people, who were divided into two subgroups: experimental – 11 people, control – 10 people. The average academic performance score of each group of students is 4,7 on a five-point scale) and students of the 3rd grade of primary school of Moscow (51 people, who were also divided into two groups: experimental – 28 people, control – 23 people). The level of science literacy of primary school student’s was measured using three-level thematic tasks (author E.V. Chudinova). The results of the study showed that the application of technique for the development of primary school student’s initial natural science representations in the preparation of future teachers affects the educational results of schoolchildren. It is noted that students who designed lessons using the technique for developing student’s initial representations to scientific concepts on the material of natural sciences in primary school paid special attention not only to the correct answers of students, but also to erroneous judgments. This helped them in organizing the educational discussion. It is emphasized that an erroneous judgment can become a tool for the mental development of a primary school student’s. </p
p> The article discusses one of the aspects of the training of a teacher of primary general education – the ability to analyze the causes of students' mistakes made by them when mastering mathematical concepts. The special importance in the competence of the primary school teacher of understanding the value of the initial, initial representations of the child as a result of his own mental activity is noted. An overview of the concept of mathematical thinking in the psychological and pedagogical literature is given. The understanding of mathematical thinking as theoretical, carried out on mathematical material, is highlighted. The levels of development of mathematical thinking and its main components – analysis, planning and reflection – are recorded. The modules of the educational program for the training of primary school teachers are described, aimed at developing students' competencies that allow them to adequately assess the manifestations of mathematical thinking in younger schoolchildren on mathematical material traditionally studied in primary school. The sequence of actions aimed at identifying the error pattern is presented. Examples of tasks for students are given, showing ways of developing the educational action of control; determining patterns of mathematical errors. </p
p>The article presents data on the psychological well-being of primary school-age children with different types of academic motivation. The study involved 87 students of the 3rd-4th grades of Moscow secondary schools (41 boys and 46 girls). The questionnaires "Academic self-regulation" SRQ-A (modification and approbation on the Russian-language sample of T.O.Gordeeva, O.A.Sychev, M.F.Lynch), "Scale of psychological well-being of children aged 8-12 years" PWB-c (adaptation by D.V.Lubovsky, N.S.Milova), the projective technique "Unfinished sentences", allowing to identify indicators of motivation and psychological well-being (positive and negative aspects of children's lives). Positive connections of psychological well–being and components of its structure with intrinsic educational motivation, negative connections - with extrinsic academic motivation are established. It is shown that primary schoolchildren with a high level of psychological well–being are characterized by cognitive motivation, self-development motivation, awareness of the importance of educational activities for themselves, but at the same time - orientation to high academic performance. With a low level of psychological well-being in children, there is a pronounced extrinsic motivation, reflecting primarily the requirements of the teacher, a subjective perception of learning difficulties, a negative attitude to learning, preschool-type motivation with its hedonistic orientation.</p
p>Young children’s play needs toys, which are its object support and the main tools. Character toys are of particular importance the function of which is the substitution of a character, the embodiment of a role. New technical capabilities make it possible to create complex robotic toys capable of learning, autonomous movement, and reactions to interaction with them. However, the play potential of these toys has not been sufficiently studied. The purpose of this research is to study whether young children (3-4 years old) will play with a robot toy and whether this play will differ from playing with ordinary character toys. The work of P. Kahn et al. was used as the methodological basis of this research. The study included observing a play with two types of toys – a robotic and a stuffed dinosaur, a structured interview, and a classification of cards. The sample consisted of 30 children attending a state kindergarten. The results showed that children are significantly less likely and more monotonous to play with a robotic toy than with a traditional one. At the same time, they interact more with a robotic toy, study it more and are afraid of it as a living being. The results obtained allow us to raise the question of the category of this type of toy: they belong to robots but not to character toys.</p
p>Time knowledge play an important role in the development of a child, helping him to organize and plan his or her daily activities, also being one of the structures of self-consciousness of a developing personality. The literature on developmental psychology describes in sufficient detail the formation of a child's ideas about duration and time sequences, but it is not completely clear whether the child's notions about time are related to his or her general age maturity or to the individual level of intellectual development. This paper describes the experience of using a modified Questionnaire of Children's Knowledge about the Time of F. Labrell et al. in the Russian-language adaptation, analyzing in detail the various aspects of the child's ideas about time. Additionally, the level of intellectual development of children according to the Raven test, the indicators of the formation of universal learning activities (ULA) of analysis and planning according to the PL-modified method were studied, and the age of children in months was also recorded. The study involved 57 normally developing students of grades 1-4 of Moscow schools (intelligence data were obtained for 31 students, and ULA data were obtained for 13 students). The results of the study demonstrate that the time knowledge can be considered as an indicator of a child's age maturity, independent of his intellectual abilities. Also the correlation between a child's knowledge of time and the formation of ULA of planning was found.</p
p>The authors have shown the relevance and justified the need to study the relationship between the types of innovative and role behavior of project team members and students who have no experience in group design. The purpose of the research is to study the correlation between the types of role behavior in a team and innovative behavior among managers with experience in project teams and students without such experience. In the 1st part of the study, a group of employees of industrial enterprises aged from 19 to 40 years and with work experience from 6 months to 22 years (n=45) took part, in the 2nd part of the study – undergraduate students in the direction of "Innovation" (n=20, age 20–22 years) and working managers with experience (n=30, age 21–41 years). The main hypothesis of the study is the assumption of significant discrepancies among students between their characteristic types of role and innovative behavior and their ideas about what team roles and types of innovative behavior are characteristic of them. In the first part of the study, using questionnaires of role behavior in a team and innovative behavior, the types of role and innovative behavior and combinations of types of role and innovative behavior of project team members were studied. The complementarity in frequently occurring combinations of role and innovative behavior of managers of innovative projects is revealed; such complementarity is absent in students. The results of the second part of the study show that employees with experience have the most widespread types of innovative behavior that provide incremental innovations, students have radical innovations. Among employees with experience, team roles of a social orientation are significantly more widespread than among students, among students – action roles, significant discrepancies between the types of role behavior according to questionnaires and those that students choose according to descriptions as characteristic of them were revealed. Students, in comparison with employees of enterprises, overestimate their readiness for intellectual roles in the team. The practical significance of the obtained results is shown, prospects for further research are outlined.</p
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