Road crashes cost over a million lives each year. Consequently, researchers and transport engineers continue their efforts to improve road safety and minimize road crashes. With the increasing availability of various sensor technologies to capture road safety-related data and the recent breakthrough in modern data-driven techniques, in particular Machine Learning and Deep Learning techniques, data-driven road safety research has gained significant attention in the past few years. As road safety involves a number of different aspects, including road infrastructure (e.g., surface conditions), road user behaviors (e.g., driver/pedestrian behavior), and traffic congestion, critically reviewing all these major aspects and their relationships with road crashes is a challenging task. In this paper, we present a detailed review of 70 articles, which are shortlisted from 2871 articles found by searching relevant keywords from the scopus IEEE digital library and google scholar databases. To better analyze the data-driven road safety research a number of taxonomies are first introduced to characterize data sources Equipment & sensors to capture data And methodologies to analyze and make decisions based on data. Then Based on the defined taxonomies Selected research articles covering different aspects of road safety are critically analyzed. This study highlights important directions for future work and some major challenges such as data collection Poor data quality and lack of ground truth data.
Electro-oxidation reaction of glycerol (GEOR) is a promising and eco-friendly technique for producing commercially valuable organic acids. In contrast to conventional non-metallic doping into single or multiwalled carbon nanotubes, our work reported the incorporation of N, and P into the Pd/CNTs framework for selective oxidation of glycerol to 1, 3-dihydroxyacetone and mesoxalic acid. Electrochemical and physicochemical characterization showed that the NP doped/PdCNTs has superior electrocatalytic performance for GEOR in alkaline media compared to counter catalysts. NP doped/PdCNTs exhibits better resistivity (If/Ib = 1.71) and requires only 0.09 V electrocatalysis voltage to achieve 76.67 mA cm⁻² current density, demonstrating an energy-efficient and cost-competitive method to produce mesoxalic acid and dihydroxyacetone. At 0.09 V vs Ag/AgCl in 0.5 M Gly/0.5 M KOH, the Pd mass activity of NP doped/PdCNTs was 307.30 mAmg⁻¹Pd, representing 2.45, 1.06, and 1.051 times higher than Pd/CNTs, N doped/PdCNTs, and P doped/PdCNTs, respectively. The yield of 1, 3-dihydroxyacetone was 29.76 times higher than Pd/CNTs, 24.06 times higher than N doped/PdCNTs, and 1.06 times higher than P doped/PdCNTs.
Lignin is a promising sustainable feedstock for the production of renewable aromatic chemicals. However, conventional depolymerization techniques often require high pressure and temperature. This study aimed to address this limitation by investigating the application of a combined solvent containing aqueous deep eutectic solvent and sodium hydroxide in the depolymerization of Kraft lignin at atmospheric pressure. The effects of temperature, duration, and NaOH concentration were investigated. Under the depolymerization conditions of 150 °C, 20 min, 7.5% (w/v) NaOH, an aromatic monomer yield of 23.06 mg/g was achieved. Various metal chloride catalysts, including LiCl, CuCl2, and FeCl3, were added as oxidizing agents to promote lignin depolymerization. The synergistic effects of the combined solvent with CuCl2 resulted in an aromatic monomer yield of 69.75 mg/g. Physical and chemical characterization of lignin samples was performed to provide further evidence to support the effectiveness of the depolymerization process proposed in this study. The use of NaOH-aqueous DES as a depolymerization medium could be a promising method for promoting a milder and inherently safer depolymerization system.
Ammonia has been identified as a viable energy vector for power generation. Using dual-fuel operation that mixes the ammonia with higher reactivity gaseous fuel can be vital in enhancing ammonia combustion. This study examined the fundamental swirl combustion characteristics of fuel-lean premixed ammonia/biogas via a numerical approach. The flame was established at an input thermal power of 7 kW and a global equivalence ratio of 0.8. The numerical model was validated with biogas emissions data acquired through experimental work. At 20 mm downstream the burner, increased carbon dioxide mass fraction in the biogas lowered the peak flame temperature by around 300 K. Moreover, the deformation of flame temperature radial profiles was also found aggravated as carbon dioxide concentration in the biogas elevated from 0 % to 40 %. The reduction in premixed reactant mixture reactivity not only initiated flame temperature profile deformation but also reduced the peak Damk¨ohler number significantly. The peak Damk¨ohler number was lowered by a factor of ~ 1.5 when carbon dioxide dilution in the biogas elevated by 40 %. The premixed combustion was directed into the thin reaction flamelets zone with elevated carbon dioxide mass fraction, owing to the intensified flow fluctuation. This, in turn, elevates the normalised flame turbulent propagating speed, gas flow average velocities and turbulent kinetic energy, notwithstanding that heat release rate and averaged laminar flame speed declined. In all, the presence of carbon dioxide has been shown to lower the ammonia/methane mixture reactivity whilst escalating the reacting flow fluctuation.
The occurrence of antibiotic pollution has become a concerning issue to public health, where the adsorption of antibiotics on bentonite-based adsorbent represents an attractive solution to reduce the antibiotic residue in wastewater. In this work, the bentonite-chitosan composite was synthesised and the adsorption isotherms of amoxicillin, ampicillin, and doripenem were investigated experimentally at temperatures between 303.15 and 323.15 K. The bentonite-chitosan composite was characterised by scanning electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ray spectrophotometer, surface area and porosity analyser, powder X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and thermogravimetric analyser to examine the structure of the synthesised adsorbent. The experimental data were also correlated with models of Langmuir, Freundlich, Toth, and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The experimental results showed an enhanced adsorption of all antibiotics on the bentonite-chitosan composite compared with raw bentonite despite having a much smaller BET surface area and pore volume. On the other hand, the Toth model provided the best estimates on the adsorption isotherms, though Langmuir constants were mostly recovered particularly in the lower temperature range. From the fitting results, the adsorptions of all antibiotics were implied to be endothermic and associated with monolayer formation. Within the tested temperatures, the adsorption capacities of the bentonite-chitosan composite computed by Toth model were found to be 51.9–86.1 mg g⁻¹ for amoxicillin, 66.1–83.3 mg g⁻¹ for ampicillin, and 78.4–96.0 mg g⁻¹ for doripenem.
The integration of solar power generation using photovoltaic (PV) panels and increasing energy consumption has resulted in rapid voltage fluctuations in the distribution network. During peak demand and peak sun hours, the voltage fluctuation increases rapidly. These voltage deviations can cause undervoltage or overvoltage in the power grid, which are conventionally tackled using On-Load Tap-Changers (OLTCs). However, OLTCs have a slow response and causes frequent voltage instability, which affects the electrical power quality. Moreover, it can damage electrical equipment connected to the network and impose risk on service personnel. In conventional method, the tap changer of OLTC controls the voltage; however, in game theory method, an algorithm based on internal game theory is incorporated into the tap changer of OLTC to improve the voltage regulation. A 74-bus network is modelled in MATLAB to study the effectiveness of the two methods in regulating voltage during peak hours. In comparison to conventional method, game theory method decreased occurrence of voltage instability by an average of 69.4% and 61.6% during peak demand hour and peak sun hours respectively. Furthermore, it achieved a faster response by an average of 50% during peak demand hours and an average of 62.2% during peak sun hours.
Background The development of digital technologies and the evolution of open innovation approaches have enabled the creation of diverse virtual organizations and enterprises coordinating their activities primarily online. The open innovation platform titled “International Natural Product Sciences Taskforce” (INPST) was established in 2018, to bring together in collaborative environment individuals and organizations interested in natural product scientific research, and to empower their interactions by using digital communication tools. Methods In this work, we present a general overview of INPST activities and showcase the specific use of Twitter as a powerful networking tool that was used to host a one-week “2021 INPST Twitter Networking Event” (spanning from 31st May 2021 to 6th June 2021) based on the application of the Twitter hashtag #INPST. Results and Conclusion The use of this hashtag during the networking event period was analyzed with Symplur Signals (https://www.symplur.com/), revealing a total of 6,036 tweets, shared by 686 users, which generated a total of 65,004,773 impressions (views of the respective tweets). This networking event's achieved high visibility and participation rate showcases a convincing example of how this social media platform can be used as a highly effective tool to host virtual Twitter-based international biomedical research events.
The understanding of yield responses of different oil palm progenies to rainfall is important for plantation management to ensure that the most suitable progeny is selected for maximum productivity. Drought responses are commonly studied using drought induction on oil palm seedlings or by conducting irrigation trials. Nevertheless, such trials may not reflect the yield response in mature palms in natural conditions. In this study, an alternative approach is developed to evaluate oil palm yield responses to varying rainfall regimes. Using the time-series rainfall and yield data of oil palm materials (n = 11), the yield components most affected by rainfall fluctuations were identified. Subsequently, the floral developmental stages susceptible to rainfall changes were determined. Finally, the relative yield performance of the materials in different rainfall conditions was compared to determine the materials adapted to the low rainfall condition. The bunch number was the best parameter to investigate the effect of rainfall on oil palm yield. The floral developmental stages affected by rainfall were inflorescence abortion and sex determination. Progeny-specific yield response is discernible from yield and rainfall data alone. Our study has contributed to the development of an approach to screening for drought-tolerant materials.
Anthropogenic emissions like carbon dioxide (CO2) necessitate the need for immediate mitigation of excessive CO2 concentrations, so as to ease the impacts of climate change. Mass carbon capture and storage (CCS) via microalgae cultivations have been proven prominent for their CO2 capturing abilities and prospects of converting CO2 into commercially valuable bioproducts. However, current microalgae cultivation systems have yet to achieve the satisfactory production rates required for mass CCS. To improve microalgae growth, CO2 gas bubbles are often fed to sustain microalgae cultures in photobioreactors (PBRs). Studies have shown significant increases in microalgae growth and CO2 capturing rates with the reduction of gas bubble sizes to micro-size. In this work, 3 distinct gas spargers were designed, and their mixing performances were investigated in a 10 L flat-panel PBR. Detailed analysis of micro-size bubbles generation via gas spargers, along with the cost analysis and carbon tax estimations for the sparger designs and operations, were discussed. The results of this work showed that spargers with micro-size pores were not able to produce micro-size bubbles. The customised sintered metal spargers with novel double sparger orientation resulted in higher mixing performances, compared to perforated spargers and commercial spargers. Findings advance the understanding of mixing and CO2 mass transfer, important milestones for photobioreactor scale-up studies and partly fulfil the circular bioeconomy concept where microalgae cultivations address both environmental and economic aspects.
Durian (Durio zibethinus) brings in princely revenue for the fruit economy in Southeast Asia, ushering the current trend of clearing forests for durian plantations. Despite the thorny fruit’s popularity and increasing bat-durian papers, not many associate their vital plant-pollinator relationship. This unfamiliarity has led to the persisting negative connotations of bats as agricultural pests and worse, a disease carrier amplified by the Covid-19 pandemic. This review focuses on the bat-durian relationship comprising botanical insights and pollination ecology in relevance to the wider pteropodid-plant interactions. The majority of the studies compiled have concluded that bats are the most effective pollinator for durian than insects. Six fruit bat species (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) have been recorded pollinating durian flowers, with several other pteropodid species speculated to pollinate durian, including in non-native countries. Lastly, we address the research gaps for the bat-durian relationship, which can also be applied to other chiropterophilous plants.
Background Thymbra capitata is a medicinal and aromatic plant of the Lamiaceae family. Essential oils, organic extracts, and vegetable oils from this species showed a diversity of health-promoting phytochemicals. Scope and approach The objective of the present review is to highlight the findings related to Thymbra capitata, including medicinal uses, bioactive compounds, biological activities, food preservation (animal feed supplement, agriculture, and medicinal application), and encapsulation for possible incorporation into industrial applications. Key findings and conclusions Thymbra capitata essential oil is characterized by the presence of numerous volatile compounds, particularly carvacrol and thymol as major chemotypes. Essential oils, organic extracts, vegetable oils, and hydrolats exhibited different biological properties, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and other effects. These biological properties were mainly correlated with the chemical compounds present in tested products. Furthermore, some industrial applications of Thymbra capitata essential oils and extracts have been explored. Indeed, this species was used for food preservation (such as fruit juices, fruits and vegetables, milk, vegetable oils, meat, and fish food), feed supplements for animals, agriculture, medicinal application, and other applications. Moreover, industrial applications have been proven for encapsulated and incorporated Thymbra capitata essential oils.
