Morgan State University
  • Baltimore, MD, United States
Recent publications
Purpose: This paper analyses the effects of debates on social entrepreneurship (SE) in physical education teacher education students (n=38) from an urban university. Participants discussed the role that society, social class, gender, race, and violence play in sports. Method: A convergent parallel mixed-methods design with methodological triangulation was employed: QUAN+QUAL. Results: The quantitative results provide evidence regarding the positive effect of debates on SE. The qualitative analysis complements this outcome by describing how SE was developed, for example, facing a new teaching methodology, being challenged by peers and/or the teacher, analyzing different opinions and their implications, developing new arguments for discussion, discussing topics according to the students’ interests, and leading the conversation while debating. Data transformation and sentiment analyses provide supplemental information regarding the benefits provided. Discussion/Conclusion: Our results display how debates improve SE in physical education teacher education students, calling for new research in this direction.
Concrete is a universal construction material, and it is one of the most widely used materials in civil engineering. Concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension, therefore exhibiting brittle material characteristics. Lightweight concrete (LWC) has a considerably lower density compared to normal concrete and this is associated with its brittle nature, thus affecting the strength, ductility, and durability of lightweight concrete. To improve these shortcomings and proffer solutions, this paper investigates the effects of dispersed chopped basalt fiber (BF) incorporation in concrete and basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) mesh for concrete confinement. An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the strength and toughness of BF reinforced lightweight expanded clay concrete (LWECC). This experiment was performed with eighteen (18) specimens of LWECC cylindrical column with 1.6 percent chopped BF mixed with lightweight ECC. To verify this experiment, three-dimensional finite element models (FEM) were created based on the experimental loading and accounted for tested material properties. A close agreement was achieved between the test and finite element analysis results, split tensile strength, compressive strength, and stress-strain relationship of cylindrical basalt fiber concrete was developed. The results proved the best porosity index, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity when expanded clay concrete was reinforced with BF and confined in BFRP mesh.
Objective: To investigate the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, hospitalizations and deaths in Iranians vaccinated with either AZD1222 Vaxzevria, CovIran® vaccine, SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell), Inactivated (lnCoV) or Sputnik V. Methods: We enrolled individuals 18 years or older receiving their first COVID-19 vaccine dose between April 2021 and January 2022 in seven Iranian cities. Participants completed weekly follow-up surveys for 17 weeks (25 weeks for AZD1222) to report their COVID-19 status and hospitalization. We used Cox regression models to assess risk factors for contracting COVID-19, hospitalization and death. Findings: Of 89 783 participants enrolled, incidence rates per 1 000 000 person-days were: 528.2 (95% confidence interval, CI: 514.0-542.7) for contracting COVID-19; 55.8 (95% CI: 51.4-60.5) for hospitalization; and 4.1 (95% CI: 3.0-5.5) for death. Compared with SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell), hazard ratios (HR) for contracting COVID-19 were: 0.70 (95% CI: 0.61-0.80) with AZD1222; 0.73 (95% CI: 0.62-0.86) with Sputnik V; and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.63-0.86) with CovIran®. For hospitalization and death, all vaccines provided similar protection 14 days after the second dose. History of COVID-19 protected against contracting COVID-19 again (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.69-0.84). Diabetes and respiratory, cardiac and renal disease were associated with higher risks of contracting COVID-19 after vaccination. Conclusion: The rates of contracting COVID-19 after vaccination were relatively high. SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell) provided lower protection against COVID-19 than other vaccines. People with comorbidities had higher risks of contracting COVID-19 and hospitalization and should be prioritized for preventive interventions.
Remote Sensing affords the opportunity to monitor and evaluate data scarce regions where field collection efforts are costly. A particular challenge is monitoring and evaluation in regions with smallholder agricultural systems (∼1 ha) that are often subsistence focused, vulnerable to food insecurity and data scarce. Using multi-day moderate resolution Sentinel-2 and Random Forest models, this study shows that crop type and rice yields in Burkina Faso can be predicted with greater than ∼80% accuracy in the rainy season. Model optimization using varying spectral and vegetation index inputs can increase crop type and yield prediction accuracy in the dry season where denser cultivation is a challenge for the 10–20 m resolution of Sentinel-2. However, there is a trade-off between opting for very high-resolution imagery (<2 m) or the number of bands offered by Sentinel-2 as the bands that occupy and vegetation indices that utilize the red through NIR ranges were most important across all models. In addition, model type, linear Regression or nonlinear Random Forest, matters little when estimating yield in these landscapes, unless Harmonic regression is utilized for the linear model. This study also showed that a model trained with high quality 2019 dry season crop cut data can predict the subsequent dry season's interannual crop type with overall accuracy as high as 60%, comparable to crop type models trained with 2020 survey data and used to estimate crop type in the concurrent season, as the survey collection. This indicates some utility in leveraging the calibrated Random Forest models to make skillful predictions of interannual crop type and ultimately food availability of nearby communities for years with no training data. Given increasing global food prices and restricted commodity trade, understanding local agricultural productivity using affordable and timely remote sensing-based methods is essential for ensuring appropriate humanitarian interventions.
