Ministry of Health, France
Recent publications
Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are bursts of high‐energy photons produced in thunderstorms. Photons are produced by bremsstrahlung from high‐energy electrons, gaining energy through the electric field in the thunderstorm. Both electrons and photons are ionizing radiation and could have an impact on the radiation exposure of commercial aircrews and passengers. Previous works from Dwyer et al. (2010) and Pallu et al. (2021) have quantified doses possibly delivered by TGFs. They showed that the photon doses are sufficiently low so as not to be taken into account in the calculation of the radiation doses received during flights. However, electrons could deliver high doses up to 1 Sv, though in a compact area around the TGF source. In this work, we estimate an upper bound of the probability for a commercial flight to find itself in the electron beam of a TGF. Using the first Fermi‐Gamma ray Burst Monitor TGF catalog and both simulated routes between airports as a first step and real flight routes from Air France airline for 2.5 years as a second step, we show that the probability is lower than one aircraft hit every 2 years for the total air traffic. Knowing that we did not take into account altitudes and the fact that pilots usually avoid thunderstorms, it is likely that no aircraft would have been hit by the source of a TGF since the beginning of the commercial aviation.
European cancer research stakeholders met in October 2022 in Heidelberg, Germany, at the 5th Gago conference on European Cancer Policy, to discuss the current cancer research and cancer care policy landscape in Europe. Meeting participants highlighted gaps in the existing European programmes focusing on cancer research, including Europe's Beating Cancer Plan (ECBP), the Mission on Cancer (MoC), Understanding Cancer (, and the joint action CRANE, and put forward the next priorities, in the form of the Heidelberg Manifesto for cancer research. This meeting report presents all discussions that shed light onto how infrastructures can be effectively shaped for translational, prevention, clinical and outcomes cancer research, with a focus on implementation and sustainability and while engaging patients and the public. In addition, we summarize recommendations on how to introduce frameworks for the digitalization of European cancer research. Finally, we discuss what structures, commitment and resources are needed to establish a collaborative cancer research environment in Europe to achieve the scale required for innovation.
Objectives: In the digital age, the metaverse has emerged with impressive potential for many segments of society. The metaverse could be presented as a parallel dimension able to enhance the physical world as well as our actions and decisions in it with the objective to use a coalition between the natural and virtual worlds for value creation. Our aim was to elaborate on the impact of the metaverse on laboratory medicine. Methods: Based on the available evidence, literature and reports, we analyzed the different perspectives of the metaverse on laboratory medicine and the needs for an efficient transition. Results: The convergence and integration of technologies in the metaverse will participate to the reimagination of laboratory medicine services with augmented services, users' experiences, efficiency, and personalized care. The revolution around the metaverse offers different opportunities for laboratory medicine but also open multiple related challenges that are presented in this article. Conclusions: Scientific societies, multidisciplinary teams and specialists in laboratory medicine must prepare the integration metaverse and meta-medical laboratories, raise the awareness, educate, set guidance to obtain a maximum of value and mitigate potential adverse consequences.
Background: A higher risk of suicidal ideation associated with self-report of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-like symptoms or COVID-19 infection has been observed in cross-sectional studies, but evidence from longitudinal studies remains limited. The aims of this study were 2-fold: (1) to explore if self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms in 2020 were associated with suicidal ideation in 2021; (2) to explore if the association also existed when using a biological marker of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in 2020. Methods and findings: A total of 52,050 participants from the French EpiCov cohort were included (median follow-up time = 13.7 months). In terms of demographics, 53.84% were women, 60.92% were over 45 years old, 82.01% were born in mainland France from parents born in mainland France, and 59.38% completed high school. COVID-19-like symptoms were defined as participant report of a sudden loss of taste/smell or fever alongside cough, shortness of breath, or chest oppression, between February and November 2020. Symptoms were self-reported at baseline in May 2020 and at the first follow-up in Autumn 2020. Serology-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 was derived from Spike protein ELISA test screening in dried-blood-spot samples. Samples were collected from October 2020 to March 2021, with 94.4% collected in 2020. Suicidal ideation since December 2020 was self-reported at the second follow-up in Summer 2021. Associations of self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms and serology-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 with suicidal ideation in 2021 were ascertained using modified Poisson regression models, weighted by inverse probability weights computed from propensity scores. Among the 52,050 participants, 1.68% [1.54% to 1.82%] reported suicidal ideation in 2021, 9.57% [9.24% to 9.90%] had a serology-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020, and 13.23% [12.86% to 13.61%] reported COVID-19-like symptoms in 2020. Self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms in 2020 were associated with higher risks of later suicidal ideation in 2021 (Relative Riskipw [95% CI] = 1.43 [1.20 to 1.69]), while serology-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 was not (RRipw = 0.89 [0.70 to 1.13]). Limitations of this study include the use of a single question to assess suicidal ideation, the use of self-reported history of mental health disorders, and limited generalizability due to attrition bias. Conclusions: Self-reported COVID-19-like symptoms in 2020, but not serology-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020, were associated with a higher risk of subsequent suicidal ideation in 2021. The exact role of SARS-CoV-2 infection with respect to suicide risk has yet to be clarified. Including mental health resources in COVID-19-related settings could encourage symptomatic individuals to care for their mental health and limit suicidal ideation to emerge or worsen.
COVID-19 severely affected nursing home residents from March 2020 onwards in Belgium. This study aimed to model the impact of vaccination and facility characteristics on cluster occurrence, duration and severity in this setting. Possible clusters were identified between June 2020 and January 2022, based on the Belgian COVID-19 surveillance in nursing homes. Median attack rates (AR) among residents and staff, case hospitalization rates (CHR) and case fatality rates (CFR) were calculated. A negative binomial model was used to identify the association between nursing home characteristics and the number of cases, hospital admissions and deaths and the duration of the cluster. A total of 2,239 clusters were detected in more than 80% of nursing homes. Most of these (62%) occurred before the start of COVID-19 vaccination (end of December 2020). After vaccination, the number of clusters, the AR among residents and staff, the CHR and the CFR dropped. Previous cluster(s) and vaccination decreased the number of cases, hospital admissions and deaths among residents. Previous cluster experience and having started vaccination were protective factors. We recommend continued implementation of targeted interventions such as vaccination, large-scale screening and immediate implementation of additional infection prevention and control measures.
Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) are recognized by health authorities as fundamental and can be evaluated by several questionnaires. The main complexity of evaluating PROMs in People with Diabetes (PwD), be it type 1 (PwT1D) or type 2 (PwT2D), is choosing the right tool (generic or specific) with the right constructs. This study explores the use of PROMs in PwD. The main objective was to compare generic and specific QoL PROMs in a diabetic population. The secondary objective was to assess potential overlaps of assessed constructs in the different PROMs frequently used in diabetes.PRODIAB was an online quantitative survey conducted between January and February 2022. The scientific committee selected the following oft-used questionnaires: EuroQol 5-Dimensions 5-Level (EQ-5D-5L), Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQOL), Treatment Burden Questionnaire (TBQ), Hospital Anxiety and-Depression Scale (HADS-A; HADS-D) and Patient-Health-Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). All PROMs used were validated in French.Responses from 2,796 French PwD were analyzed. Compared to PwT2D, PwT1D reported a better general Quality of Life (QoL) on the EQ-5D-5L index (0.75 vs 0.66; p
Percutaneous paravalvular leak closure seems a safe alternative to surgery in frail patients. However, it is a challenging procedure that should be tailored to each patient with optimal imaging guidance. Transesophageal echocardiography during the procedure and computed tomography scan/fluoroscopy fusion provide guidance for critical steps, such as PVL localization and crossing. (Level of Difficulty: Advanced.)
Background The AIRE operational project will evaluate the implementation of the routine Pulse Oximeter (PO) use in the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy for children under-5 in primary health care centers (PHC) in West Africa. The introduction of PO should promote the accurate identification of hypoxemia (pulse blood oxygen saturation Sp02 < 90%) among all severe IMCI cases (respiratory and non-respiratory) to prompt their effective case management (oxygen, antibiotics and other required treatments) at hospital. We seek to understand how the routine use of PO integrated in IMCI outpatients works (or not), for whom, in what contexts and with what outcomes. Methods The AIRE project is being implemented from 03/2020 to 12/2022 in 202 PHCs in four West African countries (Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali, Niger) including 16 research PHCs (four per country). The research protocol will assess three complementary components using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods: a) context based on repeated cross-sectional surveys: baseline and aggregated monthly data from all PHCs on infrastructure, staffing, accessibility, equipment, PO use, severe cases and care; b) the process across PHCs by assessing acceptability, fidelity, implementation challenges and realistic evaluation, and c) individual outcomes in the research PHCs: all children under-5 attending IMCI clinics, eligible for PO use will be included with parental consent in a cross-sectional study. Among them, severe IMCI cases will be followed in a prospective cohort to assess their health status at 14 days. We will analyze pathways, patterns of care, and costs of care. Discussion This research will identify challenges to the systematic implementation of PO in IMCI consultations, such as health workers practices, frequent turnover, quality of care, etc. Further research will be needed to fully address key questions such as the best time to introduce PO into the IMCI process, the best SpO2 threshold for deciding on hospital referral, and assessing the cost-effectiveness of PO use. The AIRE research will provide health policy makers in West Africa with sufficient evidence on the context, process and outcomes of using PO integrated into IMCI to promote scale-up in all PHCs. Trial registration Trial registration number: PACTR202206525204526 retrospectively registered on 06/15/2022.