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine-protein kinase, which regulates many biological processes related to metabolism, cancer, immune function, and aging. It is an essential protein kinase that belongs to the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) family and has two known signaling complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). Even though mTOR signaling plays a critical role in promoting mitochondria-related protein synthesis, suppressing the catabolic process of autophagy, contributing to lipid metabolism, engaging in ribosome formation, and acting as a critical regulator of mRNA translation, it remains one of the significant signaling systems involved in the tumor process, particularly in apoptosis, cell cycle, and cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, the mTOR signaling system could be suggested as a cancer biomarker, and its targeting is important in anti-tumor therapy research. Indeed, its dysregulation is involved in different types of cancers such as colon, neck, cervical, head, lung, breast, reproductive, and bone cancers, as well as nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Moreover, recent investigations showed that targeting mTOR could be considered as cancer therapy. Accordingly, this review presents an overview of recent developments associated with the mTOR signaling pathway and its molecular involvement in various human cancer types. It also summarizes the research progress of different mTOR inhibitors, including natural and synthetised compounds and their main mechanisms, as well as the rational combinations with immunotherapies.
This study investigated and compared several improvement strategies to increase the yield and quality of exopolymeric substances (EPS) from Bacillus cereus . This includes co-culturing of B. cereus with Trichoderma asperellum , cultivation in media with metal (Zn) stress and supplementation with molasses. EPS is subsequently extracted from these different cultures and subjected to characterization and metal removal tests in single-metal systems (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr). Results indicate that co-cultivation of B. cereus and T. asperellum produced EPS which have attributes differing from single cultivation. These changes were detected via functional group changes using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, as well as the increase in carbohydrate and protein content. However, the interaction of these two microbes were merely additive and did not result in improved EPS yield nor the subsequent metal removal efficacy in comparison to single cultivation (control). By contrast, supplementation of Zn (metal stress with 50 mg L − 1 Zn) improved EPS quality and metal removal, but decreased EPS yield. The application of 1% molasses was the only strategy demonstrating high yield and efficient metal removal. EPS quality and yield (0.45 mg mL − 1 ) and metal removal efficacy (Cu: 58%, Pb: 98%, Zn: 83%, Cd: 73%, Cr: 96%) were improved significantly. This study showed that among the three improvement strategies (co-cultivation, metal stress, molasses), supplementation with molasses was the most effective as it improved both yield and quality of EPS significantly, suggesting that this approach may be adopted for future production of bulk EPS for up-scaling of wastewater treatment.
The detection and reconstruction of transparent objects have remained challenging due to the absence of their features and variations in the local features with variations in illumination. In this paper, both compressive sensing (CS) and super-resolution convolutional neural network (SRCNN) techniques are combined to capture transparent objects. With the proposed method, the transparent object’s details are extracted accurately using a single pixel detector during the surface reconstruction. The resultant images obtained from the experimental setup are low in quality due to speckles and deformations on the object. However, the implemented SRCNN algorithm has obviated the mentioned drawbacks and reconstructed images visually plausibly. The developed algorithm locates the deformities in the resultant images and improves the image quality. Additionally, the inclusion of compressive sensing minimizes the measurements required for reconstruction, thereby reducing image post-processing and hardware requirements during network training. The result obtained indicates that the visual quality of the reconstructed images has increased from a structural similarity index (SSIM) value of 0.2 to 0.53. In this work, we demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method in imaging and reconstructing transparent objects with the application of a compressive single pixel imaging technique and improving the image quality to a satisfactory level using the SRCNN algorithm.
Pyrite is separated from other minerals mainly by flotation. However, the hydrophilicity of pyrite is affected by many factors, causing it to easily enter the concentrate and consequently reduce the quality of concentrate. Highly efficient pyrite depressants can be selectively adsorbed on the surface of pyrite to improve its hydrophilicity, thereby increasing the flotation separation efficiency. Understanding the fundamental inhibition mechanism of depressants on pyrite is a prerequisite to improve the flotation desulfurization efficiency. The inhibition ability and mechanism of different types of pyrite depressants are reviewed in this manuscript. In recent years, molecular simulation has increasingly become a powerful tool to study the interaction between reagents and minerals, shedding new light on the adsorption mechanisms of reagents on mineral surfaces at the atomic and electronic levels. The properties of sulfide mineral and flotation reagents as well as the microscopic adsorption mechanistic studies of reagents on mineral surfaces based on quantum chemistry and molecular simulation are also reviewed.
