Countering ads with fake claims represent a significant challenge for marketers and policymakers. We show how gender can help better target debunking efforts toward fake ads. First, we find that females (vs. males) show higher sensitivity to debunking efforts toward fake ads, leading to less favorable attitudes toward the brand and, consequently, lower purchase intentions. We then further probe these effects by introducing processing variables from the tenets of perceived risk (perceived health risk) and information processing confidence (skepticism toward the ad). We find that debunking information induces higher levels of skepticism among females owing to their lower information processing confidence than males, leading to downstream effects of higher perceptions of health risk, less favorable attitudes toward the brand, and lower purchase intentions among females than males. Our findings provide implications for advertisers and policymakers to battle the ongoing proliferation of fake ads.
Providing equitable mathematics learning opportunities in inclusive settings requires pre-service teachers (PSTs) to strengthen their skills to notice students’ diverse needs and mathematical reasoning. However, helping PSTs develop noticing skills is not an easy task for teacher educators. In our study, we examined the impact of different tasks (i.e. a written artefact task, an interview task, and a video analysis task) on elementary PSTs’ skills to notice the mathematical thinking of students with diverse needs. Our findings indicate that the sequence of three different noticing tasks scaffolded elementary PSTs’ ability to interpret and respond to students’ mathematical reasoning and individualized needs. Particularly, the interview task supported PSTs in effectively and purposefully interpreting and responding to mathematical reasoning and the struggles of elementary students with diverse needs. To articulate our findings, we share cases of three PSTs interviewing elementary students: one who struggles in mathematics, one who has an Individualized Education Program (IEP), and one who has been categorized as gifted and talented. We discuss our findings in relation to previous research, share implications for mathematics teacher educators, and provide recommendations for possible future studies.
Drawing on agency theory and transaction cost analysis, this study investigates the impact of refranchising and buybacks of downstream retail units by franchising firms on shareholder value (i.e., stock returns). It further evaluates the contingency role of firm and industry factors in shaping this impact. An event study analysis over the years 2001–2020 confirms that both refranchising and buybacks positively affect stock returns. However, notable impact differences emerge between the two types of strategic decisions. For refranchising, firms with lower royalty rates, smaller returns-on-assets (ROA), and higher trade credit provided generate higher stock returns. Whereas, for buybacks, firms with higher royalty rates derive more value in stock markets. Analysis further shows that investors judge refranchising (buybacks) less (more) favorably in munificent industries, but industry dynamism has no effect on the stock returns generated from these moves. Together, the study offers important implications for franchising theory and retail practice in marketing.
Introduction: Online support group experiences, using social networking websites like Facebook, have shown much promise in past research unrelated to stuttering. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the utility of a Facebook-based stuttering support group that was created as an extension of and supplement to an in-person stuttering support group as a means of providing psychosocial support for people who stutter (PWS). Method: A qualitative approach that was inspired by ethnography was used to explore the experiences of seven participants (six participants who stutter and one participant who does not stutter) who digitally connect on a private Facebook-based stuttering support group that was created as an extension of and supplement to an already existing in-person stuttering support group. The main question posed to the participants related to describing their experiences being a member of the Facebook-based stuttering support group. Results: Data analysis revealed two major themes, which included the benefits and challenges of participating in a Facebook-based stuttering support group. Each major theme contained five subthemes. Specific results are discussed with reference to past research, as well as implications for practice and recommendations for future research. Conclusions: There are numerous benefits and challenges associated with being a member of a Facebook-based stuttering support group. However, the overall utility of a Facebook-based stuttering support group, used in tandem with an in-person stuttering support experience, seems to provide members with a useful and impactful way to gain psychosocial support from other PWS.
Purpose There have been calls to defund the police and redistribute funding to public safety strategies including incorporating social workers within law enforcement to address nonviolent situations. Method A cross-sectional survey research design was used to describe the need for a social worker embedded in law enforcement among 335 leaders in law enforcement Results Approximately a third of leadership believed a social worker was needed. More than 90% reported that a social worker would be helpful with calls about emotional disturbances, domestic violence, alcohol and drugs, child endangerment, family disputes, victims of crime and death survivors. Over 94% of senior leadership reported that an onsite social worker would support officers’ emotional challenges, alcohol and drugs, and suicide risk. Senior supervising leadership were more likely to support having an on-site social worker than frontline leadership. Discussion Future research should assess whether including social workers as public safety alternatives could reduce unnecessary force by law enforcement.
