Ministry of Science and Technology, Iraq
Recent publications
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a modern class of materials that got great academic attention over the last two decades. Recently, serious attempts were conscripted to scale up several types of them and involve industrial applications. UiO-66 is a zirconium-based MOF that was synthesized in 2008 and widely applied in many fields since then. As researchers investigated UiO-66 applications, this material continuously showed high performance and remarkable properties, which increased the interest for further exploitation. In water treatment, where many MOFs are utilized in various processes, UiO-66 is among the intensively applied ones mainly due to its high-water stability. However, the UiO-66's stability is not limited to water; it is stable in organics and acids, in addition to its high thermal stability. Moreover, UiO-66 has the general MOF properties of large surface area, proper pore diameter, large pore volume, functional surface, etc. In this review, we will focus on the use of UiO-66 in membrane-based water treatment processes. These processes include ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and reverse osmosis, which are used for dyes, heavy metals, proteins, and antibiotics removal, as well as desalination. Based on database information, UiO-66 use in water treatment is constantly increasing due to the promising opportunities this material raises. Here, it became necessary to explain the up-to-date progress in the membranes field and explore the available future aspects and aspirations of UiO-66.
Due to their magnetic separation and recycling characteristics, magnetic nanocatalysts are widely used in a wide variety of organic reactions. 1,2,3-Triazoles are heterocyclic compounds with broad applications in organic chemistry, including medicine, materials, and synthetic chemistry; a wide range of 1,2,3-triazoles exhibits many biological activities, including activity against fungal, viral, allergic, and microbial infections has been also reported in the literature. In this work, a magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocatalyst modified with pyridine-tetrazole ligand supported copper (II) acetate [MNPs-Py/Tet-Cu(OAc)2] was constructed and used to catalyze this one-pot three-component reaction of NH-1,2,3-triazoles. This nanocatalyst can act as an excellent catalyst for these three-component reactions. The [MNPs-Py/Tet-Cu(OAc)2] nanocatalyst, which demonstrated effective magnetization as 43 emu/g, can be easily separate from the reaction mixture and reused for 7 times while preserving their catalytic activity. Also the diameter of the nanoparticles is about 70–97 nm with spherical morphology.
Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) at the B3LYP (Becke’s exchange functional and Lee, Yang, and Parr’s correlation functional) level with SDD (Stuttgart/Dresden) basis functions are used to investigate the structural and electronic properties and UV–Vis spectra of Cd11-nZnnTe11 with (n = 0,2–5,11) nanostructures. We found that the binding energy and energy gap increase with increasing the concentration of the Zn atom. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level increases with decreasing Cd atoms and the charge distributions at the center of the nanocrystals, and vice versa for the high occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level. Replacement of Cd atoms by Zn atoms, causes a shift of the UV–Vis spectra toward the UV region from 383.4 nm for Cd11Te11 to 345.6 nm for Zn11Te11. Therefore, the physical properties can be controlled by varying the compositions of the nanostructures that play a role in wide applications, such as photoelectronic devices, detectors, and sensors.
Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging technology that has been extensively studied in the last decade as an efficient method for desalination and water treatment. FO presents many benefits over traditional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and distillation. Nevertheless, there are many decisive challenges; the great significance one is the new modification and advances in the preparation of the TFC membranes that must be achieved to enhance the FO performance. Therefore, preparing a suitable TFC membrane with a low structural parameter, low tortuosity, and high porosity are preferred in preparing the TFC membranes to get higher water flux and lower salt flux. This paper reviewed the recent development and advances in using TFC hollow fiber membranes in FO applications. Within that, the most widely applied monomers to prepare the thin polyamide layer (PA) in TFC membranes and the additives that are added during the preparation of the PA layer and their effect on the performance of the TFC membranes have been discussed. Moreover, an effort is made to generate a TFC membrane properties and performance trend according to the results of the water permeate flux and reverse salt flux of the modified TFC FO membranes and the future perspectives and concluding remarks on the FO membrane are evaluated.