Motivated by the growing interest in the application of renewable fuels and combustion efficiency, gaining a detailed understanding of the effect of oxygenated additives on the structure and shape of the biodiesel laminar coflow diffusion flame is of fundamental and practical importance. In the experiment, the amount of ethanol and methyl formate in the nitrogen-diluted biodiesel mixtures was 10% vol. while maintaining a constant fuel mole fraction. The results showed that adding ethanol and methyl formate decreased the flame height regardless of the variation of the fuel jet velocities, with methyl formate demonstrating a greater reduction effect on the flame height. Besides that, the addition of these oxygenated additives has a significant influence on the flame stability, which was characterised by the parameters such as liftoff height, liftoff velocity, and blowout velocity. The oxygenated additives addition reduced the flame stability limit, with methyl formate showing a greater decrease in flame stability limit based on the observation of the blowout velocity. The dilution effect of the oxygenated additives was identified as the dominant effect on the flame structure and stabilisation through the decoupling analysis when compared to the thermal and chemical effects. Further analysis revealed that the difference in the influence of the oxygenated additives on the combustion characteristics was attributed to the physicochemical properties of the fuel mixtures, such as the molecular diffusivity, energy density, and fuel decomposition. These parameters can be fundamentally related to the difference in the molecular structures between ethanol and methyl formate. On the other hand, the addition of these oxygenated additives decreased both carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide concentrations; however, the differences in the pollutant concentrations between ethanol and methyl formate were insignificant.
This study investigated the immobilization of exopolymeric substances (EPS) from Bacillus cereus using sodium alginate to form EPS beads for metal removal. The EPS beads were characterized and their optimum biosorption conditions established (biosorbent dosage, initial metal concentration and pH of metal solutions). The EPS beads were also tested for reusability by using them continuously for five metal removal cycles with desorption process in between cycles. The toxicity of the treated metal solutions was tested by phytotoxicity tests. Results revealed that EPS beads demonstrated significantly higher metal removal efficiency (Pb: 99.26%, Cr: 50.73%, Cu: 48.94%, Zn: 29.81%, Cd: 20.29%) compared to plain alginate beads (without EPS) (Pb: 84.45%, Cu: 31%, Cr: 28.37%, Zn: 11.91%, Cd: 9.37%). SEM-EDX analysis detected Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr on the surface of EPS beads. Optimum conditions for Pb removal by EPS beads were from the use of 0.1 g of biosorbent at 100 mg/L initial metal concentration and pH 5. By contrast, Cu, Zn, Cd and Cr were optimally removed by 0.3 g of biosorbent at 25 mg/L initial metal concentration and pH 5. EPS beads can be reused up to five times while maintaining a high rate of metal removal efficiency (Pb- 99.52%, Cr- 89.23%, Cu- 89.17%, Zn-52.52%, Cd-39.12%). This was achieved through desorption with nitric acid that consistently recovered 76–93% of the metal adsorbed. FTIR analysis reveals that nitric acid is capable of restoring the functional groups present within EPS beads, allowing it to bind with metal ions in repeated cycles. Metal solutions treated with EPS beads were less toxic as seedling shoots (pre-treated: 0–10 cm, post-treated: 1.2–18.1 cm) and roots (pre-treated: 0–7.8 cm, post-treated: 0.8–15.1 cm) grew well, which suggested that reduced levels of metals led to reduced phytotoxicity. This study provides an insight into the use of EPS beads for metal removal, highlighting the benefits and reusability of the beads for future wastewater treatment.
The energy demand is rising with the global population each day. The rapid growth in the manufacturing and energy industries has hit an unhealthy mark, losing control over the emission of harmful substances. Photocatalysis is considered to be one of the sustainable technologies for addressing the aforementioned problems. Two-dimensional (2D) bismuth-based nanomaterials have attracted extensive attention stemming from their visible light absorption ability. Nevertheless, pristine materials suffer from a high charge recombination rate. Heterojunction engineering has proven to effectively improve the separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers. Importantly, 2D bismuth-based materials have shown accelerated charge transfer mechanisms with the intimate face-to-face contact between nanostructures and a high adsorption rate as a result of the high surface-to-volume ratio that endows abundant active sites. Therefore, it is significant to elucidate the synergy effect between heterojunction and morphology engineering of bismuth-based photocatalysts. This review aims to discuss the progress of 2D/2D bismuth-based heterojunctions to provide critical insights into the fundamental reaction mechanism, synthesis of 2D bismuth photocatalyst, and advances of 2D/2D bismuth-based heterojunction photocatalysts in energy conversion and environmental remediation. Lastly, this review is anticipated to serve as a comprehensive work to evaluate the current challenges and future research direction of 2D/2D bismuth-based heterojunction photocatalysts.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.