Few researchers have examined the mental health needs of nontraditional student clients (age 25 and older) using a multisite counseling center sample. This study (N = 4,499) included 630 nontraditional students (age 25 and older) who sought counseling services across one state university system. Compared with traditional‐age student clients, nontraditional clients were more demographically diverse, presented with different concerns and challenges, and were more likely to report financial stress. Financial stress mediated relationships between nontraditional students status and academic dysfunction.
This chapter is a case study of how a community college located in the Midwestern United States has worked to increase student veterans’ engagement with the campus community while simultaneously being enrolled in online degree programs. Student veterans experience unique transition challenges from the military into college. Moreover, the transition issues can be unintentionally exacerbated when student veterans enroll in degree programs offered entirely online. We consider strategies colleges can use to increase engagement of veterans primarily enrolled in online degree programs and outline their implementation. In addition, a discussion and corresponding challenges are outlined to help higher education administrators implement the engagement strategies with student veterans on their own campus. By developing a structured engagement system, higher education administrators can alleviate some of the transition issues plaguing student veterans and in turn improve engagement, retention, and graduation rates.
The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference existed in students’ perceptions of teaching presence and social presence between the online and traditional face-to-face learning environments as defined by the Community of Inquiry (CoI) survey. A quantitative causal-comparative study design was used to survey students at a Midwest community college in the United States who had completed College 101 online or face-to-face. A total of 183 students completed the survey. The findings support prior research that an equally strong teaching presence and social presence can be achieved in the online learning environment. Practical implications and recommendations for future research are addressed.
This paper presents the numerical simulation studies of upgraded system for single-mode fiber (SMF wired)/free space optics (FSO wireless) under high-speed operation of 10 Gb/s. Further, the maximum reach of the system is analyzed based on various advanced modulation techniques, namely phase frequency shift keying (CPFSK), quadrature amplitude modulation, differential phase-shift keying, frequency shift keying, pulse amplitude modulation and different optical amplifiers, namely erbium-doped fiber amplifier, traveling wave semiconductor optical amplifier and parametric optical amplifier, respectively. The overall system studies are done by optiwave system software through which bit error rate and Q-factor are studied. The trade-off between different all-optical amplifiers and modulation techniques is studied to show the enhancement of upgrading system. The simulation results show that the maximum reach of distance belongs to CPFSK modulation scheme.
The chapter critically surveys the recent development trends in nanotextile finishes. Garments for special needs comprising of the functional aspects such as protective, medical treatment and care, have been considered through treatment with silver nanoparticles and have been related to sustainability. The micro- and nanoencapsulation of 100 % cotton denim fabric using three herbal extracts have been studied for antimicrobial efficiency, resulting in improvement in durability and good resistance to microbes over 30 industrial washes. The synthesis, characterization, and application of nanochitosan on cotton fabric has been studied, and the treated fabrics were evaluated for appearance, tensile, absorbency, stiffness, dyeing behaviour, wrinkle recovery, and antibacterial properties. Polyester fabric has been treated with nanosized dispersed dye particles without carrier, using ultrasound. This has been used for optimizing the parameters for the preparation of the printing paste. Attempt has been made to improve the handle property of jute polyester-blended yarn to produce union fabric with cotton yarn, intended for winter garment. The findings indicate that nano–micropolysiloxane-based finishing exhibit better improvement in the surface morphology, handling, and recovery property of the fabric as compared with other finishing combinations. Viscose fabrics have been modified to improve the attraction for metal oxides such as aluminium, zinc, or titanium in order to impart antimicrobial activity against two types of microorganisms. Nanosafe textile using the extracts of yellow papaya peel has been developed by extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles. Cotton fabrics with smart properties have been developed by functional finishing with stimuli-responsive nanogel using a combination of biopolymer and synthetic polymer in the synthesis of nanogel. The findings reveal that the application of nanogel as a smart finishing system affects the intrinsic cotton properties and also improves the common textile quality by providing new features of stimuli responsiveness. Above all these, the newer concepts of the nanotextile finishes discussed in the chapter promise enhancement in the existing properties of textile materials, increase durability, promote ecofriendliness and economy, and thus pave the way towards achieving better sustainability.
Background: Microarray technologies provide huge amount of information and is particularly helpful in the prediction and diagnosis of cancer. To accurately classify cancers, genes related to cancer have to be selected, as genes mined from microarrays possess too much noise. Method: In the current work, new binary modifications of the Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) is suggested for choosing optimal features subsets for classification. In the proposed approach, GWO is modified by binarizing only the initial three optimal solutions and updation of the wolf position using stochastic crossover. Modification was also carried out using sigmoidal functions to compress the continuous updated positions. Multilayer Perceptron - Neural Network (MLP-NN) classifier is used for classifying the selected features. Results: The ALL/AML Leukemia dataset is used for evaluating Markov Blanket filter, minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR), Binary GWO and Mutated Binary GWO (MBGWO) with regard to classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The proposed MBGWO achieved classification accuracy of 95.45% and also has better sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: Experiments reveal the capabilities of the proposed MBGWO to explore features space for the optimal features combination for gene selection from microarray data.
The Itaipu Technology Park (Parque Tecnológico Itaipu – PTI) was created in 2003 motived by a new strategic vision from Itaipu Binacional to broaden social responsibility and sustainability, at regional level. The PTI has been building a new model to interact within the Quadruple Helix participants in order to promote the Paraná West territorial development. This chapter describes the challenges to implement this model in a retrospective view since the creation of PTI, and emphasizes the efforts to build the capabilities and conditions through the education, science, technology and the innovation. As a mechanism to promote innovation and territorial development, the PTI placed into the territorial innovation system as a driving element in the system. To manage and operate the PTI, Itaipu created the FPTI, a private, non-profit foundation which is responsible for providing economic and financial support for laboratory infrastructure, seeking sponsorship for research, and attracting partners from other regions, with the aim to complement local capacity via scientific development. This chapter also emphasizes the relationship between the FPTI and Universities in order to promote and expand public and free higher education as well as a role of projects aimed to the science popularization. The Park provides shared spaces for classrooms and laboratories, besides environments for fellowship and active participation in cooperative projects shared by FPTI, universities, and Itaipu. For this purpose, the FPTI develop it projects by the concept defined by “action in the intersection”, within two main relationship strategies: the “extra park” and “intra park”. Furthermore, using logical organizational structures called ST&I platforms to stimulate technology development, and promote innovation in an environment of shared usage of infrastructure and resources via streamlined mechanisms and cooperative functions, as an induction vector of strategic themes. In conclusion, the chapter demonstrate how PTI has been contributing to the territorial development process and encourage to consider it as a successful alternative park model and example to be observed and studied.
Tissue engineering is an outcome of the dramatic advances in the area of material science coupled with the latest knowledge of molecular cell biology. It enables the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function (Langer and Vacanti in Science 260:920, ). The three important techniques used in tissue engineering are cell substitutes, tissue-inducing substances, and cell placed on/within matrices. The last one has become popular in tissue engineering research. It involves the development of biological substrates to treat the loss or dysfunction of an organ, indicating certain combination of cells and scaffold materials.
Percutaneous vascular surgery has made noteworthy progress during the past two decades (Sigwart et al. in N Engl J Med 316:701–706, 1987 ; Henry et al. in Textile Heart Inst J 27(2):119–126, 2005 ).
Pressure ulcer also known as ‘Decubitus’ ulcer is the injury caused to skin and/or underlying tissue due to pressure or pressure coupled with shear and/or friction (Hu et al. in Textile Res J 75:57–62, 2005 ). They are generally found in immobile patients and can take a long time to heal, and also are expensive to treat (Graves et al. in Wound Repair Regen 13:462–467, 2005; Severens et al. in Adv Skin Wound Care 15:72–77, 2002; Jackobs in Topics Clin Nutr 14:41–47, 1999 [2–4]). Pressure ulcers may be deep, originating in underlying tissue, or superficial, resulting from repeated surface friction or abrasion. Deep ulcers are caused due to lack of oxygen and nutrient supply to the skin and underlying tissue due to prolonged pressure.
The recent years have seen the development of interventional heart valve therapies (Andersen et al in Eur Heart J 13:704–708, 1992 ; Bonhoeffer et al in J Am Coll Cardiol 39:1664–1669, 2002 ; Cribier et al in Circulation 106:3006–3008, 2002 ; Spillner et al in J Heart Valve Dis 14(4):546–550, 2005 ), while there is commercially available prosthesis to treat aortic and pulmonary valves (Cribier et al in J Am Coll Cardiol 47:1214–1223, 2006 ; Grube et al in Circulation 114:1616–1624, 2006 ; Walther et al in Circulation 116(11 Suppl):I240–I245, 2007 ; Khambadkone and Bonhoeffer in Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 62:401–408, 2004 ). Regurgitation is the most common mitral valve disease in Western countries. The recent trend focuses on the reconstruction of valve rather than replacement, owing to many reasons. The preservation of the subvalvular apparatus, which is necessary for ventricular performance, is an important aspect to be considered.
Knives are being used commonly in committing criminal offenses these days. Hence, it becomes necessary for law and medical professionals to get a good deal of protection from threats of physical harm. As crime rates have increased twofold in some European countries, the public need high-level protection (Wooding in The Sun 20:4, ). The demand for protective garments is ever increasing and is more focused on ballistic protection and antistab protection.
In the case of patients with intestinal cancers, intestinal blockage and stenosis have been noticed in clinical conditions . Investigations have shown that stents can alleviate intestinal obstruction and stenosis [2, 3]. For over thirty years, the metal stents have been used for the treatment of the obstruction and stenosis of bowel and vessels . The metal stents pose problems in further treatment and reduce image quality of magnetic resonance imaging. In the treatment of obstruction and stenosis, biodegradable stents can offer an alternate option. The major advantage of biodegradable stents is different from other kinds of stents in that they can prevent serious long-term complications and do not require removal, thus avoiding further surgeries and potential morbidity.
Recently, functional textiles for medical and related healthcare products have gained access in the textile field (Fisher in Tech Textil Int 11:10–16, 2002). The textile industry has been equipped with medical knowledge and has enriched the textile fabrics due to their interaction with the skin (Hippler and Elsner in Curr Probl Dermatol 33:51–66, 2007). Some significant applications of the textiles in medical field are artificial aortas and bandages.
For the management of surgical wounds, dressings have been commonly used. A wide range of wound dressings have been developed to treat the different problems that happen during the process of wound healing (Attwood in Br J Plast Surg 42:373–379, 1989; Barnett et al. in Am J Surg 145:379–381, 1983).
Biopolymers have gained popularity during recent times, being prompted by increasing environmental awareness, growing public health and environmental regulations, and are therefore being considered as alternatives to synthetic polymers (Krajewska in Separation purification technology 41:305, 2005 ).
Owing to their large surface area, nanofibers are able to find applications in medical textile products such as surgical facemasks, wound dressings, and drug-delivery systems . Chitosan, which is a biopolymer, is suited for such applications [2–5].
During the recent years, cellulosic fibers have been used in the development of medical textile products, as proved by the literature available (Edward in Modified fibres with medical and specialty applications. Springer, Berlin, 2006; Browning in Methods of wood chemistry. Interscience Publisher, New York, 1967; Kaputskii et al. in Fibre Chem 37:417–504, 2006; Kotel’nikova in Russ J Gen Chem 73:418–426, 2003; Czaja et al. J Biomater 27:145–151, 2006; Hoenich in BioResources 1:270–280, 2006; Ravi Kumar in Funct Polym 46:1–27, 2000; Lim and Hudson in Carbohydr Res 339:313–319, 2004). Owing to their active surface area, strength, and molecular structure, cellulosic fibers exhibit enormous possibilities in the design of bioactive, biocompatible, and advanced materials (Bliss et al. in Clin Infect Dis 34:184–190, 2002).
In the treatment of acute as well as chronic wounds, woven and nonwoven gauze has been used over a long period of time (Elliot in A short history of surgical dressings. Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1964). Cotton- and cellulose-based wound dressings are commonly being used in hospitals and nursing homes for wound care. Recently, modifications in fibers, yarns, and nonwovens have enhanced its quality and versatility in medical applications (Goldthwait et al. in Surgery 18:507–510, 1945; Parikh and Patience in Pharm Forum 24:6627–6630, 1998; Edwards et al. in ACS Symp Ser 792:76–89, 2001; Edwards in Modified fibers with medical and specialty applications. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 11–33, 2005). Chronic wounds pose a major problem worldwide (National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel in Adv Skin Wound Care 14:208–215, 2001). For the 5 million Americans suffering from chronic open wounds, it is estimated that $5–7 billion per year is spent, and this is increasing at an annual rate of 10 % (Allman et al. in Adv Wound Care 12:22–30, 1999).
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