Introduction : Herbs or plants are used for a variety of purposes, including nutrition, medicinal and in the beverage industry, beverages, coloring, food preservatives, insect repellants and cosmetics. Methods : Many plants were obtained from local markets and the oil was extracted with hexane at a concentration of 75%. Green silver nanoparticles were prepared. The nanoparticles were characterized using various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, UV visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and zeta potential analyzer. Results : The results showed small, smooth spherical nanoparticles, ranging between 57.41–88.00 nm, as well as the distribution of electric charges evenly on the surface of the nanoparticles, which acquired effective agents for nanoparticles against aflatoxin-b1. The effectiveness of green nanoparticles against aflatoxin-b1 by using high-performance liquid chromatography technology detected its concentration. The standard concentration of aflatoxin-b1 was (20) ppb. The results of the activity of plant oil extracts of T-thyme, rosemary-R, mint-M and eucalyptus-E reached (0.104, 1.586, 1.083 and 1.067) ppb, while it appears in the nanoparticle activity of T, R, M and E were as (0.065, 0.226, 0.377 and 0.702) ppb respectively. Conclusion : We concluded that green Ag nanoparticles are efficient in processing or eliminating aflatoxin-b1 and can be produced at very low concentrations compared to the concentrations of plant extracts prepared.
In this paper, a proposed carbon dioxide Gas Sensing System of high precision, rapid reaction, compact size and low power consumption rate is presented based on the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) measurement. This system used to determine CO2 gas concentration in air; it consists of the single broadband light source, U-shape tube optical path cavity as gas cell, thermopile detector, and microcontroller circuit. This study investigates the efficiency of the U-tube optical path cavity at CO2 gas concentrations ranging from (0-5000) ppm. The obtained results show that it has the better thermal response compare to the linear tube and exhibits high sensitivity by change the transmitted light intensity into analog voltage. The proposed system design can be used as an environmental monitoring sensor.
Nowadays, electric load forecasting through a data analytic approach has become one of the most active and emerging research areas. It provides future consumption patterns of electric load. Since there are large fluctuations in both electricity production and use, it is a difficult task to achieve a balance between electric load and demand. By analyzing past electric consumption records to estimate the upcoming electricity load, the issue of fluctuating behavior can be resolved. In this study, a framework for feature selection, extraction, and regression is put forward to carry out the electric load prediction. The feature selection phase uses a combination of extreme gradient boosting (XGB) and random forest (RF) to determine the significance of each feature. Redundant features in the feature extraction approach are removed by applying recursive feature elimination (RFE). We propose an enhanced support vector machine (ESVM) and an enhanced convolutional neural network (ECNN) for the regression component. Hyperparameters of both the proposed approaches are set using the random search (RS) technique. To illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed strategies, a comparison is also performed between the state-of-the-art approaches and our proposed techniques. In addition, we perform statistical analyses to prove the significance of our proposed approaches. Simulation findings illustrate that our proposed approaches ECNN and ESVM achieve higher accuracies of 98.83% and 98.7%, respectively.
This work was carried out at the Research Station of the Seed Technology Center of the Agricultural Department / Ministry of Science and Technology during the season 2020-2021 to investigate the effect of three nano fertilizers ( boron, iron, zinc) at a rate of 2 mg. l-1 on three wide been varieties (Syrian, Spanish, Taqa). The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design (R. C. B. D.) with three replicates. The results showed that the Syrian variety gave the highest values of plant height and number of pods per plant, while the Spanish type gave the highest values of pod length, number of seeds per pod and seed weight per plant. Taqa variety recorded the highest number of branches, plant and total seed yield weight of 100 seeds, the lowest number of days to 50% flowering and the first pod formation. Nano fertilizers increased some growth and yield properties. B-nano fertilizer gave the highest values of the number of pods per plant, pods weight per plant, pod length and the number of seeds per pod, while Zn- nano fertilizer increased plant height, plant and total seeds yield. Keywords: broad been, pods, yield, seeds, nano fertilizers.
In this work, a simulation analysis of a commercial magnetron sputtering source was performed using the finite element method Particle-in-Cell/Monte Carlo Collision (PIC/MCC) to optimize the configuration of the Zn-C mosaic target. The magnetic field distribution was solved in a two-dimensional cylindrical coordinate system, and particles such as electrons, atoms, and charged ions of argon, zinc, and carbon were tracked in a DC magnetron sputtering system. The sputtering yield profile and particle flux for the eroded target were studied considering the ion and electron density distributions. The maximum sputtering flux of zinc and carbon was 1.975x1021 m-2 .s-1 and 3.7x1018 m-2 .s-1 respectively. The erosion position of a target was predicted based on the maximum power density distribution at the surface of the target. The accuracy of the simulation was checked by comparing it with the measurement of the target eroded after several hours of sputtering. However, as for the Zn-C mosaic target, the racetrack was identical to the analysis predicted by the numerical simulation process. The results of this work can be used as a guide for designing mosaic targets and optimizing their use for fabricating nanohybrid thin film structures.