Aim/Purpose: This study explores how online writing groups facilitate the academic identity development of doctoral scholars. Background: Academic institutions around the world, and especially in developing societies, are demanding increasing amounts of research and publications from their doc�toral scholars. The current study used an online writing group to facilitate writ�ing skills development, which bolstered the academic identity development of participating scholars. Academic identity is defined as the becoming and being of an academic scholar, with writing skills as a means of acquiring and perform�ing the status and skills of a scholar. It is reflected in the confidence, contribu�tion, and relationship carried out in writing as a member of the academic com�munity. Methodology: This study utilizes narrative inquiry as a research methodology to capture the ex�periences of six doctoral scholars from two universities in Nepal. We explore the academic identity of doctoral scholars from a sociocultural perspective, em�ploying unstructured interviews, meeting notes, and entry and exit surveys of the online writing group. Contribution: This article shows how online writing groups offer unique and impactful oppor�tunities for networking, collaboration, and problem-solving, which can signifi�cantly enhance their writing abilities and prospects of publication, thereby fos�tering their intellectual agency and academic identity. Findings: This study reports three findings of the value of online writing groups: address�ing gaps in formal education, community as a form of accountability, and virtualcommunity as a platform for identity development. On the final finding of iden�tity development, we identify and discuss four themes from data analysis: growth of self-image as scholars, strengthening of commitment to scholarship, identification of venues for expanding the scope of publication, and enhance�ment of digital skills. The informal and collaborative nature of online writing support facilitated socially constructivist learning, which was highly conducive to the development of academic identity among emerging scholars. Recommendations for Practitioners: It is recommended that institutions implement and encourage online writing support programs as an effective means of addressing gaps in doctoral educa�tion. While this program can fill gaps in the low-resource contexts of develop�ing countries, it can bolster formal mentoring in any context. Recommendations for Researchers: Further research should use large-scale or longitudinal studies to explore how informal, especially online writing support and collaboration, accelerate research and writing skills, scholarly productivity, and overall academic identity formation of doctoral scholars. Impact on Society: As societies around the world accelerate their demand for doctoral degrees and also require research and publications for degree completion, new and creative approaches utilizing emerging technologies could help to fill gaps in curriculum and support systems for their doctoral scholars. Future Research: Future research could expand the scope and take a longitudinal approach for more fine-grained data and developing broader perspectives. Keywords: academic identity, doctoral scholars, communities of practice, online writing group, narrative inquiry
The inorganic chlorine (Cly) and odd nitrogen (NOy) chemical families influence stratospheric O3. In January 2020 Australian wildfires injected record‐breaking amounts of smoke into the southern stratosphere. Within 1–2 months ground‐based and satellite observations showed Cly and NOy were repartitioned. By May, lower stratospheric HCl columns declined by ∼30% and ClONO2 columns increased by 40%–50%. The Cly perturbations began and ended near the equinoxes, increased poleward, and peaked at the winter solstice. NO2 decreased from February to April, consistent with sulfate aerosol reactions, but returned to typical values by June ‐ months before the Cly recovery. Transport tracers show that dynamics not chemistry explains most of the observed O3 decrease after April, with no significant transport earlier. Simulations assuming wildfire smoke behaves identically to sulfate aerosols couldn't reproduce observed Cly changes, suggesting they have different composition and chemistry. This undermines our ability to predict ozone in a changing climate.
The impact of the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic created a paradigm shift in the delivery of substance abuse treatment services. Still, it also provided an opportunity for healthcare workers and professionals, and treatment providers to adjust, problem-solve, and meet these challenges head-on. The pandemic led practitioners and healthcare professionals to change how they deliver treatment options but still ensuring that their clients received access to adequate and effective clinical services. It is suggested that during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare professionals should make every effort to ensure accessibility and availability of substance abuse treatment services through critical actions. This paper will address the physical health implications, as well as the trauma-stress related effects of COVID-19 on individuals with substance use disorders (SUD). In all, this article will identify barriers to treatment access, accentuate treatment strategies, and provide measures and recommendations for maintaining and improving services for substance-dependent patients.
The primary aim of this work is to introduce a new class of functions called μ-(ω, c)-pseudo-almost periodic functions. Using the measure theory, we generalize in a natural way some recent works and study some properties of those μ-(ω, c)-pseudo-almost periodic functions including two new composition results which play a crucial role for the existence of some μ-(ω, c)-pseudo-almost periodic solutions of certain semilinear differential equations and partial differential equations. We also investigate the existence and uniqueness of the μ-(ω, c)-pseudo-almost periodic solutions for some models of Lasota-Wazewska equation with measure (ω, c)-pseudo-almost periodic coefficient and mixed delays.
One of the best practices to reduce the risk of infant morbidity and mortality is the early initiation of breastfeeding, specifically within the first hour of birth, as the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends. Limited data exist on breastfeeding initiation and its related factors in the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.). Therefore, the purpose of this research study was to evaluate and analyze the determinant factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding among mothers with children aged <2 years old in a cross-sectional multicenter setting in Abu Dhabi, U.A.E. Seven governmental community and healthcare centers participated in the study from diverse geographic areas of Abu Dhabi. A trained female research assistant collected information from mothers with young children attending the centers. All participants were informed in detail about the purpose of the study and signed a written consent form. A total of 1610 mother–child pairs were included in the study. The mean (standard deviation) of maternal age and children’s age was 30.1 (5.1) years and 8.1 (5.9) months, respectively. Six hundred and four (604) (37.5%) reported delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Factors associated with delayed breastfeeding initiation were being of non-Arab nationality (adjusted odds ratio (A.O.R.) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.63), caesarean section (AOR 2.85, 95% CI 2.26, 3.58), non-rooming-in (AOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.53, 5.21), first birth order (AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07, 1.69), and mothers with low-birth-weight children (AOR 3.30, 95% CI 2.18, 4.99) as was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, approximately four out of ten mothers delayed initiation of breastfeeding for more than one hour after delivery. The results of this study call for urgent policy changes to improve the early initiation rates of breastfeeding mothers in the U.A.E.
Three African American analytical chemists, whose primary research careers have focused in the respective sectors of academia, government, and industry, have come together to provide personal perspectives on parameters that have impacted their careers as well as to provide their perceptions of the current and future status of African Americans in the overall science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enterprise, and the more specific field of analytical chemistry. The authors, having ∼150 years of combined experiences, reflect on the past status and contemplate future advances for African Americans in STEM. The most important factors during their formative years that underpinned their success over the long-term are enumerated. Particularly cited are the distinct features within the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) environment that placed them solidly on a path toward successful careers. The Grand Challenge now and for the foreseeable future, reversal of the dysfunctional metropolitan public-school systems, is cited and the only perceived light in the tunnel for addressing this issue is mentioned. Finally, recommendations are made for the future where diversity within the STEM enterprise will be a prerequisite for U.S. competitiveness in our global society.
Organization metrics were originally developed to measure how densely convective clouds are arranged at mesoscales. In this work, we apply organization metrics to describe tropical synoptic scale convective activity. Such activity is identified by cloud‐precipitation (hybrid) regimes defined at 1‐degree and 1‐hourly resolution. Existing metrics were found to perform inadequately for such convective regime aggregates because the large domain size and co‐existence of sparse aggregate occurrences with noisy isolated convection often violate assumptions inherent in these metrics. In order to capture these characteristics, in this study the existing “convective organization potential” (COP) metric was modified so as to focus on local organization and provide increased weight to aggregate size. The resulting “area‐based COP” (ABCOP) follows the principle that the more numerous the objects, the higher the chance of organization. It is thus optimized to capture large‐scale convective events occurring during phenomena such as ENSO and MJO, while also performs as well as existing metrics for small domain sizes.
The consequences and affordances of online teacher education remain understudied, even as it promises greater accessibility. The COVID-19-related pivot to emergency remote teaching offered a novel opportunity to study how practice-based teacher educators transitioned courses online. This multiple case study of six graduate student instructors examines the effects of transition on four pedagogies of practice-based teacher education. We discovered that 1) representations and 2) approximations of practice could be adapted with minimal disruption. However, 3) enactments could be transitioned only with loss and cascading effects that impacted 4) reflections on practice. These findings can promote teacher educators' awareness of how to create intentionally designed online practice-based teacher education courses.