Statement of the problem. 311 call data are replacing on-site assessments as a popular alternative metric to gauge urban streetblock conditions, including physical incivilities like litter, trash and rubbish. Work to date, however, has not yet established the ecological construct validity, and thus the meaning, of streetblock 311 call counts for specific physical incivilities. The current work gauges this validity over time. Procedures. Philadelphia open source geolocated 311 data (35,055 streetblocks within all of Philadelphia’s 45 neighborhoods) were combined with streetblock litter scores from two open source on-site assessments made by trained city raters. Following the Hawley/Bursik change framework, this work examined connections between ecological discontinuities in 311 streetblock litter call counts and later ecological discontinuities in on-site litter assessments. Results/implications. Earlier 311 litter call count shifts connected positively albeit modestly to later assessed litter shifts. Nevertheless, so too did earlier call count shifts in a theoretically unrelated category. For this physical incivility, and perhaps others, category-specific streetblock call count shifts have demonstrated some modest convergent predictive validity, but not discriminant predictive validity. This is the first theoretically aligned, streetblock-level ecological change analysis linking 311 calls about a specific physical incivility to a specific corresponding on-site condition. Neighborhood spatiotemporal inequalities surfaced.
The fourth and final chapter, why Ubuntu ought to be a moral framework, continues the previous chapter's discussion of the domain issue. This chapter tries to defend the ubuntu philosophy in the research and practice of the New Normal age, and it does so by resonating with Ubuntu as a national and global policy. We strive to establish the reason as it has been implemented in many situations, from the classroom to governmental policy, following the sequence of the previous chapter, which covered the essential principles of Ubuntu. Furthermore, Ubuntu was prominent in the earlier African pandemics, which were not as terrible as this 2020 pandemic, but are highly optimistic, nevertheless.
This chapter addresses the first domain question of what Ubuntu is, taking ground from so-called validating and adapting liberal discourses on human rights, not in the context of multiculturalism in the global community. Methodologically Indigenous Gnoseological essence is adopted, focusing on the logic of science and existing alternatives. There are three major parts of this chapter: Does Ubuntu contradict Individualism? The second part demonstrates the features of Ubuntu with a set of characteristics, and the final section shows the ‘Manifestation in Social Life Structures of Ubuntu’ before drawing concluding this chapter. This chapter proselytizes an elaborate explanation of Ubuntu.
This chapter is about our faith—the Methodology—we believe that, almost like a religion, research is not more important than its adopted worldview or lifeworld. The whole book is surrounded and covered by the ontological position in this chapter. Here we have four headings—delineate the four philosophical streams—guide the entire study. The second heading limns the study’s context and then lays the instruments out of this Methodology following a methodological limitation reflection. Our first stream is for ourselves. We have been repairing the ‘self’ as a researcher. Then we followed the Critical stance of knowledge, traced back from Al-Farabi (872–950) and Saadia Gaon (882–942). Our Third source of understanding generated came from the post-structuralist movement. Our final justifications come with two stands. One is the Indigenous Gnoseology, the root of knowledge practice, and the Decolonial Knowledge in social science and Tenets of Methodology. The order of philosophical trends is paced in terms of origin, not the influentially, yet, as a whole, enriched our ‘being’—the methodological acumen.
What I Have learned from my PhD Journey: Connecting to the Cosmic Totality. Selfosophy: ‘Selfosophy’ is the study of self through the philosophical underpinning of self towards the cosmic totality, which is neither ethnosophy, or, theosophy and anthroposophy, but rather a completely separate approach to seeing and helping the self to help others and community. What medical anthropology, yet to date, if I take Nancy Scheper‐Hughes, humbly put, where is the fourth body: the Spiritual self, is the subject matter of this chapter.
As we have seen or discussed in other chapters, we cannot assert or maintain that our stance in an objective interpretation of history is proper. We were on the side of man, the side of humanity. Whether this was the correct or incorrect position, I cannot say. In this lengthy debate of ours, the distant past we left behind and Covid wounds emerge. I have deduced from historical knowledge that a significant change is necessary. Our first assignment is about myself, and I want to begin considering customization. You and I start with ourselves, whatever you call it—family, community, society, country, region. This chapter focuses on very few policy recommendations.
The fifth chapter—How Ubuntu—structurally closes the domain of the book, where the chapter’s title echo with a phenomenological (Dilthey-Heidegger Model) (We see terms like Erkennen (knowing) and Verstehen (understanding), (Van Mannen, 1977, p. 215). But we never see in these western texts, that talk about inner consciousness. To some extent, we see, Friedrich Wilhelm NietzscheNietzsche limns for inner self, breaking the tradition) stands like Van Mannen’s polemic article—a linking for ways of knowing with ways of being practical. We differed from sensing hermeneutical ways of knowing-being and coming together to make experiences. If we take Ubuntu as national, community, and regional policy, per se, as ‘Ways of knowing’ people of being global, then a person’s ways of being’ will be driven based on communal knowing. The collective individual will then act as a collaborative person—a part of the community for the community.
After this 2020 Pandemic, we should think, re-think, and re-organize our role and local, regional, and Global policies to determine whether we are enough to protect ourselves or not. This is possible to take this under institutional format with legal protection if we address human suffering with passion (Wilkinson & Kleinman in A passion for society: How we think about human suffering, University of California Press, 2016), with active participation for welfare (Chowdhury et al. in Quantitative data in ethnography with Asian reflections (010921-103057) in encyclopedia of data science and machine learning, IGI Global, 2022a; Chowdhury et al in Reciprocity and its practice in social research, IGI Global, 2022b; Chowdhury et al. in Practices, challenges, and prospects of digital ethnography as a multidisciplinary method, IGI Global, 2022c), and reciprocal action guided by Indigenous Gnoseology, for genuine development, re-right and re-write the loss (Smith in Decolonizing methodologies: Research and Indigenous peoples, Zed Books Ltd, 2021). Yet, gnoseology is not epistemology (Eikeland in From epistemology to gnoseology–understanding the knowledge claims, 2007; Mignolo in Local histories/global designs, Princeton University Press, 2012; Sanguineti in Logic and gnoseology, Pontifical Urban University, 1988) but rather the philosophy of Knowledge. This chapter is an overview of what Covid-19 (C-19) did with us, the significant policy gaps, and the role of intellectual communities and academia. Finally, it proposes that Ubuntu can be moral philosophical guidelines for now and in future and for Commoning the policy.
Given previous results showing that auditory imagery is associated with subvocal muscle movements related to pitch control, the present study addressed whether subvocalization of pitch is differentially involved during imagery that precedes the execution of an imagined action as compared to non-preparatory imagery. We examined subvocal activity using surface electromyography (sEMG) during auditory imagery that preceded sung reproduction of a pitch sequence (preparatory) or recognition of a pitch sequence (non-preparatory). On different trials, participants either imagined the sequence as presented, or imagined a mental transformation of that sequence. Behavioral results replicated previous findings of poorer reproduction and recognition of transformed sequences compared to sequences in their original form. Physiological results indicated that subvocal activity was significantly above baseline for all conditions, greater than activity observed for the bicep control site, and greater for longer sequences, but did not reliably scale with transformation type. Furthermore, greater subvocal activity during preparatory imagery was associated with greater subvocal activity during non-preparatory imagery for muscles involved in pitch control and articulation. Muscle activity involved in pitch control was similarly recruited for both preparatory and non-preparatory auditory imagery. In contrast, muscle activity involved in vocal articulation was most strongly recruited during motor preparation. Our findings suggest that pitch imagery recruits subvocal muscle activity regardless of whether the imagined action is intended to be effected.
With the development of IoT, virtual reality, cloud computing, and digital twin technologies, the advent of metaverse has attracted increasing world attention. Metaverse integrates and applies multiple emerging technologies to cloud education, smart health, digital government, and emergency evacuation. Evacuation systems are of great importance to ensure life safety. Due to panic, people in a building may not be able to make the right judgment to choose an optimal path to leave the building in case of an emergency event such as a fire. As a branch of machine learning, deep reinforcement learning (DRL) can model an evacuation scene, collect real-time information, such as crowd distribution and disaster location, find the optimal escape path with a path-planning algorithm, induce the movement state of the crowd through dynamic guidance signs, and improve the evacuation efficiency. In this article, we apply DRL technology to solve the efficient emergency evacuation problem with the help of metaverse and show a training system built upon metaverse that would enable evacuees to choose the most efficient route and leave the building in the least amount of time. The information collected by various sensors, such as video cameras and smoke detectors, can give a whole picture of the status of the building in a real-time manner. The collected data are processed by cloud servers in which a DRL model is trained to dynamically guide evacuees. Experiments in different simulation scenes demonstrate that the proposed method is superior to the traditional static guidance method in saving evacuation time. It can effectively avoid major crowding along the evacuation route and improve evacuation efficiency.
To investigate the impacts of monetary policies on the jump risk of Chinese stock market, we introduce them into an exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity with autoregressive jump intensity (EGARCH-ARJI) model. A new jump model, i.e., the EGARCH-ARJI model with monetary policy (EGARCH-AM), is constructed. Moreover, investor sentiment is considered to investigate the interaction effect of a monetary policy and investor sentiment on the jump intensity. Results show that the announcement of an interest rate policy has significantly positive effect on it, while the effects of the announcement and implementation of a required reserve ratio policy are not significant. In addition, the interaction effect of an interest rate policy and investor sentiment on the jump intensity is positive. The interaction effect of the announcement of a required reserve ratio policy and investor sentiment is negative. The interaction effect of the implementation of a required reserve ratio policy and investor sentiment does not exist. The research results are of guiding significance for policy makers and investors to fully learn the time-varying volatility and jump risk of stock markets.
- Xinshuo Cui
- Xiwang Guo
- Mengchu Zhou
- Shujin Qin
With the advancement of science and technology in recent years, the rate of product upgrading by end users has increased, resulting in a high number of End-Of-Life (EOL) products. For environmental protection and economic benefits, disassembly lines are set up to recycle them. A disassembly line balancing problem arises and has attracted widespread attention. In this paper, we design a model to address a class of disassembly line balancing problems in which the main optimization objective is to maximize profits, while keeping carbon emission in a tolerable range. A discrete whale optimization algorithm is proposed to search their high-quality solutions. Its efficiency is verified by comparing its solutions with their analytic solutions obtained from a commercial optimization solver and other swarm intelligence algorithms. Experimental results show that it is significantly faster than CPLEX and other swarm intelligence algorithms in solving large-scale optimization problems while guaranteeing its solutions quality.
Microbial pollution at ocean beaches is a global public health problem that can be exacerbated by excessive rainfall, particularly at beaches adjacent to urban areas. Rain is acknowledged as a predictive factor of Enterococcus levels at NJ beaches, but to date no study has explicitly examined the link. Here, five beaches (156 observations) in Monmouth County, NJ, with storm drain outflows present were sampled for Enterococcus and water quality during dry and wet periods. Hypotheses included (1) beaches differ in Enterococcus levels, (2) Enterococcus is present year-round, and (3) Enterococcus exceedances could be modeled based on environmental parameters. Beaches showed significantly different median Enterococcus levels, with site SEA2 (Neptune Blvd. in Deal, NJ) lower than others and site SEA4 (South Bath Ave. in Long Branch, NJ) higher than the other sites. Elevated Enterococcus levels were detected at water temperatures from 6.5 to 22.2 °C. Multiple linear regression models identified rainfall (+), water temperature (+), and water level (−) as related to Enterococcus concentrations levels at these beaches. For the purpose of simulating the efficacy of different monitoring strategies, a hindcast model of Enterococcus abundance based on historic rainfall, water temperature, and water level data was produced. Results indicated that once-per-week sampling detected ~14% (e.g., 1/7) exceedance events, while sampling during summer alone detected ~ 50% of annual exceedance events. Models of Enterococcus exceedance based on readily available environmental time series have the potential to supplement and improve Enterococcus monitoring at NJ beaches.
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