In the near future, natural disasters and associated risks are expected to increase, mainly because of the impact of climate change. Australia is considered one of the most vulnerable areas for natural disasters, including flooding. Therefore, an evaluation of the morphometric characteristics of the Onkaparinga basin in South Australia was undertaken using the integration of remote sensing and geospatial techniques to identify its impact on flash floods. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Landsat images with other available geologic, topographic, and secondary data were analysed in geographic information system (GIS) to outline the drainage basins, estimate the morphometric parameters, and rank the parameters to demarcate the flash flood susceptibility zones of the basin. The main goal was to develop a flash flood susceptibility map showing the different hazard zones within the study areas. The results showed that 10.87%, 24.27%, and 64.85% are classified as low, moderate, and highly susceptible for flooding, respectively. These findings were then verified against secondary data relating to the historic flood events of the area. About 30.77% of the historical floods are found located within the high to extremely susceptible zones. Moreover, a significant correlation has been found between the high precipitation concentration index (PCI) and the irregular rainfall and high potential for flooding. Finally, the social and economic vulnerability was applied to determine the impact of the flood hazards. The result indicates a widespread threat to the economy, environment, and community in the study area. This study can be utilized to support and assist decision makers with planning and the devotion of alleviation measures to reducing and avoiding catastrophic flooding events, especially in highly susceptible areas in the world, such as South Australian basins.
The current study aims to show the importance of plant products as mosquitocides against Culex quinquefasciatus. Castor oil Nanoemulsions were subedit in various ratios including castor oil, ethanol, tween 80, and deionized water by using ultrasonication. Thermodynamic, centrifugation, PH, assay which improved that the formula of 10 ml of castor oil, ethanol 5ml, tween 80 (14 ml) and deionized water 71ml was more stable than other formulas. The stable formula of castor oil nanoemulsion was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Nanoemulsion droplets were spherical in shape and were found to have a Z-average diameter of 87.4nm. A concentration of castor oil nanoemulsion 250, 350, 450, and 550 ppm were tested as larvicidal agents and bulk emulsion 1000, 1500, 2000 , and 2500 ppm were tested also and compared, against the fourth instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Castor oil nanoemulsion exhibited higher activity when compared to bulk emulsion. LC50 of castor oil nanoemulsion and castor bulk emulsion were found as 291.46 and 439.19ppm after 72 h, respectively. The toxic effects of castor oil bulk and Nano emulsion was tested against non-target organism Guppy fish and found to be not toxic at the concentration which used in the study.
The reverse osmosis (RO) technique is an effective method for producing potable water. It is commonly employed in water treatment facilities because of its lower cost and simplicity compared to other methods. The main challenge to the RO process is fouling, which leads to higher operating pressure, flux decline, and shortened membrane life. In this study, different simulated wastewater samples were used as feedwater to a lab‐scale RO membrane system to investigate the effect of organic matter on the removal of heavy metals. In addition, the effect of individual salts, heavy metals, and oil on scaling formation was studied. Experimental data showed that when various pollutants were added to the feedwater, the permeate flux dropped from 142.86 LMH to 45.91 LMH, and the percentages of rejection for Na+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cu+2, Cr+3, and oil were 96.56 %, 87.5 %, 95.5 %, 100 %, 100 %, and 99.96 %, respectively. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images showed a thin fouling layer that partially covered the membrane surface where the feedwater contained only NaCl salt. In contrast, it showed a thick layer of organic fouling that entirely covered the membrane surface when the feedwater contained all the other contaminants. Moreover, the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) showed that when oil was added to the feedwater, numerous pores were plugged and the surface roughness of the fouled membrane was reduced to 0.91 nm. Overall, the findings showed that oil in the feedwater enhanced the removal percentages of salts and heavy metals because the removal efficiency exceeded 96 %. Furthermore, Cr+3 and oil were observed to reduce the permeate flux by 43 % and 49 %, respectively. A novel experimental approach was implemented, with multiple runs carried out using different samples of prepared contaminated wastewater, which were fed to a laboratory flat sheet reverse osmosis membrane system (SEPA CF membrane element cell) to investigate the effect of organic matters on the removal of heavy metals from prepared contaminated wastewater samples using the reverse osmosis membrane process. Also, the effect of the individual salts (Na+, Ca+2, and Mg+2), heavy metals (Cu+2 and Cr+3), and oil (kerosene) on the scale formation on the membrane surface was examined using membrane autopsy tests such as SEM, FTIR, and AFM. The results showed that as more pollutants were added into the feedwater, the permeate flux dropped while the rejection percentage of the various contaminants rose. Moreover, a drop in permeate water flux and a rise in rejection of salts and heavy metals were seen as a result of adding oil to the feedwater because numerous pores were clogged and the roughness of the polluted reverse osmosis membrane's surface was reduced. In general, the presence of oil in the feedwater enhanced the removal of salts and heavy metals. Also, fouling produced by Cr+3 and oil was found to be detrimental to the performance of the reverse osmosis membrane.