Let A, P, and Q ≠ ∅ be posets and consider Professor Garrett Birkhoff’s exponentiation operator PQ. McKenzie defined a new operator $$ \mathcal C\left( P^{Q}\right):=\{f\in P^{Q}\mid f\ \text{is in the same connected component as some}\ g $$$$ \text{that is constant on the connected components of}\ Q\}. $$ He implied without proof that \(\mathcal C\left (A^{P\times Q}\right )\cong \mathcal C\left (\mathcal C\left (A^{P}\right )^{Q}\right )\), stating explicitly that this isomorphism was via the canonical order-isomorphism \({\Psi }:A^{P\times Q}\cong \left (A^{P}\right )^{Q}\) when A was connected. In this note, it is shown that the restriction of Ψ does not in general give an order-isomorphism from \(\mathcal C\left (A^{P\times Q}\right )\) to \(\mathcal C\left (\mathcal C\left (A^{P}\right )^{Q}\right )\), not even for A connected, although it does if AP has finite diameter or if Q has finitely many components. In his 1942 article on the arithmetic of ordered sets, Professor Birkhoff proved that if P embeds in Q and A is a complete lattice, then AP embeds in AQ. He said, “The author has no counterexample to [this theorem] for [posets] not complete lattices….” In this note, counterexamples where A, P, and Q are lattices are found.
Stressors of different natures induce activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at different magnitudes. Moreover, the HPA axis response to repeated exposure is usually distinct from that elicited by a single session. Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) augments ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) levels, but the nature of this stimulus is not yet defined. The purpose of the present study was to qualitatively compare the stress response of animals submitted to PSD to that of rats exposed once or four times to cold, as a physiological stress, movement restraint (RST) as a mixed stressor and predator odour (PRED) as the psychological stressor, whilst animals were submitted for 1 or 4 days to PSD and respective control groups. None of the stressors altered corticotropin releasing factor immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), median eminence (ME) or central amygdala, compared to control groups, whereas vasopressin immunoreactivity in PSD animals was decreased in the PVN and increased in the ME, indicating augmented activity of this system. ACTH levels were higher after repeated stress or prolonged PSD than after single- or 1 day-exposure and control groups, whereas the CORT response was habituated by repeated stress, but not by 4-days PSD. This dissociation resulted in changes in the CORT : ACTH ratio, with repeated cold and RST decreasing the ratio compared to single exposure, but no change was seen in PRED and PSD groups. Comparing the magnitude and pattern of pituitary-adrenal response to the different stressors, PSD-induced responses were closer to that shown by PRED-exposed rats. In contrast, the hypothalamic response of PSD-exposed rats was unique, inasmuch as this was the only stressor which increased the activity of the vasopressin system. In conclusion, we propose that the pituitary-adrenal response to PSD is similar to that induced by a psychological stressor.
To adduce empirical evidence of the benefits of board diversity to investors, we examine the relation between board age‐diversity and firm value. We examine different factors that are known to influence firm value both in the short‐term and long‐term horizons: cumulative abnormal returns, real earnings management, firm innovative activities, and analyst coverage. Our proxy for board diversity is the board age diversity. We find that board age‐diversity enhances firm value through different mechanisms; increased firm innovative activities and curtailed real earnings manipulation. We find that board age‐diversity has (no) effect on firm value in the long (short) term horizon. Overall, our results emphasize the long‐term benefits of board diversity to investors.
In this study we sequenced the genomes of three economically important swimming crabs Portunus trituberculatus, Charybdis japonica, and Callinectes sapidus using the next-generation sequencing approach and made a basic assembly. The genomes of the three species are characterized with high heterozygosity (>1.2%) and high repeat content (>50%). Genome comparative analysis revealed 40 long conserved fragments (>5,000 bp) among the three species, most of them are involved in cardiac-related biological process. Relative higher genome similarity was found between P. trituberculatus and C. japonica that are belong to different subfamilies, compared to that between P. trituberculatus and C. sapidus which are from the same subfamily. It is inconsistent with their phylogenetic evolutionary trees inferred from previous mitochondrial DNA coding fragments and a conserved ANK2 protein fragment from this study. We speculated that the high genome similarity between P. trituberculatus and C. japonica might be attributed to their same inhabit range in which the genome is subject to the same environment selection, and the inconsistence between genome similarity and phylogenetic relationship is caused by the different evolutionary rates of coding DNA and non-coding DNA under environment selection.
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2,331 members
Amirreza Nickkar
  • Department of Transportation & Urban Infrastructure Studies
Gbekeloluwa B. Oguntimein
  • Department of Civil Engineering
M. G. Quibria
  • Department of Economics
Gloria E Hoffman
  • Department of Biology
1700 E Cold Spring Ln, Morgan State University, 21251, Baltimore, MD, United States
Head of institution
Dr. David Wilson