Objectives: PERFUSE s a non-interventional study of 1233 patients (inflammatory rheumatic disease, n=496; inflammatory bowel disease [IBD], n=737) receiving infliximab (IFX) biosimilar SB2 therapy. This analysis describes response to treatment and persistence on SB2 for up to 12 months in paediatric IBD patients (n=126). Methods: Paediatric IBD patients with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC), either naïve or switched from originator infliximab, who started SB2 in routine practice after September 2017 were eligible. Data were captured for 12 months following SB2 initiation. Disease activity was measured using C-Reactive Protein (CRP) levels and the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI) or Paediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI) for CD and UC patients respectively. Body Mass Index (BMI) and height z-scores were used to assess patient growth between initiation (M0) and month 12 (M12). Results: 126 paediatric IBD patients were included (102 CD patients, 51 naïve and 51 switched; 24 UC patients, 9 naïve and 15 switched). Naive patients' disease scores decreased between M0 and M12. CRP measurements also decreased in naïve CD patients. Switched patients' disease scores and CRP levels remained stable between M0 and M12. Height z-scores improved significantly over the course of the treatment for all groups except for naïve UC patients. Conclusions: SB2 provides effective disease control for naïve and switched paediatric patients. Clinical remission rates improved in naïve patients and no loss of control was observed in switched patients after 1 year. Growth failure is not observed in IBD patients under SB2 treatment.
Background: Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods capable of transmitting a great variety of endemic and emerging pathogens causing diseases in animals and humans. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks collected from cattle in Benin and Togo. Methods: Overall, 396 (148 males, 205 females and 43 nymphs) ticks were collected from cattle in 17 districts (Benin and Togo) between 2019 and 2020. Ticks were pooled into groups of 2-6 ticks per pool according to individual host, location, species and developmental stage. The DNA of each pool was extracted for molecular screening. Results: PCR results revealed that 20 tick pools were positive for Bartonella spp. (Benin and Togo) and 23 tick pools positive for Rickettsia spp. (Benin), while all pools were negative for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. Sequence analysis of positive Rickettsia samples revealed the presence of Rickettsia aeschlimannii. Conclusions: The present study highlights the presence of zoonotic agents in ticks collected from cattle in Benin and Togo. This information will raise awareness of tick-borne diseases among physicians and veterinarians, stimulate further studies to monitor these pathogens, and advise on necessary measures to control the spread of these zoonoses.
Psychosocial competencies, also known as psychosocial skills or life skills, are essential for the prevention and promotion of mental health. Since the beginning of this century, psychosocial competencies have been defined as the ability to develop positive mental health. Most individual or social mental health protection programs are related to psychosocial competencies. A majority of evidence-based programs that develop mental health explicitly aim at developing psychosocial competencies, either exclusively or with complementary approaches. Many of these programs have demonstrated their effectiveness, with lasting effects on reduced anxiety and depression symptoms, violent and risky behaviors, and improved well-being and academic success. Based on international meta-analyses and on 20 years of French national and local experiences, a national strategy to develop psychosocial competencies was launched in France in 2021 for all children from 3 to 25 years old. Two reports on evidence-based psychosocial competence development were published in 2022 by the national agency for public health—Santé publique France (Public Health France)—to support this deployment strategy and develop a common evidence-based culture in health and education. This article presents the French national strategy as an example of a means of increasing evidence-based mental health promotion while discussing the importance of cultural adaptation of such programs.
This Comment piece summarises current challenges regarding routine vaccine uptake in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and provides recommendations on how to increase uptake. To implement these recommendations, the article points to evidence-based resources that can support health-care workers, policy makers and communicators.
Background SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread despite fast vaccine rollout, which could be attributed to waning immunity or to a reduced protection against some variants. A thorough characterization of vaccine protection and its duration in time is needed to inform vaccination policies and enhance public trust. Methods We linked three national databases with exhaustive information on screening, vaccination and hospitalizations in France from January 1st to December 12, 2021. We performed a two-step analysis to estimate vaccine effectiveness against severe outcomes of Covid-19 (requiring hospitalization) in people aged 50 years or over, combining: (i) a test-negative case–control design to assess vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infections; and (ii) a survival analysis to assess the additional protection against severe outcomes (hospitalizations, ICU admissions and inpatient deaths) in infected individuals. Findings We found a high vaccine effectiveness in people aged 50 years or more, reaching 82% against symptomatic infections and 94% against hospitalizations, after a full vaccination scheme with the Covid-19 vaccines used in France. Vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infections decreased over time, dropping to 53% after six months, but remained high against severe outcomes (90% after six months). The booster dose allowed restoring protection levels above 90% against symptomatic infections. Vaccine protection and its evolution in time, showed little difference against the variants that circulated prior to December 2021 in France, including the Delta variant. Interpretation Though vaccine immunity decreases over time, vaccination remains crucial to provide individual protection against severe outcomes requiring hospitalization. This decline can be reversed by the receipt of a booster dose.
A simple method for accurately identifying Glossina spp in the field is a challenge to sustain the future elimination of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) as a public health scourge, as well as for the sustainable management of African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT). Current methods for Glossina species identification heavily rely on a few well-trained experts. Methodologies that rely on molecular methodologies like DNA barcoding or mass spectrometry protein profiling (MALDI TOFF) haven’t been thoroughly investigated for Glossina sp. Nevertheless, because they are destructive, costly, time-consuming, and expensive in infrastructure and materials, they might not be well adapted for the survey of arthropod vectors involved in the transmission of pathogens responsible for Neglected Tropical Diseases, like HAT. This study demonstrates a new type of methodology to classify Glossina species. In conjunction with a deep learning architecture, a database of Wing Interference Patterns (WIPs) representative of the Glossina species involved in the transmission of HAT and AAT was used. This database has 1766 pictures representing 15 Glossina species. This cost-effective methodology, which requires mounting wings on slides and using a commercially available microscope, demonstrates that WIPs are an excellent medium to automatically recognize Glossina species with very high accuracy.
At a time of major global, societal, and environmental changes, the shifting distribution of pathogen vectors represents a real danger in certain regions of the world as generating opportunities for emergency. For example, the recent arrival of the Hyalomma marginatum ticks in southern France and the concurrent appearance of cases of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF)—a disease vectored by this tick species—in neighboring Spain raises many concerns about the associated risks for the European continent. This context has created an urgent need for effective methods for control, surveillance, and risk assessment for ticks and tick-borne diseases with a particular concern regarding Hyalomma sp. Here, we then review the current body of knowledge on different methods of tick control—including chemical, biological, genetical, immunological, and ecological methods—and the latest developments in the field, with a focus on those that have been tested against ticks from the genus Hyalomma . In the absence of a fully and unique efficient approach, we demonstrated that integrated pest management combining several approaches adapted to the local context and species is currently the best strategy for tick control together with a rational use of acaricide. Continued efforts are needed to develop and implement new and innovative methods of tick control.
Objective To examine the relationship between young adults' labor force participation and depression in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, setting, participants Data come from the nationally-representative EPICOV cohort study set up in France, and were collected in 2020 and 2021 (3 waves of online or telephone interviews: 02/05/2020–12/06/2020; 26/10/2020–14/12/2020; 24/06/2021–09/08/2021) among 2,217 participants aged 18–30 years. Participants with prior mental health disorder ( n = 50) were excluded from the statistical analyses. Results Using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models controlled for participants' socio-demographic and health characteristics and weighted to be nationally-representative, we found that compared to young adults who were employed, those who were studying or unemployed were significantly more likely to experience depression assessed using the PHQ-9 (multivariable ORs, respectively: OR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.05–1.60 and OR: 1.50, 1.13–1.99). Stratifying the analyses by age, we observed that unemployment was more strongly associated with depression among participants 25–30 years than among those who were 18–24 years (multivariable ORs, respectively, 1.78, 95% CI 1.17–2.71 and 1.41, 95% CI 0.96–2.09). Being out of the labor force was, to the contrary, more significantly associated with depression among participants 18–24 years (multivariable OR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.04–2.82, vs. 1.00, 95% CI 0.53–1.87 among participants 25–30 years). Stratifying the analyses by sex, we found no significant differences in the relationships between labor market characteristics and depression (compared to participants who were employed, multivariable ORs associated with being a student: men: 1.33, 95% CI 1.01–1.76; women: 1.19, 95% CI 0.85–1.67, multivariable ORs associated with being unemployed: men: 1.60, 95% CI 1.04–2.45; women: 1.47, 95% CI 1.01–2.15). Conclusions and relevance Our study shows that in addition to students, young adults who are unemployed also experience elevated levels of depression in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. These two groups should be the focus of specific attention in terms of prevention and mental health treatment. Supporting employment could also be a propitious way of reducing the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of young adults.
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49 members
Virginie Halley des Fontaines
  • Haut Conseil de la Santé Publique
pierre-louis Bras
  • inspection générale des affaires sociales
Mickaël Portela
  • "Family & Youth" Department
Coralie Giese
  • International and European affairs
Paris, France