Currently, in many applications, humans are often used to translate satellite images into useful data. Based on the experience level of the humans, the accuracy of the obtained data is varied. This research presents a method that adopts one of the artificial intelligence methods, specifically neural networks, to produce useful data that can be used in decision-making to detect water hyacinth weed. The proposed approach will enable scientists to rapidly recognize the world's worst aquatic weed, Water Hyacinth. This weed currently creates serious agricultural and navigation problems in Iraq. It affects irrigation, water flow, water use and navigation. Consequently, the proposed approach can enhance in maximizing the economic factor, minimizing CO2 emissions and also minimize land degradation.
Spray pyrolysis was used to make zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide: SnO2 composite (ZSO), and zinc tin oxide: graphene composite (ZSO: G) thin films from a chloride solution in distilled water.. The results revealed that introducing graphene Nano-plates at a concentration of 1% wt. had a significant impact on the characteristics of ZSO composites. In the mixed sample with the graphene, the XRD shows mixed phases for ZSO composite and an extra peak for (002) planes of graphene.. The porosity structure of the ZnO thin film was revealed by FE-SEM images, which revealed that it is made up of spherical particles with an average diameter of 140.5 nm that are attached to each other. Small particles of SnO2, with an average diameter of 51.6 nm, appeared to grow atop ZnO particles with an average diameter of 193 nm in the ZSO composite. The graphene in the sample has been combined in the ZSO: G composite. The FTIR shows the characteristic bands for ZnO and SnO2, as well as extra bands related to graphene's reactivity with certain atoms in the graphene-reinforced material. The energy gap for ZnO is 3.1 eV, and it has increased for the ZSO composite, while it has decreased for the ZSO: G sample, according to the optical characteristics investigation.
Urban areas are quickly established, and the overwhelming population pressure is triggering heat stress in the metropolitan cities. Climate change impact is the key aspect for maintaining the urban areas and building proper urban planning because spreading of the urban area destroyed the vegetated land and increased heat variation. Remote sensing–based on Landsat images are used for investigating the vegetation circumstances, thermal variation, urban expansion, and surface urban heat island or SUHI in the three megacities of Iraq like Baghdad, Erbil, and Basrah. Four satellite imageries are used aimed at land use and land cover (LULC) study from 1990 to 2020, which indicate the land transformation of those three major cities in Iraq.
A precise evaluation of caries excavation endpoint is essential in clinical and laboratory investigations. Caries invasion differentiates dentin into structurally altered layers. This study assessed these changes using Raman spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness. Ten permanent molars with occlusal and proximal carious lesions were assessed and compared at 130 points utilizing four Raman spectroscopic peaks: phosphate v1 at 960 cm−1, amide I (1650 cm−1), amide III (1235 cm−1) and the C-H bond of the pyrrolidine ring (1450 cm−1). The phosphate-to-amide I peak ratio and collagen integrity peak ratio (amide III: C-H bond) of carious zones were calculated and compared in both lesions. The former ratio was correlated to 130 Vickers microhardness indentations through lesions. The caries-infected dentin (CID) exhibited low phosphate peak, but higher amide I, III and C-H bond peaks than other zones in both lesions. The peaks in amide regions (I and III) varied in occlusal versus proximal lesions. A high correlation was found between mineral: matrix peak ratio and equivalent microhardness number within carious lesions, while the collagen integrity peak ratio was applied in proximal lesions only. Raman spectroscopy detected changes in the mineral and matrix contents within different carious zones and regions.
