The purpose of the study, the results of which are described in the article, was to improve solving the matter of the geo-fields’ values restoring based on processing high-intensity spatial-temporal data streams received from a highly mobile geo-sensors network. Previously, the authors proposed an original approach to solving this task, which means applying the kernel smoothing methods, the nuclear function for which is determined automatically, using discrete stochastic optimization, in particular, the annealing simulation method. The idea of a new approach proposed by the authors is as follows
As part of the study “Komsomolskaya-Koltsevaya Metro Station. The project of architect A.V. Shchusev”, the authors investigate the birth of the idea of one of the best Moscow’s metro stations. Komsomolskaya-Koltsevaya is considered as part of the urban-planning ensemble of Komsomolskaya Square and as a kind of continuation of the architectural ensemble of Kazan railway station. The station was dedicated to the victory in the Great Patriotic War and was created in the Russian style, reflecting the rise of the national consciousness of the winners. This dedication also left an imprint on its architecture and decoration. The Russian-style projects brought Shchusev fame even before the October Revolution. After the revolution, the architect turned to this direction again in a number of his works, the last of which was Komsomolskaya-Koltsevaya. Shchusev's participation in the creation of the Moscow Metro since the 1920s has also been considered, a number of metro facilities co-engineered by Shchusev have been identified. The new data present a completely different picture of the early metro station design.
Aim. The presented study develops an ontological model of innovation from the industrial perspective (through the example of the construction industry) reflecting the relationship between innovation and the goals of their implementation and management objects, which would ensure the optimization of the innovation management system in the long term and facilitate the introduction of a quality assessment and selection system for more efficient operation of organizations. Tasks. The authors analyze the existing terminology and types of innovations at construction enterprises; classify the objects of innovation management; develop an ontological model of innovation at construction enterprises in the form of a directed graph. Methods. This study is based on the theory of innovation management, elements of system analysis, practical foundations of the organizational life cycle, and graph theory. Results. The obtained results can be used both in building an innovation management model at construction enterprises and in applying the methodology for assessing the quality of innovation. The relationship between management goals, implemented innovations, and management objects is determined and presented in the form of an ontological model. Conclusions. Development of an ontological model makes it possible not only to determine the relationship between various elements of economic, scientific, technical, and innovation activities of a construction company, but also to develop approaches to assessing their quality and building an innovation management system. Further research should focus on the aspects of innovation implementation at construction enterprises, its technological features, and processes that can be transformed for the successful implementation of these innovations.
The main purpose of this study is to monitor the impacts of seasonal urban heat island based on the relationship between seasonal land surface temperature and Land Use/ Cover (LU/LC) fluctuations in Kabul city, the capital of Afghanistan in 2020.To do this, areas affected by Urban Heat Island (UHI) were detected. The relationship between UHI spatiotemporal fluctuations and LULC classes was also evaluated. The composition of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical Landsat 8 OLI images were used to extract the LU/LC type of the study area with higher accuracy for all seasons. Random forest supervised classifier was used to classify Kabul city into four different LU/LC classes (vegetation, water body, built-up, and bare land). Landsat 8 thermal bands were used to derive land surface temperature (LST) change patterns. The outputs revealed that the UHIs created in Kabul city have distinct causes depending on the type of LU/LC classes. The mean land surface temperature of the four LU/LC classes in different seasons demonstrated that the distribution mode of UHIs in the city was in line with the type of LU/LC. Based on overall assessments, the results revealed that nine districts in Kabul city (D-19, D-15, D-21, D-16, D-20, D-17, D-6, D-9, and D-1) are highly affected by urban heat islands. The UHIaffected regions in Kabul city, mostly consist of industrial parks, factories, the airport, industrial complexes, brick kilns, high volume of daily traffic congestion, densely populated, crush plant stations, and residential settlements. To validate the results, daytime and nighttime MODIS LST maps were generated. The daytime LST map similarly demonstrated that the spatial distribution of UHIs is related to the types of LU/LC. On the other hand, the results from nighttime LST maps revealed that nighttime heat islands are more intense than daytime heat islands, with the main concentrations of UHIs spreading towards the most populated areas in the central and eastern portion of Kabul city. This is due to the absorption of solar radiation throughout the day and emission during the nighttime. Remote sensing techniques were shown to be productive and economic, particularly in terms of minimizing the time for the evaluation of urban heat island variations based on the relationship between land surface temperature and LU/LC changes. Precise and updated remote sensing assessments of UHIs will pave the way for urban planners and land management organizations in addressing challenges related to the phenomenon.
The authors highlight some special issues of the theory of heights. In establishing a global system of normal heights, one of the key matters is the final choice of a system of altitudes to represent elevation marks. In addition to proving the advantages of the mentioned system, it is necessary to eliminate some “white spots” within itself. In 2004, a more accurate way of calculating normal heights as the length of a coordinate line in a spheroidal system was considered. Simultaneously with this, in the papers by foreign researchers, methods of "practically accurate" calculation of the orthometric height were developed, which is associated with increasing knowledge of the earth`s crust upper layers structure. At studying the normal height, it is required to develop methods of its high-precision calculation and explore the properties of various options for setting the corresponding curvilinear integral. An expression is obtained for the normal height as a segment of the coordinate line of the spheroidal system; the one obtained in 2004, which contained inaccuracies, was corrected. The proposed method can be applied at an arbitrary distance from the reference ellipsoid.
The article proposes a computational method for determining the concentrations of pollutants inside a ventilated or cleaned room, taking into account the initial conditions and parameters of the flow rate, incoming or purified air, the volume of the room, the initial concentrations of the pollutant in the atmospheric air and in the room air, the parameters of the efficiency of the air cleaner. The article proposes the solution of two mass transfer equations under known initial conditions for two methods of cleaning rooms. When solving the first equation, a direct mass transfer calculation was carried out, which makes it possible to determine the effect of natural or artificial ventilation used indoors with small linear dimensions on the change in the concentration of the selected air polluting substance in the form of a chemical compound or an aerosol containing biological or chemical pollutants. When solving the second equation, a direct mass transfer calculation was carried out, which makes it possible to determine the effect of the operation of an air purifier used indoors with small linear dimensions on the change in the concentration of the selected air polluting substance in the form of a chemical compound or an aerosol containing biological or chemical pollutants. Calculations allow us to determine the time during which a residential office or industrial space is saturated with pollutants or cleaned to the required air quality standards, taking into account the influence of factors such as pollution of the surface layers of atmospheric air, the appearance of pollutants inside the room, the performance and efficiency of ventilation or air purification systems. The proposed calculation methods can be used to determine changes in the quality of indoor air over time, including taking into account changes in oxygen concentrations and pollutants indoors, determining the effectiveness of ventilation and air purification systems of various capacities in residential, office, medical and industrial premises. Ethics. The study does not require the submission of a biomedical ethics committee opinion or other documents.
The authors explore the problem of big data in the view of Earth sciences and spatial information. It is noted that the matter has existed since the beginning of space research. The conclusion is that this problem is subtle and is related to the level of developing computer technology and computational models. We analyze the issues of big data occurrence and its reasons. As one of the methods for working with such volumes, cloud computing is proposed. It is proved that spatial data make up the bulk of them. It is shown that streaming information processing methods give way to this technology. The impact of big data on surveying support is researched. The conclusion is made that modern geodetic support can be considered as applied and fundamental. Applied geodetic support is aimed at solving the corresponding problems and is connected with technological supplement. For it the big data issue is important, but not as significant as for fundamental geodetic support. In that level of research it is defined as an integrated set of technologies for which the mentioned matter is relevant. Fundamental geodetic support includes measurements, comprehensive analysis and calculations and is closely related to processing and analysis of big data. As a promising way for it, quantum computing is proposed.
Information on the movements and stress-strain state of the Earth`s surface and crust is necessary to predict catastrophic geodynamic processes, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, glacier collapses, karst sinkholes and subsidence of soils in mining areas. The authors summarize the existing experience of applying geoinformation technologies for modeling Earth’s surface deformations; reveal the shortcomings of current software solutions and the approach to their joint use for analyzing these processes. The relevance of using spatial data infrastructure as a source of data on Earth`s surface deformations is noted. Solutions for improvement of Earth`s surface deformations imaging with the help of the three-dimensional vector fields visualization method, presented by the authors in previous surveys, as well as the results of visualization of the Earth`s surface displacements model, demonstrating applicability and operability of the method developed by the authors, are offered. The requirements and the general functional layout of the thematic geographic information system intended for geoinformation modeling of the Earth`s surface deformations and administrative tasks solution are formed.
This article introduces a new analysis algorithm that can be applied to territorial organization of urban systems. After directed zoning, the zones are divided into those of balance and those of disproportions. The obtained solutions of the territorial-communication model are compared with a fractal standard, which serves as an indicator of the most effective urban organization in terms of the basic life support infrastructures and their communications. The algorithm makes it possible to reveal territorial disproportions of the urban environment, i.e., risk areas that violate the stability of the urban system as a whole and require external management.
In this research, the spatial distribution map of agricultural greenhouses in Tartus (Syria) was created using Sentinel-2 and high-resolution Google Earth Pro images in 2020. The potential expansion map of agricultural greenhouses was created by a set of topographic, climatic, ecological, infrastructure and land use-land cover criteria using GIS and remote sensing techniques. Our results show that the area covered by protected agriculture was about 5% of the total study area. Slightly more than half of the study area has constraints on the potential expansion of greenhouses, and two-third of the remaining area has high potential. Assessment of the methodology used in this research indicates high effectiveness with an overall accuracy of 96.6%. The obtained maps can provide vital information for land-use planning and management in Syria. The methodology proposed in this research could be used to map and assess the potential expansion of different cultivations.
Determination of coordinate systems’ parameters transformation has always been and remains the core of surveyors’ practical and theoretical works. However, in most cases, the issue is interpreted under the assumption that the angular rotation of the coordinate axes and the similarity parameter are very small, which enables a significant simplifying of the algorithm. In this paper the strict theory of determining the 7 and 9 parameters of coordinate systems transformation within the framework of nonlinear method of least squares with limitations is considered. Strict algorithm is described and numerical experiments are performed. The connection of the coordinate systems transformation theory with the general one of mathematical statistics, known under the name of Procrust analysis, is specified. However, in general, artificial neural network theory is recommended for conversion of one coordinate system to another. This generally eliminates the need for a prior determination of the transformation’s appropriate parameters, inevitably associated with hypotheses for the transformation model, but quickly and accurately solves the main problem.
This study focuses on the quality evaluation of two of the best 1 arc-second public global digital elevation models (DEMs), Copernicus GLO-30 DEM and ALOS AW3D30 DSM, from the perspective of their capability to represent the terrain morphology of a complex alpine landscape, located in the alpine Trentino Province, in the Italian Alps. The analysis is performed on an area of 6210 km ² , considering a reference DEM derived from a high resolution and accurate airborne Lidar DEM. The quality assessment includes, in addition to a conventional analysis of error statistics on a pixels-by-pixel basis, an ad-hoc analysis on the capability to represent the fine-scale morphology and local roughness. The quality analysis is performed considering the influence of local morphology and of the different land covers. The findings show that the two global DEMs have comparable overall quality, but the relative performances change according to local landscape characteristics. Copernicus DEM performance is on average better than ALOS in correspondence of urbanized areas as well in areas without vegetation cover, with gentle slopes and relatively low short-range roughness. ALOS DEM performance is slightly better than Copernicus in rougher terrain and steeper slopes. In general, both DEMs have poor performances in steep slopes, with a limited capability to describe correctly local morphology. The adoption of these global DEMs for terrain analysis and modelling of earth surface processes should be performed carefully, taking into account the impact of different land covers and of local morphology, including surface roughness.
The authors substantiate the relevance of cartographic production study in Russia, its dynamics and development trends in the view of further improvement. Conceptual and methodological approaches to the research are given, based on examining political, economic, scientific and technical factors of influence in terms of quantitative indicators and those of progressive development and regression, as well as on the construction of an integral graphical model of impacts. The features of the cartographic production functioning are characterized, covering international experience in the period from 2017 to the present, the typical of which will inevitably affect the next stage. The dynamics of world exports and imports of cartographic products of the main world manufacturers (state and commercial) for types of cartographic products is shown. Recommendations for improving production based on the analysis of problems and development trends are proposed.
The problem of downward continuation of airborne gravimetry data is discussed. Use of spherical radial basis functions (SRBF) to solve this ill-posed problem is proposed. Gravity disturbances observed at flight high are continued downward to disturbing potential. The SRBF method is numerically tested using synthesised data for flight heights 2000 m, 4600 m and 6000 m and grid steps 1 arcmin and 2.5 arcmin in area bounded by colatitudes 40°, 43° and longitudes 153°, 157° (spherical coordinates). The experiments prove that the SRBF method can provide stable and accurate results. Moreover, as a result of this procedure one have an approximator in the form of a linear combination of SRBF which allows to determine the values of different transforms of potential by applying the corresponding operators to this expression.
Air pollution has become a serious problem in all megacities. It is necessary to continuously monitor the state of the atmosphere, but pollution data received using fixed stations are not sufficient for an accurate assessment of the aerosol pollution level of the air. Mobility in measuring devices can significantly increase the spatiotemporal resolution of the received data. Unfortunately, the quality of readings from mobile, low-cost sensors is significantly inferior to stationary sensors. This makes it necessary to evaluate the various characteristics of monitoring systems depending on the properties of the mobile sensors used. This paper presents an approach in which the time of pollution detection is considered a random variable. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to deduce the cumulative distribution function of the pollution detection time depending on the features of the monitoring system. The obtained distribution function makes it possible to optimize some characteristics of air pollution detection systems in a smart city.
The studies on the landing site choice for the returned spacecraft are described. The selection is based on the terrain areas field surveys results and the fuzzy sets theory application to analyse the results. The spatial information situation model is used as a basic model. A fuzzy information situation concept and model are introduced. The landing site choice is made on the criteria basis that is interval, that is, indistinct. The possible landing sites’ number is limited. Because of this, the global discrete optimization is replaced by an expedient local choice. The conditions for applying the method and their possible extension are described.
Panoramic annular lens creates a 360° image of space in the form of a ring, by which it’s possible to define two angular coordinates of points of the space being represented. For measuring 3-dimensional Cartesian coordinates of points, it’s possible to use panoramic stereo photography or position finder, built into the PAL-system. In the latter case the distortions don’t take place because of the change in linear dimensions of objects’ images in passing from one measuring point to another one, moreover, accuracy of linear measurements is higher than of angular ones.
The authors discuss theoretical matters inherent in modern algorithms for processing satellite measurements’ data. Using the simplest radio navigation system MPS (abbreviation for Mandelstam, Papaleksi, Schegolev), developed in the USSR in 1936 as an example, it was shown that the main drawback of existing algorithms is that they did not use the mathematical notation of simultaneous registration of phase cycles, and all researchers, without exception, note the importance of these acts. It is proved that the operation of resolving ambiguity is not theoretically justified. It is recommended to record the duration of the measurement session, and it is proved that this can serve as an additional source of information. Based on the studies, a simple, unified, and rigorous algorithm for calculating the coordinates of the points to be determined from the results of registering phase cycles at using the radio navigation system in the phase probe mode is recorded.
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