One of the most important problems of the age is pollution with chemicals, due to their frequent use in various fields of applied and industrial life. It is unpredictable from scientific knowledge in the field of commonly used chemical compounds to estimate potential risks arising from the use of chemical Nano composites. The main principle of understanding the toxicity of nanomaterial's is their small size, which enables them to penetrate the cell walls of living cellular organisms, allowing them to penetrate these basic biological structures and disrupt their normal functions. In this study, green synthesis of Nano copper has been investigated and the potential of adding zero-valent Nano copper on DNA for the live blood cells was studied. The nanomaterial's were experimentally reduced using ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) as an environmentally friendly reducing agent. It was found that ascorbic acid can reduce the copper ion into copper particles within 10 minutes. The as-prepared copper nanoparticles were characterized by infrared (FTIR) and XRD (X-ray) spectroscopy. The comet test was used to determine the effect of the NZCV of different units of weight (mg/L) on the shape of the DNA strain by measuring the difference in the shape of the DNA tail and the increase in the percentage of dead cells. To study the toxicity, three different concentrations of copper nanoparticles were used which are 30 mg/L, 50 mg/L, and 100 mg/L, where it was observed that the percentage of dead cells increased when the concentration of NZVC nanoparticles was used to become 2.89, 3.92%, and 4.78%. It was found that the toxicity of nanomaterial's increases with the increase in concentration, as it was found that the highest effect of copper nanoparticles was in the higher concentration of it, which is 100 mg/L, as the toxicity increased to reach 5.34%, which is the highest in the experimental conditions. The number of dead cells was counted and the variation in DNA morphology was studied using fluorescence microscopy. As a result, the effect of copper nanoparticles at a constant temperature showed an obvious change in DNA morphology indicating the danger of nanomaterial to the genetic materials of the life blood cell.
Fiber optics has been embraced in the field of sensors. in this paper, uniform fiber Bragg grating have been used to measurement the pressure and temperature range of human body, where these sensors are rapidly utilized in the field of sensing technologies due to of its inherent benefits like Compact size, rapid response, distributed sensing, and electromagnetic addition the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) also used in field of sensing applications such as monitor the temperature and pressure. The result indicated that the FBG and PCF are extremely sensitive to the variations of pressure and temperature. where the sensitivity of increasing the temperature range for each transmission and reflection FBG reached to (22pm/C° and 10pm/C°) respectively and the sensitivity of decreasing the temperature range for each transmission and reflection FBG reached to( -21pm/C° and -8pm/C°). The sensitivity of PCF when increasing and decreasing temperature range was (70pm/C° and -80pm/C°). The sensitivity of FBG pressure for high ,pre high ,ideal ,low, very low reached to (2pm/mmHg, 3pm/mmHg, 4pm/mmHg, 7pm/mmHg, 6pm/mmHg) respectively.
Electro-coagulation describing strategy has been utilized to evacuate malachite green - a dye utilized in aquaculture as antimicrobial agents. There was an effect of six operating parameters like initial concentration of dye, pH, current density, electrode spacing, and amount of electrolyte on the effectiveness of color removal that has been inspected by using aluminum electrodes. It was found that the optimum measurement dosage for the malachite green aqueous solution at initial concentration 50 mg/l of dye concentration, the best current density is 87.5 A/m², the optimum pH is 8.0, the optimum NaCl concentration as an electrolyte is 0.7 g/l, the optimum spacing between Aluminum electrodes is 1cm where can be observed that decreasing in dye removal when increasing in spacing at 70 min. Thus, through the results gotten, treating the Malachite Green dye in this strategy is considered efficient and great treatment.
Gas-liquid contacting is the basis for many chemical separation operations, including gas absorption (e.g., removing contaminates like ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from a biogas), humidification and distillation. Many different types of contactors have been developed, recently, in the field of chemical engineering to achieve this type of contacting, depending on different contacting principles. The present work is focused, squarely, to achieve two main goals regarding these contacting methods. The first is reviewing, not exhaustive but critically, the most common conventional and non-conventional contactors. This includes packed bed, bubble, spray and plate columns as conventional contactors and the novel and innovative methods such as rotating spiral channel, falling-film microcontactors and others as non-conventional methods. The second goal is evaluating, quantitatively, the performance of non-conventional contactors and putting them into context with other conventional contacting methods. Two essential parameters are developed in this paper to assess mass-transfer performance of a contractor: mean processing time and purification factor, considering both physical absorption and desorption operations. Interestingly, the comparison results based on mass-transfer data reported in the relevant literature showed that some of the non-conventional contactors can allow a step improvement in mass transfer relative to the conventional contactors and offer solutions for some of inherent limitations of contacting fluid phases.
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190 members
L. A. Hassnawi
  • Embedded Systems Department
Malik Abbas
  • Directorate of Space and Communications
Mustafa Hussein Al-Furaiji
  • Environment and Water
Mudar Ahmed Abdulsattar
  • Applied physics center
Ali Al Maliki
  • Environment and Water Directorate
ِAl-Jadriyah, 10070, Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq